world ‘homosexuality’ is quite modern and
created in the nineteenth century by a psychologist named K.M. Benkert .This would make the term around
200 year old . However, This works as old as Plato’s Symposium there are discussions
of similar acts. The thoughts and acts were not the sole propriety of literature , sexual acts between a similar
sex were delineated in stories and fine art as well.
Psychological Association (2015), stated that “sexual orientation refers to an
continuing pattern of emotional, romantic, and sexual attractions to men, women
or both genders. Sexual latitude of person also refers to a person’s sense of
characteristics based on those attraction, related behaviors, and attachment in
a community of others who share those attractions. Research more than quite a
few years has shown that sexual
orientation ranges along a scale, from exclusive attraction to the other sex to
exclusive attraction to the same sex”.
of Herek in 2004, concerning the attitude towards gay and
lesbians often used the term “homophobia” to set apart a negative attitude
scheme toward homosexuals. However recently the term has come under
condemnation due to its inference that anti-gay prejudice is depend on fear. As
a result, has introduce the term “sexual prejudice” to more accurately and
precisely represent negative attitudes
toward sexually stigmatized groups such
as lesbians, gay, bisexuals and
transgender individuals . Sexual prejudice is operationally characterized as
negative attitudes based on sexual orientation.
work done by Herek, Mays & Cochran Meyer (2003), state that living
in a heterosexist society inevitably poses problem and difficulties to people
with non-heterosexual orientations and Many LGB people faces social stigma,
heterosexism, violence, and discrimination.
theory Given by Zachary L. Tureau B.S.(2003), stated that heterosexism at the
individual level and psychological heterosexism, includes a particular
individual’s homonegative belief and value system, as well as their cognitive
affective and behavioral reactions to gays and lesbians. This includes
homonegative belief systems, and acceptance of
heterosexual word and deed.
in 1995 also defined heterosexism as “the ideological system that deny,
denigrate, and stigmatizes any non-heterosexual form of behaviour, identity
relationship , or community”.
done by Mihalik (1991), was defined Homophobia: Any conviction system that
supports negative myths and stereotypes about LGB people, or any of the
assortments of negative attitudes that emerge from dread or aversion of
homosexuality. Homophobes respond to LGP people
as foes to be dreaded, hated, and actively introverted.
is a belief system that values heterosexuality as predominant to natural as
homosexuality. It doesn’t recognize the reality of non-heterosexuals. It
believes that heterosexuality is normative and standardizing and that
non-heterosexuality is degenerate and fundamentally less desirable.
Heterosexists react to gay people as unfortunate and unlucky individuals.
(1990), explain that heterosexism is the philosophy that only heterosexual
attraction patterns and way of life are worthy. It holds up heterosexuality as
the main typical choice, devalues homosexuality, and consigns it into a
classification with sexual deviation. The wonder happens at all levels from the
cultural to the person’s. At the cultural level, gays and lesbians are placed
evenly outside of the model life and lifestyle. Cultural heterosexism includes
the social phenomenon that makes and keep up anti-homosexual sentiment. At the
cultural level, heterosexism is show by phenomena for example, the refusal of
marriage rights to gays and lesbian. These kinds of biases filter through
social organization and face to face interactions all the way down to every
individual’s sentiment, thoughts, and behaviors.
in the scholarly community believe that advanced education prompts an expansion
in tolerance towards people’s who are different. There is some experimental
finding to support this premise. however the effect of advanced education on
recognition of homosexuality has not been sufficiently investigated. Gays and
lesbian in society confront many depressing attitudes.
is ubiquitous in India. The discussion of homosexuality in India has been
prohibited by the fact that sexuality in
any form is rarely discussed publically and straightforwardly . In passed years, however attitudes towards
homosexuality have moved slightly. specifically, there have been more
representations and discussions of homosexuality in the Indian news media and
in Bollywood. A few association including the Union Health Ministry, NAZ
Foundation (India) Trust, Law Commission of India,National AIDS Control
Organization, The Planning Commission of India and National Human Rights
Commission of India have expressed
support for decriminalize homosexuality in India, and pushed for resistance and
social balance for LGBT people. India is among countries with a social
component of a third gender. But physical, emotional, mental and financial
violence against LGBT people group in
India prevails. Lacking support from Police, Family as well as society, Even many gay assault sufferers don’t report