TEACHER EDUCATION I B23-E107 LAP #2 INFORMATIONAL PACKAGE ON DISCUSSION METHOD TEACHER EDUCATION -2DISCUSSION METHOD The discussion method is one in which the students and the instructor exchange their ideas in order to get a better understanding of a topic. It can be a whole period or be a part of a lesson. The discussion method, when used properly, is a good way to stimulate thinking on the part of the student. It can be used to advantage when the students have a background knowledge of the subject being discussed.
The instructor should prompt everyone to take part, thus allowing the students the opportunity to learn from everyone in the group. The discussion method is interaction centered and can be teacher or student centered, and can be held in either a large or small group. Interaction techniques capitalize on the human desire to talk and share one’s thoughts. Personal activity permits greater involvement in the lesson. Advantages and Special Used of the Discussion Method 1. Expands the cognitive and affective domains of students. 2.
Can be used to solve problems and develop interest in the topic. 3. Emphasizes main teaching points. 4. Utilizes student knowledge and ideas. 5. Results in more permanent learning because of the high degree of student involvement. 6. Determine student understanding and progress. 7. Everyone has a chance to get involved. 8. Teaches how to come to an agreement within a group without arguing. 9. Permits students are teacher to get acquainted. Limitations of the Discussion Method 1. Tend to get off topic if the instructor doesn’t continually redirect ideas. 2.
More informed and eager pupils tend to monopolize the discussion. 3. Not suitable for presenting information for the first time. 4. Not very effective in describing procedures or breakdown of a component. B23-E205-LAP2C -3- 5. Content is limited and the method is time consuming. 6. It restricts the size of groups. 7. The larger the groups the more difficult it is to guide the discussion. 8. Knowledge of the group. Preparing for a Discussion Planning for a lesson wherein you intend to use the GUIDED discussion method is basically the same as planning for a lesson using the lecture method.
Generally, before you decide to use the guided discussion, you must consider the objectives rather carefully. You must also consider your students to determine whether they have the knowledge required to exchange and build on to arrive at an achievement of your objectives. As with any lesson, your first step is to establish specific, student-centered, behavioral objectives. Once you have planned your objective and some way of evaluating achievement, you may find it necessary to do some personal research. The discussion leader must be very well informed about the objectives.
Organize your main teaching points and your subordinate points in logical sequence and plan at least one lead-off question per teaching point. It is also wise to anticipate some of the material you will get from your students and plan follow-up questions for areas where you feel difficulties could arise. Leading the Discussion Careful planning makes presentation relatively straightforward. The introduction to the guided discussion lesson is standard, having only the added responsibility on your part to try to create the atmosphere necessary to good discussion.
As part of the motivation, you can remind the students that it is their responsibility to contribute. During the “presentation” – the actual discussion itself – questions are the key. These must be planned and organized carefully for continuity, direction and control. The nature of the questions you plan will be determined by the objectives. Avoid questions that ask for only short answers the “who” or “when” type. Ask broad question, the “why” or “how” type. You must be prepared to guide the discussion along any track, so long as the discussion still remains profitable in view of your objectives.
Once you begin to put off the track, the thing to do is for you to halt the discussion, provide a summary of B23-E205-LAP2C -4- valid points made to date, then provide a new leading question that will put the discussion back on the rails. Visual aids may be used during guided discussion just as in any other lesson. You may find the chalkboard a very flexible and useful aid for interim summaries as the development of material progresses during the discussion. Flip charts may also be put to good use. Other types of visual-aids like films transparencies, tapes, etc. an be very useful in providing background information. Concluding Concluding the guided discussion may take several forms. Depending on what method of evaluation you selected, you may wish to provide an oral or written test before finalizing. Generally, you must summarize the main ideas developed by the students during discussion, and relate them firmly to the objectives. Let your students know what they accomplished and praise them, as they deserve. During guided discussion lessons, you must be aware of individual personalities among your students.
Encourage the considerate, rebuke the rude, and emphasize the worth of individual thought no matter if the thought does not happen to border on genius. Boost the shy student into the discussion; hold back the brash one who would take over. As for all other forms of instruction, thorough personal preparation is the key to success. Summary The discussion method has highly valuable side benefits in that it promotes reflective thinking, improves self-expression social attributes, and encourages group thinking and cooperative effort.
While it is generally thought to be most useful in teaching abstractions, it can, for example, be useful in teaching technical material as well, if there is sufficient student background knowledge to make discussion worthwhile. NOTE: Make sure you have studied Chapter 8 in “Lesson Planning for Meaningful Variety in Teaching” and Chapter 7 in “Instructors and Their Jobs”. B23-E205-LAP2C -5- Activity Good class discussions, though they may appear informal and spontaneous, are really the result of careful thought and preparation.
For a description of the unique values and characteristics of each of the three discussion techniques, and the teacher’s responsibilities in planning and conducting each, read the following information sheet: GROUP DISCUSSIONS, PANEL DISCUSSION, AND SYMPOSIUMS Whenever two or three people are gathered together, a discussion usually takes place. The people may discuss the prospects of the local pro-football team in the upcoming season, the merits of various measures used to control inflation, the trends in behavior among young people, or any of a thousand other topics.
