Wireless infrared connections. Wireless Local area network(PAN)

                   Wireless and adhoc Network

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Prasad, Mahesh Kumar Prajapat

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Ad hoc
network is a network of collection of nodes. Each node in the network acts both
as host and destination and are able to forward packets for other nodes. It is
a self- configuring network of nodes connected by wireless links with no access
point. In this paper gives difference characteristics of wireless network,
including network configuration may change at any time, there is no limit the
movement and no direction and so on. Gives the all the information of ad hoc
network which include the history of ad hoc, mobile ad hoc, wireless mobile
approaches and type of wireless network and ad hoc network. Wireless network.
In this paper, the more representative of application of wireless network and
ad hoc network.


ad hoc network, ad hoc network routing protocols, wireless mobile approaches,
Qas, mobile ad hoc sensor network, ad hoc applications.


Wireless network is computer network that uses communicate
between the two devices without wired. Wireless ad hoc network is a completely
connectivity through the nodes constructed by the actions of the network, which
usually has a dynamic shape and a limited bandwidth. Wireless network is
include cell phone network, wireless local area network, wireless sensor
network, satellite communication etc. Wireless network is three types 1)PAN,
2)LAN, 3)MAN, 4)WAN

Wireless personal area network(WLAN) make use of both
radiowaves and infrared light technology, depending upon the application.
Personal area network can be wireless or constructed with cables. USB and
FireWire often link together a wired PAN, While WPANs typically use Bluetooth
(and are called piconets) or sometimes infrared connections.

Wireless Local area network(PAN) is a wireless comuter
network that links two or more devices using wireless communication within a
limited area such as a home, school, computer laboratory, or office building.
This gives user the ability to move around within a local coverage area and yet
still be connected to the network. Though a gateway, a WLAN can also provide a
connection to the wider Internet.

A Wireless Metropolitian Area Network(WMAN) is also known
as a Wireless Local Loop(WLL). WMANs are based on IEEE 802.16 standard.
Wireless local loop can reach effective transfer speeds of 1 to 10 Mbps within
a range of 4 to 10 Kilometres, which makes it useful mainly for
telecommunications companies. The best-known wireless metropolitan area network
is WiMax, which can reach speeds on the order of 70Mbps over a radius of
serveral Kilometres.

Wireless WANs make use of technologies that focus on
modulation of voice and data. Wireless WANs exclusively use RF signals designed
to accommodate many users. Each user has a dedicated channel, and this is
different from LANs, where all users share one channel. This significantly
reduces interference between wireless WAN user devices an base stations.

A Wireless ad hoc network(WANET) or MANET is decentralized
type of wireless network. The network is as hoc because it does not rely on a
pre-existing infrastructure, such as routers in wired network or access points
in managed(infrastructure) wireless network. Instead each node participates in
routing by forwarding data for other nodes, so the determination of which nodes
forward data is made dynamically on the basis of network connectivity and
routing algorithm in use.

A wireless ad hoc network is a collection of heterogenous
network node forming the temporary networks without the aid of any
infrastructure or any centralized administrator. In such an environment, it may
be necessary for one wireless host to enlist the aid of other hosts in
forwarding a packet to its destination, this is because of the limited range of
each wireless host’s transmission.



In the figure, information about the different kind
application of WANETs. As the number of application of wireless ad hoc network
grow, the size of the network varies greatly from a network of several mobile
computers in a classroom. To a network of thousand of mobile units deployed in
a battle field. The variability in the network size is also true for a particular
network over the course of time, a network of thousand nodes may be split into
a number of smaller networks of a few hundred nodes or vice versa, as the nodes
dynamically move around a deployed area. According, a good ad hoc routing
protocol should also be scalability and reliable in major concern. There are
quite a number of uses for wireless ad hoc networks.

II.Wireless Ad hoc aproaches


 The network is the only one much important
computational techniques to support computing and widespread, to support
computing and widespread, also advances in both hardware and software
techniques have resulted in hosts and wireless networking common and

architecture that allow the wireless station to make a communication between
each other, and this type relies on the third fixed party and we call it a base
station, as shows in this figure, and that will 
hand over the offered traffic from the station to another the same
entity will regulate or organize the allocation of radio resources. The
communicating nodes do not need to know anything about the router from one

2.       Infrastructure less wireless network :- two or more nodes without wired communications and
networking capability that communicate with each other without any centralized
administrator also the wireless nodes that can dynamically form a network to
exchange information without using any existing fixed network infrastructure.

