TWO Of Great Britain which was the

TWO NATION THEORY; THE MYTH THE
REALITY

Pakistan Ideology Importance            

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Ø  Today
World consist of more than 180 countries and Pakistan came on map of world on
AUGUST 14 1947 and became the first Islamic Ideological state of the modern
times

Ø  As
compare to non-ideological states Pakistan was not well established due to
geographical conflict by group of people

Ø  If
Pakistan Ideology is dead the why Pakistan has made become a question

Ø  Pakistan
an ideological state was established in the name of Islam

Ø  But
on 31 DECEMBER 1971 Pakistan lost its eastern wing which emerges on the world
map as Bangladesh

Ø  The
Prime Minister of India MS Indra-Gandhi claims that the birth of Bangladesh is
the death of two nation theory

Ø  If
ideology of Pakistan came to an end by birth of Bangladesh then the objectives
behind the creation of Islamic Republic State Pakistan came to an end too

Defining
Two Nation Theory

Ø  Two
Nation Theory is the basis of creation of the Pakistan which state the Hindu
and Muslim Both separate from each other in every aspects

Ø   So Muslims should have a separate homeland in
Muslim majority are in India hence they can spend their life according to
Islamic teachings

Ø  If Muslims of the sub-continent
consist of  an Islamic nation then they
should have the rights to get a  separate
homeland as Muhammad Ali Jinnah addresses in his annual session of Muslim
League

Examples

Ø  History
give us so many examples like Union Of
Great Britain which was the act of union 1907 consist of two acts first one
is Union with Scotland Act 1706
passed by the Parliament of England second one is Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of
Scotland.

Ø  Both
agreed on 22 July 1706 according to these two Acts, the Kingdom of England and
the Kingdom of Scotland-which at that time 
two  separate states were in these
words “United into one Kingdome by the
name of Great Britain”

Ø  History
also shown us many geographical tracts which otherwise result in  called as one country but which have been resulted in the division into seven or eight
states Like-wise, the Portuguese and the Spanish stand divided in the Iberian
Peninsula.

Role
of Religion

Ø  History
of Pakistan in western wing has not being clearly understandable this is
because the religion in west has come to play a restricted role

Ø  In
west German and French are accepted as two separate nation however Hindu and
Muslim as two spate nation in India is seldom appreciated

Ø  A
young French student may visit a family in Germany, share their meals, may
attend the same church and even marry a girl in the family without creating a
scandal or surprise

Ø   Such instances of intermarriage have been
extremely rare in the India Pakistan Sub-Continent.

Ø  We
found ourselves aliens in India because our religion is totally different just
like Hindu believe in many Goods but Muslims believe in single Good

Ø  Both
of them have certain reservation on consuming some animals like Muslims does
not eat pork because it give a sign of dirty according to their faith but they
eat other kind of animals like goat cow lambs

Ø  By
contrast Hindu does not eat beef and their faith is opposite as compare to
Muslims point of view of not eating pigs because Hindu believes in cows divinity

Ø  So
because of its sacredness it should not be eaten or killed by anyone while
Muslims Celebrate a special occasion of Eid-ul-Azha in which they slaughter cow

Ø  Hence
it result in conflict between two religions as Hindu could not bear to
slaughter cow while Muslims do so in same manner Muslims offer Prayer in
Masjids while Hindu in temples

Ø  Both
of them have different rules and regulation of their lives so they should have
a separate countries on which they can follow their religions fully

Ø  Is
Two Nation Theory a new concept? Is Pakistan has made accidently? But what the
history reveals is something different so let look over the history of two
nation theory

Historical
Background of Two Nation Theory

Ø  Mahatma
Gandhi speak in second session of round table conference in London 1931 that
the quarrel between Hindu and Muslims vary with the British power in India

Ø  It
would become difficult to maintain such a position because  the conflict between Hindus and Muslims had
started far  long before the emergence of
the British power in India

Ø  Two
Nation Theory rises with the rise of Islam in sub-continent (712AD).as
according to Quad-e-Aazam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Two Nation Theory emerges on that
day when the first Hindu become Muslim

Ø  Partition
of India was propose approximately seven hundred years before the proposal of
Lahore resolution. In 1192 AD

Ø  This
proposal end up  after 150 years, when
Al-Beruni claimed out the existence of the two big groups of people which were
following two different religions. 

Ø  He
said that the religious gap between Hindu and Muslim result in conflict between
both of them

Ø  Maybe
Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707) was accountable for increasing Hindu Muslim
pressures by trying to Islamize the Mughal government

Ø   Several
Muslim historians have essentially overvalued Aurangzeb for making Muslims
aware of their separate religious and ideological identity.

Ø   It
is also accurate that Maratha and Sikh leaders elevated their banner of
rebellion against Aurangzeb because in trying to establish his government on
Islamic lines,

Ø   The
emperor was acting against their interest and Sir Jaduanath Sarkar remark on
the role of Shivaji, the Maratha leader, is illuminating

Ø  Shivaji
has revealed that the tree of Hinduism is not dead and that it can rise from
beneath the apparently devastating load of centuries of political slavery, prohibiting
from the administration, and legal suppression; it can put out new leaves and
branches it can again lift its head up to the skies.