The discussion may be based on accurate information based on accurate information and facts, or it may be based merely on personal opinion and emotion. People enjoy the stimulation of discussion and frequently find that discussion with friends changes their own attitudes or helps them solve a personal problem. Discussion is one method by which new ideas may be tested, and it is not too much to say that this process of interchange of ideas is basic in the democratic process. Discussion is also used in the classroom.
However, in the classroom, it need to have much more definite aims and structure than does the discussion that takes place on the street corner or around the restaurant table. The guided classroom discussion is designed by the teacher to develop group understanding and agreement through talk and reflective thinking. Its aims are to stimulate thought and analysis, encourage interpretations of the facts, and develop new attitudes or change old ones. With good leadership, evidence on a crucial issue or problem is brought out, the group evaluates the evidence, and some general conclusions are reached.
Lectures are not discussions. Discussions also are not demonstrations, review sessions, question-and-answer periods, recitations, or the wandering conversations known as “bull sessions. ” While some of these methods are extremely valuable in teaching vocational subjects, they are most suitable for the presentation of information. Group discussion methods, however, involve the interchange of questions a nd ideas among the participants. While lecture and discussion both involve much talking, students participate much more extensively in the discussion.
A lecture may be an efficient method of giving a cabinetmaking class information about American hardwood furniture lumbers. However, if the point of the lecture is for the class to develop ideas about how our dwindling lumber supplies may be conserved by industrial and governmental policies, a group discussion may be more appropriate. B23-E205-LAP2C -6- An important value of class discussion is its potential for problem solving. It is usually more valuable four students to work out problems and misunderstanding by themselves through discussion than it is for them to listen to a teacher and present solutions through an illus trated talk.
When the students do the talking and thinking, they are more intellectually involved, and they feel that the material is more relevant to them. A well-conducted discussion reveals a variety of viewpoints that students may not have realized e xisted. If the right environment is maintained, they may begin to gain a healthy respect for the positions of others. They may also begin to understand the weakness of an opinion that is not based on facts or accurate information. For example, an auto mechanics teacher may be conducting a class discussion on automotive safety.
The student who is not prepared and speaks out loudly against the use of seat belt will probably find out how difficult that position is to sustain. This will be especially true if that student is confronted by other students who are prepared with data about he value of seat belts in reducing injury rates. There are several important limitations to the discussion method that must be recognized by the vocational teacher if the method is to be used effectively. As mentioned previously, discussion is generally not the facts. It is time consuming and may give an unbalanced presentation.
Another weakness of the discussion method is that, like the lecture method, it involves more talk than action. Finally, a good discussion must be a carefully planned learning event, not be undertaken in an offhand or impulsive manner. If these limitations are understood and accepted, class discussion methods can lend a new dimension to learning and can provide a variety in the vocational classroom. Types of Discussion Technique There are three basic kinds of discussion techniques that can be profitably used in the vocational classroom. Each has unique characteristics and potential, yet all share some common values.
The group discussion involves that total class of students organized for the purpose of (1) sharing information concerning a specific topic, and (2) analyzing and evaluating that information in order to arrive at some general conclusions. Ideally, all class members actively participate in the group discussion. They participate in the group discussion. They participate either as a unit or divided into smaller groups, and usually the teacher is in charge. A group discussion may have as its purpose to arrive at a definite decision or goal (e. g. What kind of exhibit does our group want to have at the county fair? ”). However, the purpose also may be simply to encourage the exchange of ideas without attempting to teach a decision (e. g. , a discussion of a nurse’s aide). B23-E205-LAP2C -7- A panel discussion is essentially, a small group discussion overheard by an audience. The panel members (perhaps three or four in number) are seated before the class in a manner that allows them to talk with one another easily and, at the same time, be seen and heard by the class. A chairman presides to direct the discussion and equalize the participation.
A symposium is more formal and less spontaneous that a panel discussion. It is a presentation in which several speakers talk on various aspects of an issue or problem. At the conclusion of the talk, they usually respond to questions from each other and from the audience. An example might be that of a group composed of a shop owner, and electronics expert and a consumer advocate speaking on the topic of improving service in the T. V. repair industry. To a greater or lesser extent, each of these forms of discussion shares the same characteristics and values for education, but each has its own special ffectiveness in a vocational classroom. The advantages and disadvantages of each of the three discussion techniques are given in the statements that follow. The Group Discussion Advantages: • It involves the total class. • The process is directed by a subject matter expert–the teacher. • It gives the entire class an opportunity to check on the idea presented. • It may stimulate critical thinking. • It allows for arriving at group consensus. Disadvantages: • Discussion moves slowly; class may be sidetracked. • A few talkers may dominate discussion.
The Panel Discussion Advantages: • It provides for spontaneous interaction of participants and audience. • It allows for both questions and answers. • Fast moving questions and answers create class interest. • Discussion can cover a great deal of ground under a skillful leader. Disadvantages: • • • • It tends to present the topic in an unsystematic manner. It may be difficult to control time used by each panelist. Many questions can be left only partially answered. It requires panel members who are articulate and can think quickly. B23-E205-LAP2C 8The Symposium Advantages: • A variety of knowledge and experience can be presented. • Changing speakers and breaking up the time helps hold attention of the class. • It creates interest, especially if the topic is controversial. • It encourages more class involvement than a lecture. Disadvantages: • It may not provide thorough coverage of the topic. • It may consist only of opinions if participants are not well prepared. • It can handle only one minor issue. Broad speaking, then, the group discussion is best used when the whole class needs to be involved and when they have the information on which to base their discussion.