It’s important approaches in
this technique to communication technology that supports truly pervasive
computing widely duo to there’s a lot of context information need to exchange
between device units can not rely on the fixed network infrastructure, but in
this time the communication wireless became develops very fast.



In the figure, a small example for the ad hoc networks, to
explain the work for the ad hoc network.

network approaches


There are two different research areas according to described
problems in wireless networks.

First in service discovery algorithms, which focuses on
service propagation and discovery.

Second research area is “Mobile ad hoc network”, which
maintains design, prototype and evaluates protocols and algorithms to
facilitate adoption and use of wireless ad hoc networks for appropriately
selected application areas and facilitate development of standards for such

The prefix “non” is not a word; it should be
joined to the word it modifies, usually without a hyphen.

There is no period after the “et” in the Latin
abbreviation “et al.”

The abbreviation “i.e.” means “that is,” and the
abbreviation “e.g.” means “for example.”

An excellent style manual for science writers is 7.

IV.types of ad hoc networks


The wireless ad hoc network divided into two main types,
firstly quasi-static ad hoc network. Secondly, mobile ad hoc network. In the
quasi-static ad hoc network the nodes may be portable or static, because the
power controls and link failures, the resulting network topology may be so

Mobile ad hoc networking is a group of independent network
mobile devices that are connected over various wireless links. There are three
types of MANET. It includes vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETS), and internet
based mobile ad hoc networks (iMANET). The set of application for MANETs can be
ranged from small, static networks that are limited by
power sources, to large-scale, mobile, highly dynamic networks. In the mobile
ad hoc network (MANET) here the entire network may be
mobile and the nodes may move fast relative to each other.

Manet: Conventional routing will not work in this
distributed environment because this network topology can change at any point
of time. Organization, link scheduling and routing. Therefore, we need some
sophisticated routing algorithms that take into consideration this important
issue into account. While the shortest path from a source to a destination in a
static network is usually the optimal route, this idea is not easily
far-reaching to MANETs.

MOBILE AD HOC SENSOR NETWORK:- A mobile ad hoc sensor network follows a broader sequence of
operational, and needs a less complex setup procedure compared to typical
sensor networks, which communicate directly with the centralized controller. A
mobile ad hoc sensor network includes a number of sensor spreads in a large geographical
area. The wireless ad hoc sensor networks are now getting in style to

characteristics of a
MANET  Characteristics:

v  Dynamic
Topologies: Nodes are free to move
arbitrarily with different speeds; thus,the network topology may change randomly
and at unpredictable times.

v  Energy-constrained Operation Some or all of the nodes in an ad hoc
network may rely on batteries or other exhaustible means for their energy. For
these nodes, the most important system design optimization criteria may be
energy conservation.

v  Limited
Bandwidth: Wireless
links continue to have significantly lower capacity than infra structured
networks. In addition, the realized throughput of wireless communications –
after accounting for the effects of multiple access, fading, noise, and
interference conditions, etc., is often much less than a radio’s maximum
transmission rate

v  Security
Threats : Mobile
wireless networks are generally more prone to physical security threats than
fixed-cable nets. The increased possibility of eavesdropping, spoofing, and
minimization of denial-of service type attacks should be carefully considered.

Applications of MANETs:

v  Collaborative
Work – For some business
scenarios, the need for collaborative computing might be more important outside
office environments than inside a building. After all, it is often the case
where people do need to have outside meetings to cooperate and exchange
information on a given project;

v   Crisis-management
Applications – These arise, for example, as a result of natural disasters where the
entire communications infrastructure is in disarray (for example, Tsunamis,
hurricanes, etc.)

Restoring communications quickly is essential. By using ad hoc networks, an infrastructure could be set up
in hours instead of days/weeks required for wire-line communications;

v  Personal Area Networking – A personal area
network (PAN) is a short-range, localized network where nodes are usually
associated with a given person. These nodes could be attached to someone’s cell
phone, pulse watch, belt, and so on. In these scenarios, mobilityis only a
major consideration when interaction among several PANs is necessary,
illustrating the case where, for instance, people meet in real life. Bluetooth
Haarstenl998 is an example of a technology aimed at, among other things,
supporting PANs by eliminating the need of wires between devices such as
printers, cell phones, PDAs, laptop computers, headsets, and so on, and is
discussed later in this book. Other standards under the IEEE 802.15
working group for wireless PANs are also described.

