This essay will discuss the fact and figures of work life balance and how the border theory works, nevertheless it will discuss the benefits and drawback of work life balance initiatives.Sparrow and Cooper (2003:19) suggest that ‘work life balance concerns those practice that enhances flexibility and autonomy of the employee in this process of integration and in negotiation over the attention and presence required’. Whereas Beardwell. J and Claydon.T (2007) define work life balance as an equilibrium between work and life at which work and the personal life activities can comfortably inhabit side by side. On the other had Clutterbuck (2003) defines work life balance as being aware of different demands and ability to make choices in the allocation of time and energy. This paragraph will be discussing on fact and figures work life balance. Flexibility in work life balance has become increasingly important. According to sage journals (2017), new legalisation was introduced on the 30th of June 2014 which means that all employees have the legal right to request for flexible working, this includes part-time work, alternative hours. CIPD report found that 72% of the employers surveyed implemented flexible working practices which had a positive impact on staff engagement while 73% employees felt that it had a positive impact on employee motivation. Due to the increase of modern technology, it has allowed flexibility in all workplaces. In the United Kingdom, around 3.5 million people are working full time or part time from home (flexibity.co.uk). According to the Federation of small businesses annual survey around 40%, small businesses are home based. Hay group employers believe that the most important way to attract staff is work life balance, therefore, they have created a greater flexibility to be a priority for legal professionals, hay group employers said that their work life balance was average and flexible working life was important for employees to benefit 60% while legal professional was 25 days annual leave which shows that work life balance is a priority for employees at hay group. According to the Federation of small businesses annual survey around 40%, small businesses are home based. Moreover across all parts of United Kingdom, men spend more time on leisure than women (ons.gov.uk, 2017). For example, Men spend more time per week on sports or hobbies while women spend time on social activities (ons.gov.uk, 2017). Mental health foundation (2017) found that 40% of employees are neglecting other features of their life because of work however sage journals(2017) has suggested that building a work life balance can increase productivity, improve your staff retention which can help improve and benefit in business perspective and customer service in an employee’s perspective. Working long hours can cause mental health (mental health foundation) according to OECD, 2017 United Kingdom almost 13% of employees work very long hours this shows the more people work the less time they spend on their personal life such as leisure. In the United Kingdom their full-time employees according to OECD (2017) it suggests that 62% are devoted to their day while 1409 hours is spent on personal life such socialising. However, United Kingdom has introduced different ways of helping families with children and low income the government is to invest in GBP 350 to, therefore, raise the childcare fee subsidy (OECD, 2017). Nevertheless, according to Breckett (2017) UK employers are failing to help employees achieve a good work-life balance, 39% of the employees feel that their work and personal life is not balanced for example Hay group global showed that more than 600,000 UK employees are being asked to do spend more time on work and less time on social activities. This shows how employees in the UK are working longer hours while 27% of employees plan to leave their company if they don’t support their positive work-life balance. On the other hand, 17% of employees are looking for better opportunity elsewhere. This paragraph will be discussing on border theory. According to Chen et al (2005) border theory in contrast to boundary theory is moderately newer and similar theory that enhances our understanding of the relationship between work and family in the modern societies. Chen et al define border theory as work and family that are two different spheres that it accentuates the understanding of the influence in each sphere has on the other. Whereas Clark (2000) defines border theory that identifies the variables or factors that create family and work conflict and tries to discover approaches on how to deal with the sphere and the border between them in order to change the balance between family-related and work-related. Furthermore, this theory explains that individuals can choose one strategy as treating work and family as different roles and playing one role that requires you to leave another one, however, integration can work and segmentation that would help create a balance between work and family sphere (Rothbard and Philips 2005). There are three types of borders which individuals are able to maintain their personal and work lives. These are physical, temporal and psychological borders (Clark, 2000). Physical border refers to existence location which work and family activities take place. This could be people working from home or the place where they perform their work role, for example, working in a separate area. Temporal border refers to the times within which work activities