The panel is very effective when there is a group of students who can prepare well for, and talk freely on, a topic of concern to the class. The symposium makes good use of experts to present varying views of a controversial subject. The wire vocational teacher will realize that because these techniques involve more talk than action, they cannot be used too frequently or they will lose their impact. However, every vocational education program has areas within it in which students should be given an opportunity to think critically and reach defensible conclusions.
In the sections that follow, the teacher’s responsibilities in planning for, conducting, and following through on these techniques are given in more detail. B23-E205-LAP2C -9- The Teacher’s Role in the Group Discussion In a discussion involving the total group, the teacher’s role is a crucial one. As the one who does the major share of the planning and preparation, and who usually leads the discussion, the teacher is the dominant and central figure. While students will contribute their information, their teacher is also the subject matter expert and the authority figure i n this form of discussion.
Thus, while a lively class discussion might appear open and free, almost casual, to an outside observer, the effective teacher has planned carefully for the event and is indirectly guiding the discussion. This is true whether the discussion involves the class as a whole, the class divided into smaller groups, or one small group supervised by the teacher while other students work independently. The first responsibility of the teacher is that of guiding the group in selecting a topic for the discussion. The topic usually evolves from the ongoing work of the class.
For example, when the agriculture class is studying the class is studying the use of pesticides in controlling destructive insects, the discussion topic may emerge as “How should the farmer react to the proposed banning of certain pesticides for environmental and health reasons? ” The class may also be motivated and prepared for a discussion because of some previous experience they had, such as a field trip in which the y observed a new team-approach to auto assembly, or a film they viewed on working conditions in the mining industry.
They may also he motivated because of a lecture they listened to on employment opportunities in the field or a provocative magazine article they read on how modular house construction will change the carpentry trade in the future. The teacher will have to guide topic selection, but the group should feel that they participated in the process, and that the topic is relevant to their needs and interests. Lack of group involvement explains why some topics brought up by the teacher fail to stimulate discussion.
Questions that should be asked of the proposed topic include: Does the problem or topic affect many in the group? Will discussion of it be helpful to the group? Is it important? Is the group competent enough to deal with it, in terms of their experience, maturity, or the available resources? In the planning and preparation stage, the teacher may need to orient students to the discussion technique in order to prepare them to use discussion time economically. This especially true if the students’ previous experience with “discussion” has been that of an uncontrolled venting of opinion.
They will need to be encouraged or directed to do some reading or other research and to make note of possible questions prior to the discussion. The teacher also will need to be prepared with current information. If the class for bank tellers is going to discuss security problems, the teacher may find it necessary to learn about the latest security techniques before leading the class on the topic. During preparation, the teacher can also prepare a list of pertinent and leading questions, designed to help cove the necessary ground and stimulating thinking.
Particularly helpful are B23-E205-LAP2C -10- questions that will help get the discussion going during what may otherwise be an awkward “warming-up” period. The physical arrangement of the class for a discussion is far more important than it might at first appear. Attempting to hold a group discussion in a large shop with the students scattered around their work stations almost guarantees failure. Likewise, a classroom setting where students are seated in a series of straight rows makes it difficult for them to see and hear each other and inhibits communication.
The teacher should plan the setting for close but informal grouping, with chairs in a semi-circle, in clusters, or around a large table or grouping of tables. The teacher-leader should be located near the apex of the ushaped group, or wherever all students can see and hear him/her. As the discussion begins, the teacher should lead off by introducing the topic to be discussed, the general limits of the topic, and the time schedule agreed on. The teacher should make the problem clear to all by stating it in specific and direct terms.
For example, the teacher in the child care class would not announce the topic simply by saying “Today we are going to discuss lead poisoning,” but perhaps by saying, “What is the scope of the problem of lead poisoning in children today, and what actions can be taken to control the problem? ” The teacher may formulate some leading questions while a student writes the on the chalkboard. Such questions might be: How serious is the problem of lead poisoning in children:” Why are children more seriously affected than adults? What can the government do about the problem?
What can the child care worker do? It will be necessary to allow some “warming-up” time, but as the group gains more experience in discussion, less teacher prompting will be needed. The teacher need not be afraid of some silence as students organize their thoughts, but dead stops in the discussion should be avoided by the use of stimulating questions. As the discussion progresses, the teacher should attempt to establish a free and friendly atmosphere in which contributions can be made without fear, and all have an equal opportunity to participate.
The teacher sets the friendly tone, gives consideration to all contributions, and guides the talk within the outlines of the problem. Each member is encouraged to contribute, with special attention being given to students who are timid or who have difficulty in expressing themselves in public. The extent of learning is closely related to the degree of student interaction and participation, and an atmosphere of friendly cooperation helps students learn to give and take and to respect honest differences.
An adversary approach or one of aggressive competition is threatening to most students, so a discussion that takes such a turn loses all but the most self confident and gifted students. The skillful discussion leader develops an awareness of facial expressions and is sensitive to enthusiasm and to the attitudes of the group. Such a leader calls upon anyone who indicates interest nonverbally, but who does not volunteer, in order to B23-E205-LAP2C -11- provide the greatest possible degree of class involvement. The teacher may have to guide the remarks back to the problem as students wander off.