Muslims state after Aurangzeb

Ø  After
Aurangzeb death, Muslim power started collapsing and Muslims were concerned by
the growing power of the Hindus under Maratha leadership that unfluctuating a
Sufi scholar like Shah Walliullha (1703-81) was moved into writing a letter to
the Afghan King Shah Walliullah.

Ø  He
wrote In short, the Muslim community is in a miserable condition and all power
of the machinery of government is in the hands of Hindus, because they are the
only people who are capable and assiduous

Ø  Wealth
and fortune are concentrated in their hands; while the part of Muslims is
nothing nonetheless poverty and despair 

Ø  At
this time, you are the only King who is powerful, far seeing, and capable of
defeating the enemy forces.

Ø   Surely it is obligatory upon you to rally to
India, destroy the Maratha power and rescue weak and old Muslims from the
commands of Non-Muslims

Ø  This
letter by Shah Walliullah to a foreign Muslim against Hindu shows that the  Muslims living in any part of the world are
the one nation wo require separate homeland so that they can live their life
peacefully in their own homeland

 

Relationship of Tow Nations Hindu
and Muslims

Ø  While
the Hindus and Muslims had been living together for centuries in the Indian
sub-continent, so far there had never no signs of union of the Hindu and
Muslims societies, or any serious effort in developing a working relationship
between the two major cultural groups.

Ø  Both
of them always remained two distinct societies cultures or two different
civilizations as Hindus always against outsiders or those who does not belong
to them whom they consider unclean

Ø  So
they are against any connection with such type of people whom does not belong
to their religion even they have conflicts in their own cast system

Ø  Hindu
have five cast whom they categorize by their level in society according to
which higher cast does not marry with lower cast person

Ø  Brahmins
(priest), the Kshatriyas (warriors), the Vaishyas (business community), and
Shudras (working classes) and last one is The Dalit (untouchable)

Ø  Hindu
is even not allowed to shake hand drink or eat with Muslims or other persons
whom does not belong to their religion

Ø  In
short this type of Hindus cultures was a major factor of developing the working
relationship between these two major societies

Ø  Lala
Lajpat Rai, a politician  in his letter
to Mr. C.R. Das, which was written 12 or 15 years  before creation of  Pakistan Resolution, wrote about this point

Ø  He
wrote that there is one thing which is troubling me very much which is the
question of  Hindu Mohammedan unity as I
have spent many times over learning the Muslims history and noticed that it is
almost impossible that both of them become united

Ø   I
thought that their religion provides an effective power to anything of that
kind and nothing would dismiss more than to be convinced that it is so but if
that is true then it comes to this, that although we can unite against the
British, we cannot do so to rule Hindustan on British lines. We cannot do so to
rule Hindustan on self-governing lines.

Ø  Muhammad Ali Jinnah, (in his
address to the annual session of Muslim League) mentioned
that It is extremely
difficult to rise why our Hindu friends were not able  to understand the real face of Islam and
Hinduism as they are not religious is strictly saying

Ø  He
said that it is a dream that Hindu and Muslims would ever become one Nation and
this misconception would led India to destruction if both become united nations
Hindu and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies indeed they
belong to two different civilization based on conflicting ideas and concepts

Ø  He
further said that their heroes are different their episodes are different and
their victories and defeat are overlapping

Ø  As
Jinnah also shows by his address that both of them are two separate nations if
we force to

Pakistan
A Plan of British/Jinnah

Ø  According
to congress Pakistan establishment could not be justified as if they do so then
it meant that Muslims does not trust Hindus as being generous towards Muslims
religious culture

Ø  When
we look closer towards history after emergence of British rule in India will
reveal the concept that Hindu were more closer to British then Muslims Hindu
who fed up with Muslim rule welcomed British rule in India

Ø  British
offered jobs for those who know their languages but Muslims refused to learn
their language however Hindus divert towards them by seeing their benefits
hence Hindu become more closer to British then Muslims

Ø  In
this regard Hindus were more economically better then Muslims events of 1857
war of independence worsen the Muslim economic conditions as from 1857 onward
when British took control over the India they raises the status of Hindus to
Landlords by giving them more jobs in military and government as compare to
Muslims

Ø  They
close all doors for Muslims and Hindus even make plan to mold the mind of
Muslim Children by many schemes so that Muslims accept their religion and
forget the idea from their mind of getting a separate homeland

Ø  Now
look whether Pakistan creation was a plot of Jinnah. Quaid-e-Aazam Muhammad Ali
Jinnah was member of Indian National Congress for about 25 years. He do so many
efforts to unite Hindu and Muslims

Ø  Soon
Jinnah see the real face of Congress who support only Hindus so he left it as
he realizes that Hindu and Muslims never become united. Muslims should get
their own homeland

Ø  Hence
Jinnah joined Muslim League and fight for Muslim rights as Hindu real color
were clear in front of Jinnah

Ø   It is true that Jinnah has played a great role
for Pakistan creation but without intense religious enthusiasm for an Islamic
state on the part of Muslim crowds, Jinnah could never able to make Pakistan

Ø  Khilafat
Leaders Mulana Muhammad Ali and Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and poets like Iqbal
were mainly responsible for making Muslims conscious about making Pakistan.