against personal activities take place. For example, an employee may set a time on when they end their day at work in order to pick their children from school (Clark, 2000). Finally, psychological border refers to the activities of home and work roles. (Ashforth et al 2000, Clark 2000). For example, employees can attend work-related meeting in the evening that can be a social activity with friends from work. According to Chen et al (2009), employee’s inclination for segmentation or integration of work and family roles was positively identified with time and work conflict.Flexibility is one of the essential in the border theory which is based on the border between family and work. For example, Johnson and Johnson’s is a pharmaceutical company (JNJ.N, 2017). Johnson and Johnson’s employers allow their employees to change their working hours from home this shows flexibility according to the border theory, in addition, Johnson and Johnson offer part-time and job sharing which allows their employees to balance between work and life and increase productivity. Whereas Yamaha motor Ltd set the time for their employees which is 6.30am to 9.45pm as flexible working hours (Yamaha Motor Co. Ltd, 2017). Johnson and Johnson prevent mental health which they offer massage therapist as part of their stress management this shows how Johnson and Johnson are managing conflict between the two border of work and family, therefore, an employee is able to bring a positive sphere from work to home and decreases conflict and stress also increasing positive attitude. According to trade union congress, statics shows that employees in the UK currently work for long hours in Europe and spend less time on holidays whereas Johnson and Johnson’s offer long annual leave and awarding their employees at the end of the year (Hr magazines 2017). While Yamaha motor (2017) employees may take leave for up to one year, therefore, Yamaha employees can create conflict between the borders due to long working hours and less time spent with family. Johnson and Johnson allow their employees to work from which is telecommuting and these increases work life balance, therefore, it creates a balance between the two borders that an employee is able to integrate.This paragraph will be discussing benefits and drawbacks. In work, life balance employers and employees face drawbacks and benefit. In an employer’s perspective they benefit in different ways, for example, improving corporate reputation, improved retention rates, reduced absenteeism, lower salary requirements, reduced level of stress, improving customer service, more flexible or longer operating hours, lower office space and energy costs (gov.uk,2017). For example, employers offering employees flexibility would likely attract a wide range of employees or candidates than an employer who does not (Wieland, 2014). Another example is sickness absence, according to CBI reports sickness absence cost in the UK economy is 13.4 billion a year this shows that there is cost saving in the UK. Johnson and Johnson prioritise their employees and make them feel part of the family, Johnson Johnsons as an employer’s perspective they benefit by increasing productivity and improving corporate reputation as mentioned earlier, for example, allowing their employees to work from home and offer them part time job. However employers can face challenges such as smartphone stress, for example, employers always spending time on their phone after work by keeping track of their employees or social media and less time on family this has a negative impact and can limit work life balance due to being on the phone always and not giving the body time to recover (BBC, 2014) which can cause mental health and high level of stress. In an employee’s perspective, they also benefit in different ways depending on the organisation and business the employee is working for. For example, P (2017) offering part time job and job sharing that can help employees have flexible hours for them, therefore they benefit by managing their work and personal life. In addition, they also offer their employees to work from home which is flexibility for the employees and is beneficial (P , 2017). According to (NHS,2006) their employees benefit by improving loyalty and commitment, reduced stress and work pressure, job satisfaction and better working environment, better relationship management this creates a positive impact on NHS. However, employees can have limitations due to work load in organisations and businesses which can cause mental health and their wellbeing. According to CIPD (2017), 32% of UK employees feel having remote access at the workplace has shown that they can’t switch off their phone, therefore, it shows that they spend less time on their personal life and more work and this can cause mental health on an individual.In conclusion, work-life balance is a significance to an individual. That both employees and employers benefit from good practice of work life balance. Moreover, border theory has created an understanding between work and family to shows whether they create conflict or not, companies such Johnson Johnson have practised good work life balance to avoid conflict according to the border theory and has helped both employees and employers manage work and life such enabling employees to have flexibility at work place. Work life balance initiatives have been expressed on having great impact on employees nevertheless, companies that have implemented work life balance have had positive outcome.