V.Quality of service


Quality of
service is the measurement and description of the overall performance of a
service, such as a computer network, wireless network and ad hoc network
service, particularly the performance seen by the users of the network.

QoS in
wireless networks, that is survivability, data access and layout design, by
providing both the state-of-the-art and the research issues. In future,
concerning the survivability topic, we plan to extend our results to other
typical network topologies, under various general assumptions, and with respect
to different communication paradigms, always by letting unaltered the basic
criteria of minimizing the number of range changes. Moreover, we plan to
estimate the quality of the swap solutions as compared to the optimal ones, as
computed from scratch in the residual network.

With the
rapid development of internet technology, when people for the best effort
service is no longer satisfied, how to get more bandwidth, how to reduce the
mistakes, how to reduce the delay phenomenon, making Quality of Service related
research, including the Integrated Service(RSVP), Differentiated Service, etc.
In the above-mentioned several agreements, most of them are made in the last
two years, only for the basic mode of operation
be defined, there is no consideration of QoS, only the ABR(Associativity Based Routing), SSR(Signal Stability Routing) and CEDAR (Core
Extracted Distributed Ad hoc Routing) and so there are three kinds of
QoS-related functions.

VI. Applications

Ad hoc network:


v  Military Applications:-
Ad-hoc network can be very useful in establishing communication among a group
of soldiers for tactical operations. Setting up a fixed infrastructure for
communication among a group of soldiers in enemy territories or in inhospitable
terrains may not be possible. In such environments, ad hoc networks provide the
required communication mechanism quickly.

v  Collaborative and Distributed Computing:- Another domain in which the ad hoc networks find applications
is collaborative computing. The requirement of a temporary communication
infrastructure for quick communication with minimal configuration among a group
of people in a conference or gathering necessitates the formation of an ad hoc

v  Emergency Operations:- ad
hoc networks are very useful in emergency operations such as search and rescue,
crowd control, and commando operations. The major factors that favor ad hoc
networks for such tasks are self-configuration of the system with minimal
overhead, independent of fixed or centralized infrastructure, the nature of the
terrain of such applications. The freedom and flexibility of mobility, and the
unavailability of conventional communication infrastructure.

v  Bluetooth:- Bluetooth
can provide short range communication between the nodes such as a laptop and
mobile phone.


v  Industry sector:- Ad hoc
network is widely used for commercial applications. Ad hoc network can also be
used in emergency situation such as disaster
relief. The rapid development of non-existing infrastructure makes the ad hoc
network easily to be used in emergency situation




v  Internet Access:- One of the
most compelling reasons to install a wireless network is to enable the sharing
of a single high-speed Internet connection. With this type of configuration,
every member of a family or small business can easily share a single high-speed
connection that a cable or DSL modem offers. This is convenient and saves money
because everybody can simultaneously have access to the Internet and roam
anywhere in the house or office.

v  Voice over Wireless:- The
use of wireless networks to support the transmission of voice conversations is
a beneficial solution when people need to constantly stay in contact with each
other. In fact, a wireless LAN designed to support voice communications can
completely replace a traditional wire-based telephone system within a
particular facility. The combination of voice and dat over the same wireless
network provides total mobility and lower operating costs.

v  Education:- Many
colleges and elementary schools are finding beneficial reasons to install
wireless LANs, mostly to provide mobile network applications to their students.
In fact, schools have begun using the existence of wireless LAN access as a
competitive advantage. These schools are targeting the growing number of
students with laptops and expectations of accessing the Internet and school
resources from anywhere on campus, such as classrooms, libraries, quads and
dormitories. Students are able to readily check e-mail, surf the web, access
specialized school applications, check grades, and view transcripts. As a
result, students make better use of their time.

v  Real Estate:- Networking
makes the sale of real estate much more efficient. The real estate agent can
use a computer away from the office to access a wireless MLS record. An agent
can also use a portable computer and printer to produce contracts amnd loan
applications for singing at the point of sale.


v  Utilities:- Utility
companies operate and maintain a highly distributed system that delivers power
and natural gas to industries and residences. Today, utility companies employ
wireless WANs to support the automation of meter reading and system monitoring.
Instead of a meter reader recording the data on a sheet of paper to later enter
in a computer for processing, the meter can periodically transmit the data
through the wireless WAN to the utility company. This saves time and reduces
overhead costs by eliminating the need for human meter readers.






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