There time. He consumes 2 packets of

There are six life stages from infancy which is from 0-3
years of age, childhood from 3, 8 years of age, and adolescence from the age of
9-18 years, early adulthood from 19-45 years of age, middle adulthood which is
from 46-65 years of age then finally late adulthood from the age of 65 and
over.  Nutritional diet can differentiate
on what people eat and how much of it they consume in a day. However, this is
can vary within the ages, gender, and sex but also how much of the food they
have consumed is being used during the day.

James is a 16-year British origin boy going through is GCSE.
He has a stressful life as he has many deadlines to complete and exams season
is just around the corner. Due to this he has taken eating excessively as his
new habit to relieve his stress. During the week his diet consists of no
breakfast and then during the day this makes him snack continuously until lunch
time. He consumes 2 packets of crisps and sweets with it along with a 500ml of
coke. At lunch time he mostly has chips with a burger and snacks which consists
of crisps, biscuits, and sweets. He is then provided a cooked meal at home but
due to his ethnic background being British it is normally food that are
deep-fried with a small portion of vegetable such as pees but being outweighed
with the main item being red meat.  James
is currently weights an outstanding weight of 85 kg at the age of 16 with his
height at 5inches. Calculating his BMI shows that he is overweight and is over
25 in the range and needs to change his eating habits and also sufficient
exercise is need to reduce the chances of getting diseases such as diabetes,
heart disease and stroke.

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James comes from an average incoming family where both of his
parents hold a strong average income for the household. However the main issue
being that there isn’t much time for cooking healthy meals and use this excuse
to order take ways as a replacement. James mum is a nurse and normally have
shifts that are long and odd in times. This causes her to leave the house early
in times and coming home at a late time. James’s father also has a rather busy
style being an owner of a shop he tends to stay up to late to close up. He also
tends to leave home for a couple of days from time to time for business
meetings. Having both of your parents that have busy lifestyle means that meal
times are not enjoyable and food prepared are normally frozen and reheated or
takeaway’s. James previously used to do swimming every Wednesday and Friday but
has recently stopped due to the work load he has received from school.

Rococo is a 25 year old man who currently weighs as
unbelievable weight of 64 kg with the height of 6ft4 inches.  During the day his daily intake is minimal and
usually a cup of coffee in the morning with 2 table spoon of sugars and then
the same during the afternoon around 4-5pm he eats crisps, cake and a can of
coke. In the evening when he gets back from work he is too tired and stressed
to make himself dinner and usually has readymade meals that he buys of the
super market. Due to his lifestyle of going to work and early in the morning
and coming back late he sometimes does not even have dinner or will have a
light meal of popcorn and a fizzy drink. 
He usually works from 9-6 and tends to feel tired and stressed out which
puts him off eating.  

Rococo is currently underweight by working out his BMI and
needs to immediate put on some weight. However this needs to be done correctly
by consuming the correct amount of calories a day which for an average man is
10,500 KJ. However this does not mean that you should eat high in calories food
that contain saturated fats and processed sugar such as cakes, fried chips,
chocolates and coke etc. These foods will not help you to gain weight correctly
as this will actually help rococo gain body fat rather than lean muscle and
also increase your risk of developing high levels of cholesterol in your blood.
James main aim is to build body mass and gain weight as he believes that in the
future he is sacred of developing nutritional deficiencies.



James currently is underweight and is only consuming that
have a lot of saturated fat and sugar in them for example burgers, chips, and
chocolates. He is also snacking in between which needs to stop as snaking
normally contain foods that are high in refined carbohydrates which is food
that have their fibre, and also other nutritional values such as vitamins,
healthy oils and fat soluble vitamins removed or extracted during processing of
the food. Frequent snacking is also more likely to take you over your daily
calorie budget and result in excess weight, especially if you eat energy-dense
snacks or your servings are large. This needs to be stopped as this I one of
the causes to obesity in the United kingdom due to the excessive calories
intake in a day. 


Due to James being overweight he would need to reduce the
amount of calories this can be done firstly to reduce the portions size of the meals
he is being served with. He needs to consume more proteins less dairy foods and
oils foods to cut down his weight as dairy foods contain fats in them also such
as cheese, milk, etc.  A good source of
protein is fish which could be salmon, seabass tuna etc.  Chicken breast is also a good source of
protein nut again portion size is also important but also how it is cooked. It
is important that it is not cooked in oil as it contains a lot of Trans fat
like saturated fats, they can increase levels of LDL-cholesterol in
the blood. Tran’s fats can also decrease the level of ‘good’ HDL
cholesterol in the blood. He can grill the chicken or roast it which is a
healthier alternative. He also needs to avoid eating red meat as it high in
saturated fats which raise again blood cholesterol. He also needs to contain
fruits and vegetables which are one of the five a days. Although he may not see
sudden changes in his body if continuously carries on his eating habits as it
is then many risks such as heart attacks, obesity strokes is not a surprise in
the future. 

