Treatment: Ionisation radiation (X-ray)Illness: breast cancerDetails of treatment: Surgery is usually the first type of treatment for breast cancer. The type of surgery you undergo will depend on the type of breast cancer you have.Surgery is usually followed by chemotherapy or radiotherapy or, in some cases, hormone or biological treatments. radiotherapy is a treatment where radiation is used to kill cancer cells.There are many different ways you can have radiotherapy, but they all work in a similar way.They damage cancer cells and stop them from growing or spreading in the body.It can be used to:• try to cure the cancer completely (curative radiotherapy) • make other treatments more effective – for example, it can be combined with chemotherapy (chemoradiation) or used before surgery (neo-adjuvant radiotherapy) • reduce the risk of the cancer coming back after surgery (adjuvant radiotherapy) • relieve symptoms if a cure isn’t possible (palliative radiotherapy) Duration of treatment: 4 to 5 weeks.Side effects: As well as killing cancer cells, radiotherapy can damage some healthy cells in the area being treated.This can cause some side effects, such as:sore, red skin, feeling tired most of the time in the area being treated, feeling sick, losing your appetite, sore mouth, diarrhoea.Outlook for patients: Patients have regular check-ups and mammograms after treatment. Your nurse will advise you on managing the different effects of treatment and will explain what to look out for in your treated breast. Doctors advise women who want children to delay getting pregnant for a couple of years after treatment. Some treatments can also affect your ability to have children (your fertility). You can see a fertility specialist before treatment starts.Some women develop swelling of the arm, called lymphoedema. Your nurse will explain how you can reduce the risk of developing this.Certain treatments may cause an early menopause, leading to menopausal symptoms. Treatment: Ultrasound Illness: kidney stone Details of treatment: Ultrasound in the breaking up of kidney stones using a device known as a lithotripter. Very high powered waves from two or more transducers are sent in to the patients through graze pads impregnated with coupling jelly. The patient is positioned so that the beams focus at the position of the kidney stones. The high intensity generated at this focus causes shock waves which fragments the stones into small particles. These can be passed out through the urine.Duration of treatment: 15-45 minutes per session. You may need more than one session of ESWL (Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy) successfully treat your kidney stones. But even small kidney stones can be painful, although this usually only lasts a couple of days and disappears when the stone has been passed.Side effects: There are no known risks from the sound waves used in an ultrasound scan. Unlike some other scans, such as computerised tomography (CT) scans, ultrasound scans don’t involve exposure to radiation.External and internal ultrasound scans don’t have any side effects and are generally painless, although you may experience some discomfort as the probe is pressed over your skin or inserted into your body.Endoscopic ultrasounds can be a bit more uncomfortable and they can cause temporary side effects, such as a sore throat or bloating. There’s also a small risk of more serious complications, such as internal bleeding.Outlook for patients: before treatment, kidney stone patients experience symptoms such as a high temperature (fever) of 38C or over, chills and shivering feeling very weak or tired a high temperature of 38C (100.4F) or over chills and shivering, feeling very weak or tired diarrhoea cloudy and bad-smelling urine and bad-smelling urine. After treatment the fever, diarrhoea diminishes, no more pain while urinating and the urine colour tends to clear up back to normal.Treatment: LasersIllness: cataract Details of treatment: refractive cataract surgery, the most advanced type of cataract surgery available. This proven and permanent lens replacement procedure uses RLE (Refractive Lens Exchange), which could help you eliminate or reduce your dependence on glasses at the same time as removing your cataracts. Refractive cataract surgery involves replacing the natural lens with an advanced multi-focal lens. A variety of different lenses are available for different needs, and your surgeon will be able to advise you on the best option for you. This procedure uses state-of-the-art femtosecond laser technology. This procedure has been performed thousands of times and typically takes just 20 minutes per eye. If you wear glasses for reading, distance or near vision, or wear bifocal, varifocal or multifocal contact lenses, refractive cataract surgery may be the answer you’re looking forDuration of treatment: 20 minutes Side effects: Laser therapy has some risks. The risks for skin therapy include: Bleeding, infection, pain, scarring and changes in skin colorOutlook for patients: Recovery after laser surgeries is similar to that of typical surgery. You may need to rest for the first few days after the operation and take over-the-counter pain medication until the discomfort and swelling have gone down.Recovery after laser therapy varies based on the type of therapy you received and how much of your body was affected by the therapy.You should follow any orders your doctor gives you very closely. For example, if you have laser prostate surgery, you may need to wear a urinary catheter. This can aid in urinating right after the surgery. If you received therapy on your skin, you may experience swelling, itching, and rawness around the treated area. Your doctor may use an ointment and dress up the area so that it’s airtight and watertight. For the first couple of weeks after the treatment, be sure to do the following:• Use over-the-counter medications for pain, such as ibuprofen (Advil) or acetaminophen (Tylenol).• Clean the area regularly with water.• Apply ointments, such as petroleum jelly.• Use ice packs.• Avoid picking any scabs.