If a genuine interest develops in an unanticipated direction, the teacher must decide whether to close it off or whether it is worth pursuing. At this stage of the discussion, the teacher should be unobtrusively clarifying the problem, defining new terms, correcting any mistakes or misinterpretations, and helping student to organize and express their ideas. Additionally, the teacher should be stimulating students to reason out the problems, helping them to evaluate what they hear, and suggesting possible class activities as outgrowths of the talk.
If several small group discussions are operating, the teacher can circulate quietly among the groups, guiding the discussions as he/she would with the total group. In addition, the teacher can make periodic summaries of the discussion, and can formulate generalizations applicable to other situations. The teacher may also keep the thinking open by taking the weak side of a question, suggesting an opinion to arouse controversy, or acting as “the devil’s advocate. In an office practice class discussion of pay and working conditions, for instance, the teacher may take the position that lower pay for women is justified because of their high turnover and the lesser demands made on them. The purpose of this controversial statement would be to force students to substantiate their contentions to the country. All of this is done from the teacher’s background of knowledge about the subject, but without attempting to force a personal position on the class and without imposing a predetermined solution to the problem.
This kind of openness requires a leader who is free from a drive to determine, who is personally secure and willing to be a follower sometimes, and who can restrain his/her own desire to talk. Some situations may develop in the course of a class discussion that can be difficult to handle. The following list addresses some potential problems and suggests some possible solutions to these problems. • Everyone wants to talk at once. threatening general chaos. —This is usually a sign of high interest and may be controlled by simply holding up a restraining hand, pointing to the next speaker, or acknowledging by a nod.
Sometimes the class will need to be reminded of the rules of common courtesy, but scolding will completely destroy the friendly atmosphere required for good discussion. • No one want so start talking at all. —The teacher can usually solve this by asking a provocative question, or calling on a knowledgeable and articulate student. • One student may want to monopolize the discussion or shout down opposing views. —A reminder that others deserve an equal opportunity to speak may be all that is necessary to control this. In a difficult case, the teacher can quite deliberately fail to recognize the offender. Two students may really become angry with each other. —Topics that involve emotional issues, such as personal freedoms vs. loyalty to B23-E205-LAP2C -12- an employer; liberal vs. conservative farm policy, may cause stress. In this situation, the teacher must be very tactful—perhaps diverting the topic to a neutral point, ignoring the combatants, or making light of the problem with a bit of deft humor. As a last resort, the teacher can be arbitrary and quiet the speakers. As the discussion draws to a close, the teacher will want to help the class come to some conclusions.
Sometimes, when the problem is solved, the discussion may close itself. When there is nothing more that can be said, the teacher may close the discussion. When the discussion leads to several solutions (as might well happen if the class has been divided into small groups), the teacher may need to pull it together and help the class to come to some consensus or majority opinion. As a follow-through, the teacher can help students decide if further action should be taken on this subject: Does the class want to invite a speaker from industry to present that viewpoint?
Do we need to change our plans for the course? Should the group get involved in a community project? Finally, the teacher may present an evaluation of the performance of the class in the discussion and suggest ways in which the next discussion session might be improved. The Teacher’s Role in the Panel Discussion The panel discussion, like the total group discussion, involves people talking to each other, presenting their ideas, and perhaps coming to some general agreements. However, in a panel discussion, only a small group of people do the talking, while a larger group listens to what they have to say.
The teacher-leader has less direct inp ut and control of this situation, and more of the responsibility falls on the panel members. In a panel discussion, a few students are selected to discuss specific aspects of the chosen topic. Each member comes well prepared to the panel discussion. The moderator (usually the teacher) introduces the subject and calls or one of the panel to lead off. Other panel members are free to react or ask questions. The moderator guides the direction of the discussion and finally summarizes the principle ideas presented.
Panel discussions allow the presentation of several views on a topic and stimulate the thinking of the audience. However, they are not good for presenting straight information. Problems best suited to the panel format are somewhat controversial in order to advance various points of view for consideration. A panel that just presents facts simply becomes a series of oral reports. The techniques used by the teacher in a guided classroom discussion cannot be used in the same way with a panel discussion. In a group discussion, the preparation and direction is largely controlled by the teacher.
In a panel B23-E205-LAP2C -13- discussion, a group of students plan, prepare, and control the event. The leader of a group discussion (teacher) is the dominant, central figure, but a panel moderator (teacher) may be the quietest member of the panel and does not take the role of the authority or expert. As in other discussion techniques, the selection of the topic is very important. It frequently grows out of class activities, and it should be of immediate concern to students. The teacher can plan for some likely spots in his/her course when use of a panel discussion might be appropriate.
The deciding interest, however, should expressed by the students. The teacher can assist the class in refining the question or problem and can help decide when the issue should come before the class. The following questions illustrate the kinds of topics that are appropriate for panel discussions in vocational education area: • How do the Federal milk pricing policies affect the dairy industry and the consumer? • What should be the goals of the new consumer movement in the United States? • Are the new occupational safety and health codes beneficial to industry…? the industrial worker…? the general public?
In the final statement of the topic, the teacher should be sure that the question is not loaded. He/she should be sure that, indeed, there is room for real discussion and honest differences and that the outcome of the discussion is not predetermined. The panel members can be students who have been chosen by the class to represent the varying points of view, or they may be chosen by the teacher for their particular ability to contribute. A typical panel may be composed of three or four, or as many as eight, members. It is most natural to choose students who are selfconfident and articulate.
