Varied to trade with the Swedes. Their

Varied Contacts with Europeans The Lenni Lenape, a tribe that originated and inhabited modern-day New Jersey, Delaware and eastern Pennsylvania, experienced diverse incidents with European immigrants and colonists that made significant impacts in history around the late seventeenth century to the eighteenth century. The Lenni Lenape experienced a variety of contacts and occasions since the 1650s. Starting with the peaceful relationship William Penn built between the Lenape and the Europeans, to the “Walking Purchase” that deceived them into giving up additional land. Then, the creation of the Delaware Treaty, to the attacks the Lenape received from Americans as an revenge. These were all significant affairs that required the Lenape to resolve by themselves. The relationship between the Lenni Lenape tribe and European colonists varied over time, although, the Lenape not only faced affairs and conflicts with the Europeans, attacks from the Americans became another principal issue with the Lenape territory being the main reason behind all conflicts. Half a century before the contacts with the English, the Lenape were active with tradings with other European immigrants. Around 1610s, European explorers came in search of commercial opportunities due to the “harsh winds of change swept across the Lenape land” (Pre-History). In 1633, Peter Minuit, head of the Dutch and Swedish investors, founded the New South Company in order to buy large regions of land modern-day Wilmington, Delaware. After their purchase in 1638, they settled on Tincium Island under Swedes’ control. The Swedish colonists provided the Lenape low level of fundings that ensured that the Lenape could not afford to compete in the fur trade. The Lenape became a tribe under the control of the colonists, and it was required of them to provide food to trade with the Swedes. Their needs of food stimulated the Lenape to increase their production of food, which led to maize being a cash crop for the Lenape people between 1640-1660 (Becker). Having the immigrants and colonists taking over the local market truly influenced the economy of the Lenape . William Penn, an English colonists, constructed a peaceful relationship of the Lenape and Britain, although, this friendly alliance was brought to an end with his death. In 1681, the English crown, King Charles II of England, granted the lands throughout southeast Pennsylvania, where the occupied. King Charles II’s goal was to establish a refuge in the “New World” for members of the persecuted Quaker sect (Pre-History). The Quakers believed in friendships and goodwills as their principles. William Penn was dedicated to form a tranquil society, and he applied the policy for treatment of the native people he created to the Lenape. From 1682 to 1701, he contacted every Lenape band for their holdings around the Delaware Valley and eastern Pennsylvania. Although he had ownership rights of these lands, he still reserved specific lands for the Lenape villages to settle in. He was a prominent leader that built approximately 20 years of peace between the Lenape and the British people. An important milestone made by William Penn in 1686 was when he made an accord with the Lenni Lenape people that the Penn family “claim extended a full day-and-a-half’s walking distance” (Pre-History). Although, after his death, his sons reinterpreted the agreement and tricked the Lenape into losing thousands of acres of extra lands. They sent out “walkers” who were sprinting in reality to determine how much land they should get. It turned out with the result that the Lenape lost an extra 750,000 acres of land to the Penn family. This was named the “Walking Purchase” act and it truly influenced the relationship between the British and the Lenape people. Opposing to William Penn’s behaviors, his sons sincerely disappointed the Lenape with the trickery and utterly damaged the trust between the two nations.The Swedes and Dutch immigrants had communications with the Lenape because they viewed their homeland as a prosperous place for tradings while both the British people and the Americans considered it as a region that could lead them into victory. In 1775, the American Revolutionary War against Britain began. The Indian Nations played an important role because they controlled important regions that could lead either side to conquest of the other nation, and both sides certainly realized the significance of the Indians. The Indians Nations controlled all the natural resources and they had large armies as well, so both the Americans and the British people sought for military and political alliance with the Indians. They needed the help from Indians, or by minimum, their agreement of neutrality in the war. After the negotiation, they promised trades and goods in return. Later in 1778, the Americans organized a conference with the Lenape to sign the First Indian Treaty, also known as the Delaware Treaty or the Fourth Treaty of Pittsburgh. Although, a debate appeared on how much did the Indians actually understand about the treaty and was the treaty approved by both sides. According to George Morgan, an expert in Indian affairs, “There never was a Conference with the Indians so improperly or villainously conducted” (Pre-History). The result of the treaty provided the United States a more convenient route for their troops, and in return, the Lenape were able to get more involved with the politics and to have the opportunity of being a state of the United States. Although the Lenape assisted America in the revolutionary war, they were not rewarded as they should, instead, individual American groups attacked Lenape villages as a revenge to assaults done by other Indians. Around 1781 to 1782, Lenape villages were continuously assaulted by Americans. In 1781, 300 Americans destroyed Lenape village of Coshocton along with neighboring village of Licheneau. The harmony and alliance that restrained for decades was gone, with violence taking over. The Lenape people were forced into concentration camps in the winter and were released in 1782 for their ability of planting spring crops. Later in the year, 96 peaceable Christians were murdered as a revenge for attacks done by other Indians. Their relation with the United States had faded away along with all the damages and pains they had caused. The Lenape developed varied relationships with the Europeans and Americans over time, as the Lenape people tried to maintain a harmonious alliance, the Europeans and Americans did not do the same in return. Instead of giving the Lenape their respect, they deceived the Indians over and over for their own advantages. With the trust being completely demolished, the peaceful relationship was gone, and the damage one had created became irrecoverable