However the situation is different for Rococo as he is
underweight and needs to put on weight. He barely eats and when he does, it is
foods that that processed or has a lot of sugar like chocolates and mints. For
Rococo the main aim for him is to gain some weight and build some muscle mass.
However this must be done safely and correctly. One of the many mistake
underweight people do is that they think that just eating sugary foods and
processed food will help them gain weight  as they contain a lot of calories. This is
incorrect as actually this is not healthy as really you are developing your
body fat rather than lean muscle but also increase levels of cholesterol.

For Rococo he must have all three meals which should contain
whole grain cereals with a slice of toast. He can still carry on having his tea
but cut down the sugar to 1 table spoon to max. Snacking can happen if they are
fruits so that you get natural source of sugar as you can get instant supply of
energy increase. This can be oranges, pineapple and apples etc. During lunch he
must have some form of main meal that has vegetables, some form of protein
which could be fish and then slowly build this so that he experiences and enjoy
different types of foods with different textures. You also need to base meals
on starchy carbs meals that contain potatoes, bread, rice, paste etc. as it is
the main and good source of energy. As well as starch, they contain, fibre,
calcium iron and vitamins. Due to the lack of fruit and vegetables in Rococo’s
diet it is important that he is consuming enough fruits and vegetables as they
contain a variety of nutrients including vitamins, minerals and antioxidants.
Eating sufficient amount of fruits and vegetables each day will reduce the
chances of Rococo getting chronic diseases. 

M1 Assess the impact of dietary intake and dietary
deficiencies on nutritional health.

The body requires over 40 essential nutrients to
function properly, including vitamins, minerals, amino acids, protein and
carbohydrates. The basic nutrients such as carbohydrates, protein and fats
which are the basics of necessities you need to live. Usually the main aim of
nutritional health is to prevent and treat nutritional deficiencies. Food
provides our bodies with energy, protein, essential fats, vitamins and mineral
to live, grow and function properly. The body needs energy to function even
when you are resting, respiring, for temperature control, digestion and cell
repair. We need a wide range of foods to provide the right amounts of nutrients
for good health. 

A large problem facing the human population today is
malnutrition. Malnutrition is when a person’s diet has an imbalance
of the essential nutrients that the body needs to remain healthy. This
imbalance in nutrients can weaken the person’s immune system and body and make
them more susceptible to illnesses. Malnutrition can also cause delays in a
child’s physical and mental development. However there is a condition called
malnutrition when people are not getting enough to eat which results to people
not sufficient amount of to function properly. Malnutrition includes both under
and over nutrition. Undernutrition is a deficiency of calories or of one of the
essential nutrients as a result of having not enough food to eat and a range of
variety of food to eat. However it is not only how much you eat and what you
eat as malnutrition can also be caused if you are unable to digest nutrients
from the diet. This might include conditions such as ulcerative colitis where
food is passed into the digestive tract quickly before the nutrients is
absorbed into the blood stream.

There are many symptoms associated with under-nutrition vary
by deficiency, but all deficiencies tend to eventually cause permanent harm to
the body. There are three common deficiencies that many people suffer from.
Lack of vitamin A in the diet is a very large problem worldwide and
results in many cases of blindness in children each year. Iron deficiency is
also a common issue in the world. It causes a person to become anaemic, which
can result in fatigue, increased risk of infection and increased risk of
haemorrhaging during childbirth. Iodine deficiency is also very common
issue with one-third of the human population suffering due to the lack of
iodine. Iodine is important for proper functioning of the thyroid gland,
which is responsible for producing hormones that manage the body’s metabolic
rate. A lack of iodine can cause stunted growth, mental delays and the creation
of goitres, which are when the thyroid glands at the base of the neck
become swollen.

On the other hand over nutrition is a condition resulting to
either from eating large portions of food but also it could be the reason if
you are eating foods too much from the wrong food group represented from the
eat well plate and also if you are taking extra or too much vitamins, or other
dietary supplements. Oversupplying your body with too much vitamins can lead to
disease such as obesity, vitamin poisoning and many more. Obesity is defined
from calculating from a measure of how healthy your weight. An average BMI for
your height from 18.5-24.9 in range means that you have a healthy BMI. BMI can
be calculated by dividing your weight in kilograms by your height in metre,
then divide the4 answer by your height again. If people are obese then your BMI
tends to fall in range from 30.0 – 39.9. The main thing that is scary about
obesity is that they are many risks to it leading to many life threating
conditions such as diabetes type 2 and coronary heart disease, strokes and some
form cancer such as breast and bowel cancer. Obesity is normally caused by
consuming foods that contain a lot of calories in fatty and sugary foods and
not burning it form physical activity so as a result it is stored as fat. The
continuous build of this is what causes people to become obese.

Hypervitamosis is another condition when there
is an abnormal amount of vitamins in your body. An example of this is with too
much vitamin A in your body. If too much of vitamin A is being taken in then
the excess amount of it is stored in the liver and as it accumulates over time
people start to develop vitamin A toxify by over dosing in dietary supplements.
 A build up over a long period of time
can lead to liver damage and increased pressure in the brain, bone pain and
changes in visions also. Both these conditions are frightening and can lead to
death just because of over supplying your boy with nutrients that is not needed
for the body. Malnutrition is a problem everywhere and the body images you