The thoughtful teacher, however, should not forget to consider students who, while perhaps less able, nevertheless would personally benefit from the experience of having an equal voice in a class presentation. In some cases, the leader may be chosen by the most able and tolerant person. In other cases, the teacher may well assume the role of panel leader (also referred to as the moderator, or chairman). In this module, it is assumed that the teacher does retain that responsibility. After the panelists have been selected, they can divide the broad topic into subtopics and select them according to personal interest.
The board topic of “How are the changing techniques of steel production going to affect the industry? ” can be broken down into subtopics such as: • What are the new technical processes being installed? • How do these technical change the outlook of the steel industry? • Will foreign trade be influenced by the changes? • What is the reaction of the steelworkers union? B23-E205-LAP2C -14- Each student panel member is expected to prepare thoroughly on the subtopic chosen by him/her, and ideally, every panel member will do at least some preparation in all areas—at least enough to be able to ask questions of each other.
The panel will probably need about a week’s time to prepare, but the discussion itself should never be rehearsed. The panel leader (in this case, the teacher) is the most important member of the panel. He or she directs preplanning activities, assists any member who is having trouble, and takes responsibility for the overall functioning of the group. A wellprepared leader builds discussion outline—usually a series of questions concerning major issues. The questions may never be asked in exactly that form, but the leader can use them to help keep the discussion within the guidelines.
The leader has the responsibility to oversee the panel members’ preparation and performance. Each member needs to get an over view of the whole problem from reading, then study his/her own particular aspect of the problem (e. g. , the present state of affairs, steps that might be taken, and the effects of such action). During the discussion, the members are exchanging ideas among themselves, but they are doing it for the benefit of the class, so they should partially face and talk to each other, and partially to the audience. Prepared speeches are not in order.
The effective panel member (aided by the teacher) will— • make sho rt contributions, not over one minute in length • ask probing questions of the other panelists • follow the discussion of the other panelists • follow the discussion carefully, actually listening to what others have to say • relate remarks to what already has been said • use tact and a friendly approach, and avoid disparaging remarks As the panel opens, the leader offers introductory remarks, states the problem, asks a question of a panel member, or challenges the group. Surprisingly, perhaps, the effective leader usually is the quietest person on the panel.
He/she gently steers the discussion, clarifies concepts, and allows the free flow of ideas. As in the group discussion, the leader may need to control the overly-talkative person, encourage the timid, keep the discussion reasonable and cool, and keep the talk on the topic. One of the more exacting responsibilities of the leader is to provide smooth transitions from one aspect of the problem to another. This can be done by a short summary of the discussion up to that point, and an equally short introduction to the next phase of the discussion.
When the panel comes to a close, the leader makes a very brief summary of the discussion—a reminder of what the panel has said, and the points of agreement reached. After the panel discussion, the leader may invite questions from the class, with a remainder that they are to be brief and to the point. The panel member most B23-E205-LAP2C -15- directly concerned will make a brief response. A suggested timing for the whole process might be as follows. • 5 minutes for introductions and remarks • 25 to 35 minutes for the panel • 5 to 10 minutes for student questions • 5 minutes for the teacher’s critique of the panel process.
It is often helpful for the teacher to follow through during the next class period with review of the principles evolved through the discussion. It is at this time, also, that the teacher can give the class the benefit of his/her own ideas and understandings on the topic and can present his/her general expert conclusion. The Teacher’s Role in the Symposium The symposium is far more formal and less spontaneous than the panel discussion. It consists of a group of brief speeches on various aspects of a particular issue, problem, or subject.
Generally, there are from three to six speeches, each of five to twenty minutes in length. After the prepared speeches have been presented, the speakers may participate in a panel discussion, may question one another, or may respond to questions from the audience. The participants in a symposium are usually selected for their special expertise on one or more phases of the topic. This would suggest that in a school setting the most successful symposiums are those in which outside speakers form industry, government, commerce, or professional groups are invited.
Their unusual knowledge of the topic and, usually, their experience in appearing before audiences, provides the event with special interest. It is possible, however, that carefully chosen and prepared students could fulfill the functions of symposium speakers. The symposium may sometimes hold a good deal of drama if the experts challenge each other and engage in fast flowing probing and rebuttal. It is, of course, the quality of knowledge of the speakers that determines whether the symposium succeeds in presenting well-grounded views on the subject and in stimulating student thinking.
A cosmetology class could benefit form symposium on state examination and licensing procedures with a state examiner and an experience cosmetologist as participants. An automobile dealership service manager, a company representative, and an experienced mechanic could speak on three aspects of handling customer complaints. An architect, a contractor, and a building inspector could explore the various aspects of building standards before an audience of architectural drafting students. The teacher has the problem not only of being the class refine the problem, but also of getting the speakers’ consent to prepare and appear.
Each speaker’s time B23-E205-LAP2C -16- is valuable. In order to gain maximum benefit. from the symposium. It would be helpful if all interested classes could be brought together at the same time for the symposium. Students can, of course, assist in all phases of the planning. They can help in locating suitable speaker’s formally inviting them to participate, providing transportation or greeting them at the school, and thanking them at the close of the meeting. Ultimately, however, it is the teacher’s responsibility to be sure that all of these arrangements have been handled satisfactorily.
