evaluation of Rotter’s social learning and locus of control theories
demonstrates their relevance to diverse cultural perspectives. For instance,
the social learning theory indicates the importance of environmental stimuli in
influencing the development of a particular personality. Given that cultural
values are an integral component of the environment, individuals are likely to
develop or demonstrate different personalities and behaviors in diverse
cultural perspectives. Similarly, the locus of control theory applies to
diverse cultural perspectives by indicating the role of beliefs and feelings in
modeling individuals’ perception of their control in different situations
(McLeod et al., 2015). Individuals’ beliefs and feelings usually depend on their
cultures, thereby indicating the relevance of the theory for the study of
personality across different cultural perspectives. Therefore, Rotter’s
theories are essential for the exploration and understanding of the different
environmental factors, beliefs, and experiences that determine individuals’
personality and behavior.
a student’s external locus of control links academic failure or success to
external factors, including fate, prejudice, unfairness, the situation, or
luck. Consequently, the internal locus of control indicates that individuals
have the power to shape their outcomes, with the external locus indicating that
individuals do not have control over their outcomes. The external locus of
control contributes significantly to the development of learned helplessness in
which individuals convince themselves that they have no capacity to change
their outcomes or situation when, on the contrary, they have significant
control and power over their circumstances (Lee, 2013).
contrast, an evaluation of the secondary research using Rotter’s locus of control
theory indicates the external and internal factors that influence individuals’
personality and behaviors depending on their perceptions. For instance, the
theory covers individuals’ feelings about the control they have over the
outcomes of their lives. In the learning context, a student’s internal locus of
control encompasses the beliefs that intrinsic attributes, such as hard work
and personal effort are critical for academic success (Sue, 1978).
based on the examination of the secondary research using Rotter’s social
learning theory, the prediction of personality depends on four core variables.
The first variable involves the behavior potential (BP), which indicates the
likelihood that a behavioral response may emerge within a particular
environmental context. For example, a student walking toward a canteen may
ignore it or buy a snack. Secondly, the expectancy (E) variable entails the
expectation that a specific reinforcement may occur depending on the situation.
For example, students may expect better academic performance based on their
hard work. Thirdly, the reinforcement value (RV) indicates the value that
individuals link to a specific reinforcement. For example, a student may prefer
playing with others instead of reading a novel. The last variable involves the
psychological situation (S), which covers the external or internal cues that
influence individual personality (Lowes & Lin, 2015). For example, a
student with aggressive traits may avoid aggression because of the possible
punishment linked to aggressive behaviors.
personality can be independent, thereby indicating that some individuals have
stable personalities. For example, based on prior incidences of poor
counseling, an individual may reject the advice given by other similar
counselors relating to a specific issue. The fourth assumption states that
motivation depends on goals. For instance, individuals usually maintain
behaviors and personalities that allow them to attain their goals. Lastly,
individuals have the capacity to anticipate events, thereby shaping their
personalities to realize the desired outcomes (Rotter, 1955). These assumptions
demonstrate the accuracy and validity of the social learning theory in
predicting personality in the contemporary psychological studies.
evaluation of the validity and accuracy of secondary research using Rotter’s
theories indicates the integral role of the theories in facilitating knowledge acquisition
in relation to individuals’ personality and behavioral patterns. The study of
the use of social learning theory for behavior prediction presents five core
assumptions that explain personality development. The first assumption
indicates that individuals usually develop meaningful interactions with their
environments, thereby leading to particular behavioral traits. The second
assumption indicates that individuals can learn personality at any stage of
their lives. However, personality may change based on learning and prior
experience (Rotter, 1960).
Rotter (1916-2014), was an American psychologist, who developed two major
theories for the study of personality and behavior. The first theory involves
the social learning theory, which indicates the significance of cognition in influencing
social learning. Cognition entails the individual expectations that influence behavioral
outcomes based on the interactions with the environment (Rotter, Fitzgerald,
& Joyce, 1954). The second theory proposed by Rotter to explain behavior involves
the locus of control theory, which explores individuals’ beliefs and
perspectives relating to their control over the internal and external
situations that affect their lives. For instance, in academic contexts, the
locus of control theory helps to explain the students’ perception of the
factors causing their different levels of success or failure (Rotter, 1990).
Julian Rotter’s social learning and locus of control theories are relevant to today’s
study of psychology based on their exploration of the environmental stimuli, interactions,
and experiences that shape behavior and personality.