is a traditional culture in China call “pattern of the make-up” it has thousand
years history from the Chinese traditional art “Peking opera”. In the Tang Dynasties,
with emperor Xuanzong (721-755 A.D), who founded the Pear Garden (Liyuan, the
early Peking opera), the first known group in China. The group mostly worked
for the Emperors’ personal pleasure, but later it was also performed for the commonalty.
(Jonas Daniel Vaughan, The Manners and Customs of the Chinese of the strait
Settlements, early 1850s).
Drama actors on the stage outlined facial mask are used to help enhance
the character of the characters, appearance, status, to achieve rich stage colour,
beautify the stage effect. The main features of “pattern of the make-up” have
the three points: Firstly, the beauty and ugly ingenious combination, it is
characterized by the use of different colours of oil paintings, showing a
different personality, whether it is beauty or ugly character.
Peking opera mask colours represent different character, for example,
red represents loyalty, black represents integrity, but yellow represents the
cruel, white represents the treacherous person. (Aaron Christopher Yap,
Singaporean, 1872s), Ancestors use colour to express emotions, and combine
these colours to draw the masks. As one of the Chinese traditional culture, it
has been widely recognized both at home and abroad.
characters and faces style of Peking opera
There are four different characters of Peking opera, respectively Sheng (male
roles, pic 5), Dan (female roles,
pic 4), Jing (roles with painted faces, pic 6)
and Chou or Clown (a comic character) (Chinese Opera: Image and stories, Peter
Laosheng (middle age or old man), mostly impersonation positive personality
character, sometimes wear moustache with red face make-up impersonation Guan Yu
(From the Three kingdom). Xiaosheng (young man) and Wusheng (men with martial
skills). Jing (Wen Jing and Wu Jing), these are all have painted face.
Wen Jing is a variety of colours outline the makeup of the mask as a
prominent sign of the face, showing the personality temperament rough, wonderful,
heroic figures. Wu Jing also has painted face but different with no martiary
skill (Wen), (Wu) is focusing on the martial skills same with (Wusheng).
the male clown (Chou) has (Wen Chou) and (Wu chou). These characters are put
the make-up between the nose and eyes, likes funny and the make-up mostly is
white colour also means treacherous people. Wuchou is also focusing on the
martial and little funny skills on the stage.
make-up of Peking opera
The Peking opera has different type’s make-up and pattern, including
Rubbing, Wiping and Hooking face. Rubbing face (Roulian)
(pic 1), is the oldest make-up of Peking opera, it focusing on different
personal character. Rubbing face, the basic form of rubbing face is the whole face,
hook method as” rubbing “, used to exaggerate the skin colour,
without using any skills or other forms, the entire makeup makes the character
look powerful, look heavy
For Wiping face (Molian) (pic
the Wiping face is a more distinctive way of making up Peking Opera, with white
powder on the face to cover the original face, and then use a pen
dipped colors The details of the nose and face are sketched out one by one, for
this color of make-up is usually a person who is treacherous and does not dare
to show his true face. They use white to cover their original features.
Furthermore, the Hooking face(pic 3) this different between Rubbing and Wiping
face. In contrast to the other two types of make-up, the character needs to
clear the face first, then use the pen to draw the eyebrows directly on the face,
eyes and nose for positioning, and then use the to remove the excess hair to
make up, and then use the tape to raise the eye angle to make the eyes bigger,
and finally wear the accessories. The color of the outline is many, usually
decorated with gold.
Crooked face (pic 11) is a special makeup,
it using asymmetric approach highlights the characters, sometimes expresses the
characters ugly but kind-hearted but sometimes said in character and the
extremely cruel and merciless. Different faces are using same technique, the direct
use of a brush dipped in paint with the features of the face line, but all the
features are distorted asymmetric, more asymmetric said this character is bad.
There are three designs are using Crooked
face, Hooking face and Rubbing face, Different make-up styles were used in
these three designs, one of which uses crooked face make-up in exaggerated and
asymmetrical designs, a combination of purple, white and black, twisted lines
and exaggerated patterns Is the characteristics of this dress (Pic 12). In the
second design, Hooking faces are used, with outstanding lines and intense
contrasting colors like (Pic 13), but the design is symmetrical. The third is
the design of the Rubbing face, which uses the same painting method, using
bright colors, not very contrasting with each other (Pic 14).
Colour effect in China and foreign
The make-up is rich in color, not just
because it looks good, it also expresses emotion, people use different faces to
express different personalities, red represents bravery, blue represents
selflessness and black represents integrity.
In Peking Opera, red stands for bravery and narrow sense, just like Guan Yu (pic1) in the three Kingdoms, the makeup is red. But on the other hand, red has ironic significance, representing the false good people. Black, which represents calm and sophistication, represents water in the north as well as in ancient China. In Kenya’s Marseilles person mind, the black represents the overcast sky, rainy season arrives, therefore symbolic prosperity and life. Also the black in the fashion world represents a stable and dignified style. In Peking Opera, black refers to fortitude, bravery and wisdom. Just like Bao Gong (pic 6) with black makeup, it is honest and selfless, but sometimes black refers to ugly people or ghosts. White stands for purity, peace and respect. White also brings cold and severe feelings. In ancient China, white represented treacherous and sinister color. In western culture, white symbolizes a white wedding dress and a pure heart, but some people believe that white is a bad color, it represents death (Adams Morioka, Color Design workbook, 2005). In the one of six designs, the design of the top uses the concept of a face mask, adding a (pic 10) printed on the middle of the clothes. Inspired by Si Mayi ?white color make-up, three kingdom?, a combination of black, white and gray, these three natural colors inspired the design (Adams Morioka, Color design workbook, 2005.), the design will use some lines to reflect the overall three-dimensional sense.
The use of color in clothing Peking Opera make-up has many colors; these colors are obviously contrast and compatible. The same color make-up and different color make-up in stark contrast. Throughout the face painting process, the performer will use different colors to express the characters. Appreciating the color of the audience will be made using the appropriate colors, whether from the expression or the clothing. “One color has different meanings.” (Josef Albers, Color design workbook, 2005). There are three primary colors in color theory: red, yellow, and blue. From the three colors, the other nine colors are all from this three colors. In addition, the color is also divided into cool and warm colors; different colors can mixed each other or contrast, often in the clothes with color contrast and set off. In (spring / summer) 2017 Barbara this yellow-green and orange clothes (pic 7), with a similar method of this color matching, visually feel comfortable. Spring and summer of 2017 Balenciaga Blue and orange with the clothes and black bags (pic 8), with complementary this strong contrast, the whole clothes become more prominent. Also in the six designs, Clothes are mainly used on the face of the pattern, the face printed on the middle of the clothes and some decorations, the clothes will use a strong contrast color, like red, yellow and blue or black, yellow and blue, so that clothes on More prominent pattern, like this high collar coat with wide leg pants (pic 9), a very obvious mask in the middle of the clothes, the rest of the place with some simple design set off each other.