The symposium if not difficult to conduct. the topic is announced briefly and stated clearly, the speakers are introduced and their special backgrounds noted, and the first speaker is called upon to begin he/her presentation. The chairman can make a short transitional statement as the second speaker has been given a specified time for his/her presentation and his held responsible for presenting a particular aspect of the problem, the chairman does not direct the discussion or interject his/her own ideas.
At the end of the formal speeches, the chairman may direct audiences questions toward specific speakers for responses. A following class period might be used for group discussion of what the class has learned from the symposium. This would also he the correct time for the teacher to present his/her own reactions and conclusions. As in any discussions technique, the teacher should help the class evaluate the experience they have just had, and suggest to the group how they can improve on the experience in future situations of this kind. B23-E205-LAP2C -17SELF-TEST 1.
In which aspects of an industrial education program might discussion techniques prove to be valuable and effective learning experiences, and in which aspects might they prove to be inefficient or ineffective? 2. If your class decided that it would be good to explore the topic, “Field trips that would help us understand working conditions in our area,” which of the three discussion techniques would you plan to use? Explain your choice. 3. Give a specific example of a topic in industrial education, (choose your own area) in which the symposium technique would be most effective. Explain you reasoning. . Describe your responsibilities as a teach in the planning and preparation stage of a total group discussion. 5. As the teacher-leader, how would you handle a situation in a group discussion in which it becomes apparent that students are voicing strong opinions without any real basis of information or knowledge of the subject? 6. How can the teacher assist the class in taking a vague idea for a discussion topic and sharpening its focus? 7. After the discussion period has closed, what can the teacher do to help the class gain, to the maximum extent, from the learning experience they have just had? . Explain the bases on which members of the class might be chosen to participate as panelists in a panel discussion? B23-E205-LAP2C -18- Feedbac k Compare your written responses on the Self-Check with the Model Answers given below. Your responses need not exactly duplicate the model responses; however, you should have covered the same major points. MODEL ANSWERS 1. Discussion techniques are most valuable and suitable for those aspects of the vocational program in which there are problems to be solved or issues to be considered which can be viewed several different ways.
Unresolved questions of values, ethics or human relations, or other aspects of the vocational field which are somewhat controversial are good topics for discussion. Technical matters may be topics for discussion if there are legitimate differences of opinion or if there are different technical solutions to be explored. Discussions are valuable tools for decision-making if the class is involved in the outcome is relevant to their interests. 2. This is a topic that calls for problem-solving and decision-making. Therefore, a total group discussion would best serve the purpose.
It is not a broad issue or a controversial social question that would lend itself to a panel or symposium. Because everyone in the class is affected by the outcome, all should have an opportunity to participate in the discussion. The whole group can generate ideas, and the teacher can help the class reach a decision by clarifying the problem involved and asking probing questions about the opinions expressed. 3. While your response will be unique to your service area, your choice and the reasoning behind it should be based on the following: • The students’ understanding of the topic will benefited by hearing carefully presented expert opinion. The topic is some what controversial and opinion. • The class will be stimulated by the give and take of the speakers. • Expert knowledge of this topic is more readily available in the form of good speakers than from the usual class information sources. • A symposium will add real variety to the routine of the program. 4. The teacher should guide the selection of the topic, then help the group to refine and limit the topic. It may be necessary to train or orient students to the discussion technique.
The students will have to be encouraged or assigned to do reading or other preparation, and the teacher also will need to be sure his/her knowledge of the topic is refreshed and brought up to date. The teacher should prepare leading questions on various phases of the topic and should arrange for physical facilities that will encourage discussion. B23-E205-LAP2C -19- 5. Since opinion without a basis in fact and information produces a discussion without content, the discussion without content, the discussion should not be allowed to proceed.
The teacher may be tempted to furnish the students with information on the spot, but this should be resisted because it destroys the flow of discussion. It also removes the information-gathering responsibility from the students. Probably, the best course is to get the class to realize they need more information and to agree to resume the discussion when they have had the opportunity to strengthen their knowledge of the topic. 6. The teacher can help the class expensed their personal needs and interests as they relate to the topic and can point out aspects of the topic that may be relevant to them.
As the topics forming, the teacher can ask the class questions about it. For example: Is it important? Does it affect students in the class? Will a discussion help them clarify their thinking? What resources are available to help the prepare to discuss it intelligently? 7. In addition to summarizing the conclusions that can be drawn from the discussion, the teacher may be able to contribute his/her own thoughts, opinions, and conclusions based on his/her experience and expertise.
To enable the class to learn to function well in a similar situation, the teacher can evaluate the performance of the group as a whole during the discussion, commend special aspects or individual contributions, and note ways in which discussions of this type can be improved. 8. Just about everyone in the class should be considered a candidate for the panel for various and different reasons. Some students might be valuable because of their fluency and poise. Some might contribute because they always make a thorough preparation or because they have special knowledge or experience.