Iqbal
and Two Nation Theory

Ø  Allama
Iqbal firmly believed that Muslims have separate identity and to protect that
identity establishment of separate homeland is necessary. On 28 March 1909 he
refused the proposal from party “Minswa Lodge” by saying that:

Ø  I
have been the  supporter of this theory
but know I believe that a separate national identity for Muslims and Hindus
necessary for their survival

Ø  In
1930 at Annual Session of Muslim League he said that: India is a continent
consisting of two separate human groups belonging to two different races,
speaking different languages and following different religions. Their behavior
not determined by common race therefore demand of separate homeland necessary
for benefits of both Hindu and Muslim Nations in every aspects

Ø  Iqbal
president addresses in 1930 at Allahabad said that:   “I would like to see the Punjab,
North-West Province, Sindh and Baluchistan should combined into a single state.
He further said that information of North West Muslim appears to be the final
destiny of Muslims, at least of North West India

Ø  Iqbal
demand independent Muslim state before Muslim League demand it in Pakistan
resolution. He wrote many poems to awaken Muslims from their states of
hopelessness as words has power it is said that “If a writer falls in love with you, you will never die”

Challenge
of Congress to Tow Nation theory

Ø  Congress
leaders try to challenge TWO Nation Theory by pointing out large numbers of
Muslims in India who were Hindu before accepting Islam

Ø  They
also argued that there is hardly any cultural difference between Hindu and
Muslims in rural areas where larger population lived

Ø  But
these arguments could never deny the fact that change in one religion from
Hindu to Muslim is not simply a religious change but change in man social and
cultural status

From
Banda Mata- ram To Pakistan

Ø  First
provincial elections under 1935 act were held in 1937 as a result of these
elections congress were invited from ministries of seven provinces

Ø  Attitude
of congress government towards Muslims was very brutal and it opened they eyes
of Muslims towards the upcoming danger

Ø  This
type of attitude of Congress towards Muslim is itself a proof of Hindus being a
separate Nation and they will never tolerate Muslims

Ø  Both
of the parties did their best in these elections but the major difference
between both of them was Congress stood for joint electorate while Muslim
League for separate electorate

Ø  Congress
wanted Hindi as official language with Deva Negril Script while Muslim League
wanted Urdu official language with Persian Script. According to result Congress
wil able to save only 40% of seats out of 1771 in 11 provinces, slightly able
to win no more than 750 seats

Ø  This
result disappointed Gandhi claims that Congress represent 95% of Indian
population. Out of 491 Muslim seats capture only 26 seats

Ø  Muslim
League condition was also bad as it won only 106 seats. The party managed to
win only 2 seats from Muslim Majority area

Ø  Final
result were declared in February 1937. Congress was in power in 9 out of 11
provinces while Muslim league failed to form government in any province.
Congress proved to be a pure Hindi party and work only for the betterment of
Hindus

Era
of Congress Rule

Ø  27
months of Congress rule was like a nightmare for the Muslims of South Asia.
Some of the congress leaders aim to take revenge from Muslims of their 700
years of slavery. Congress started a Muslim
Mass Contact Movement with the aim to convince that there is only two
political parties Congress and British

Ø  Congress
declared Hindi as official Language and Deva Negril script as official script,
raised their flag, prohibited cow slaughter and forces children at school to
worship Gandhi picture, Banda Ma tram was made as National Anthem

Ø  Muslims
were not allowed to Construct Mosque and Hindus play drum in front of mosque
when Muslims were praying

Ø  Congress
government introduce a new educational policy known as Warda Taleemi Scheme. By
this scheme Congress mold mind of Muslim children that there is only one nation
in India and that is Hindu. Main purpose of this scheme was to remove the
Muslim culture and add Indian culture

Ø  Congress
Ministry did their best to weaken Muslim economy, they close all doors of
government offices for Muslims which was the main source of income for them

Ø  By
analyzing these things it should not be a question no more  why Muslims insisted on Partition of India in
order to get a separate Homeland for them

Conclusion

Ø  Two
Nation Theory is still alive today, basic conflict between India and Pakistan
is still same as India want to merge Pakistan back into India while Pakistan
have been fighting for 52 years to save their motherland which they got in name
of Islam

Ø  Kashmir
issue, if alive even after 52 years despite of all efforts to Indian to crush
the Love of Freedom, is a crystal of this theory. It should be understood that
Pakistan is not a result of an accident but it has a meaning, the meaning of
Pakistan was to achieve separate homeland for Muslims of Indo Pakistan to have
a better living

Ø  Importance
of creation of fortress of Islam was to give Muslims an idea of Brotherhood. A
Brotherhood independent of color and Creed. Pakistan wanted to create unity among
Muslims from Morocco to Indonesia and to create a sense of spiritual version
beyond sense of materialistic World in which man is fighting with men.