Some students may need to be given a chance to develop confidence in front of an audience and some might benefit from the strong peer demands put on the them in this situation. In no case should a student be placed on a panel if it will expose him/her to public failure, ridicule, or unbearable stress. LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE: Your completed Self-Check should have covered the same major points as the model responses. If you missed some points or have questions about any additional points you made, review the material in the information sheet, Group Discussion, Panel Discussions, and Symposiums, Pg. or check with your resource person if necessary. B23-E205-LAP2C -20- LESSON PRESENTATION CHECKLIST Name:_______________ Directions: Place an X in the NO, PARTIAL, or FULL box to indicate that each of the following performance components was not accomplished, partially accomplished, or fully Date:________________ accomplished. If, because of special circumstances, a performance component was not applicable, or impossible to execute, place an X in the N/A box. Resource Person:____________ LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE N/A No Partial Full In the planning for the group discussion, the leader: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ssisted the group in determining a topic of concern and interest to the group. guided the group in choosing a topic related to specific instructional objectives. encouraged the group to do independent study on the topic before the discussion. prepared leading questions to be asked during the discussion. o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o prepared the physical setting for the discussion so that: a. all could readily see and hear b. an informal and comfortable environment was provided During the discussion period, the leader: 6. 7. 8. 9. introduced the topic xplained the purpose of the discussion. attempted to maintain a balanced participation among the group members attempted to maintain a balanced participation among the group members 10. refrained from taking a position or monopolizing the discussion B23-E205-LAP2C -2111. summarized the discussion periodically when needed At the close of the discussion, the leader: 12. brought the discussion to a conclusion. 13. suggested courses of action or ways of using the insights gained from the discussion. 14. evaluated the discussion with the group in terms of the group’s performance during the learning experience. o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE: All items must receive FULL or N/A responses. If any item receives a NO or PARTIAL response, the teacher and resource person should meet to determine what additional activities the teacher needs to complete in order to reach competency in the weak area(s). B23-E205-LAP2C -22MICRO-LESSON – DISCUSSION Topic: Introduction: 1. Objective stated 2. Motivational Techniques Used (A. V. ), Articles, etc. 3. Rules of Discussion Stated 4. Seating Arrangement Appropriate 5. Seating/Secretary TEACHER Commenting Questioning – Prompting Probing – clarifying – Agree/Disagree – Reinforcing Ans. – Use Student Names – Interrupt. Stud. – Own Feelings/Values – Encourage. Timid STUDENTS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Name: 1. ….. 2. …. 1. ….. 2. …. 1. ….. 2. …. 1. ….. 2. …. 1. ….. 2. …. 3. …. 4. …. 3. …. 4. …. 3. …. 4. …. 3. …. 4. …. 3. …. 4. …. Tot. Resp. Total Time No. of Secs. Speaking Summary/Conclusion Assignment Next Lesson Balanced Participation: Teach % …. Stud % …. 1. STUDENT’S OWN EVALUATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 1. ….. 2. …. 3. …. 4. …. Yes …. No …. Yes …. No …. ….. 2. …. 3. …. 4. …. Did I have a legitimate objective?
Were the objectives suitable for the discussion technique? Did I get good participation? Did I encourage participation or did I tend to cut people off? B23-E205-LAP2C -235. 6. 7. 8. Did I keep letting people dominate? Did I keep the group to the subject? Did I domineer or dominate? Did I solicit evocative questions and tentative solutions? B23-E205-LAP2C -24Activity For information on how to plan and deliver an illustrated talk, and on the different types of illustration which can help cla rify your ideas, read the following information sheet: PRESENTING AN ILLUSTRATED TALK Whether the teacher presents information ormally by standing in front of the class as a central dispenser of knowledge while students take notes, or informally by encouraging student interaction during the presentation, depends upon many factors. It depends on the teacher’s own style of instruction as well as on the type of information being taught, the size of the class, and the type of students in the class. During the past few years, formal presentations have gradually been replaced by other techniques so that the lecture method is instruction is not frequently used today in secondary/post-secondary schools. An exception is T. V. ectures. Some teachers feel that there is no such thing as a good lecture, because they think the method itself is outdated and inadequate. However, formal group instruction does have advantages which should not be overlooked when you plan your presentations. The teacher may have information that students do not have access to. This may occur because students lack experience or because the information has not been presented to them before on their level of understanding. The teacher can often tailor a presentation to students, bringing them in touch with material which they would otherwise miss. Several factors determine the form of the illustrated talk. If students are learning material which is entirely new to them, student interaction and participation during the presentation will probably be limited. Depending on the type of information being presented, it may be better to present the information first, and then to solicit student feed back, rather than encourage students to interact throughout the presentation. Another consideration is the number of students in a group. Soliciting student feedback from 40 or 50 students during a presentation can be a time-consuming, clumsy process.
In large groups, some method if individual feedback might be more efficient than group feedback. You should also consider which type of presentation would communicate best with your particular class. If students are good listeners and note-takers, an illustrated talk can be a very efficient way to present information. The teacher can gather information from many different sources and condense it into one organized talk. For students who cannot sit passively and listen, even to the best formal talk, informal talks are an excellent way to get them actively involved in learning.
B23-E205-LAP2C -25Planning the Presentation Many teachers find it helpful to refer to notes when they present information to students verbally. Even a brief outline will keep you on track. However, you may need more detailed reminders, depending on the type and quality of information you are presenting. After you have had some practice giving a presentation, you will be better able to judge how extensive your preparation should be. In any event your preparation should be thorough enough to ensure that you do not needed to concentrate on your notes during the presentation.
Observe your students will tell you whether you are being understood. Keep your eyes open for cues to help you decide whether you need to speak louder, repeat an explanation, ask a question, draw a diagram, etc. The following points are provided to help you plan your presentation. • Purpose. – Write a statement of purpose (an objective) covering the student performance which you want to teach through the presentation. For example, “Students will demonstrate knowledge of safety procedures in the laboratory,” or “Students will distinguish different types of nails. ” Key points. – Make a note of the key points you want to cover.
Order them in a logical sequence so that your students will have sufficient background to understand each new point as you present it. Plan you talk around your students, not around your material. Let their needs and interest determine what you cover, and don’t present more material than they can understand. A 20minute lecture on the assimilation of protein, which is appropriate for a group of community college students in health occupation, may not be appropriate for a group of freshmen students in high school home economics. Introduction. – The purpose of your presentation should be made clear in an introduction.
Tell students what they will learn and how it will affect them. An introduction should orient students to the lesson, and prepare them to receive the information you are going to present. Summary. – Presenting a good summary is an important part of your lesson. If you have given a long or difficult lesson, you made need to recap points as you progress from one point to the next. At the conclusion of the lesson, be sure to enforce key points by repeating them briefly in the order in which thy were presented. You may choose to use some other method of summarizing depending upon the ype of lesson your are presenting or the needs of your students. Evaluation. – Student feedback is the basis for evaluating your presentation, and you should plan a head of time how you will get feedback. After a formal illustrated talk has been given, you might ask for questions or comments. You may want to give a test or an assignment to see how well you have communicated. Because an informal talk is more spontaneous. Depending on student reaction, you might use a discussion, a role-playing situation, questions, or other types of activities to evaluate students’ understanding. • • • B23-E205-LAP2C -26- Delivering the Presentation Regardless of whether you are presenting information in a formal or an informal style, you should be familiar enough with your material that you can watch your students while you talk. A teacher who stands in front of the class staring at notes or concentrating on an explanation may not notice that students are yawning or talking. In particular, your presentation should be planned carefully so that you can vary it spontaneously, depending on reactions from your students.
If you find yourself losing the attention of your students, for instance, try changing the pace with a related story or a visual illustration. If students don’t seem to be understanding your point, be ready to simplify your meaning, shorten the talk, or even to substitute another activity in its place. An observant teacher will know how long a presentation should be and will tailor it to the students’ level of understanding. Frequently, teachers fell that a formal talk must be delivered in very formal language. Nothing could be further form the truth. Talks should be conversational in language and tone.
Always be yourself—natural and relaxed—whether you are giving a formal presentation or an informal one. Know your students, and talk to them on their own level, not above it. Remember, too, that your manner of delivery—the way you inflect your voice, emphasize words, gesture—conveys meaning, just as your words do. If you appear bored, chances are that your students will be bored. If you are excited and interested, your students probably will be motivated to listen to you. It is often thought that the teacher should stand in one position at the front of the classroom when making a presentation.
Actually, teachers should vary their pace and tone, when giving a presentation. A teacher who stands motionless before a group of students may soon lose the attention of students. They may turn their attention to other objects, such as windows, walls, reading material, etc. Do you have a pet phrase or gesture? Many people do have without realizing it. Any characteristic, even an inconspicuous one, can become monotonous and distraction if it is overdone. Habits such as stroking the hair, adjusting a watch, playing with a pencil or a piece of chalk can be annoying to students.
Words such as “ah” inserted between words, can become very annoying or distraction to others if you use them consta ntly. Since these types of mannerisms are usually unconscious, you will notice them only if you really think about what you are doing, or if you have the opportunity to see yourself on a videotape. Humor can be a definite boon to any presentation if it is spontaneous and related to an important point. A teacher is not a comedian, however, and should not attempt to win the class over with canned jokes. Students can usually see through B23-E205-LAP2C -27- his type of humor, and often it falls flat. In particular, don’t tell the same story regularly simply because it’s one of your favorites. B23-E205-LAP2C -28- A summary of the important points should remember when presenting information verbally follows. • Speak clearly and loudly enough so that every student can hear you. • Don’t speak too rapidly or too slowly—avoid unnecessary pause. • Don’t read from notes. Look at your students as you talk. Watch their expressions and movements to determine whether you are being listened to and understood. • Be enthusiastic. Don’t use a monotonous tone. Use gestures for emphasis, but avoid annoying or distracting mannerisms. • Be conversational and natural. Using Illustrations Both verbal and visual illustrations can help clarify concepts. Listening and viewing are more effective when used together, so you will wan to plan to use both verbal and visual illustrations in giving a presentation. Visual aids need not be elaborate. Often a simple diagram drawn on the chalkboard or a chart projected onto a wall will complement a lesson equally as well as a feature film. Whatever type of visual aid you use, the important thin is to plan for it ahead of time.
Know when you are going to use it and have it on hand so that you can go smoothly from an explanation to a visual aid without breaking the flow of the presentation. Remember that every student should be able to see the visual aid and that you should be looking at your students—not at the visual aid—during the presentation. Don’t stand in front of a diagram and talk to it while your students struggle to see through you. 2 Verbal illustrations—analogies, frames of reference, anecdotes, examples—help to convey meaning just as pictures, graphs, diagrams or filmstrips do.
In giving a presentation, you will need to know how to use verbal illustrations to hold the interest of your students and to make your meaning clear to them. Analogies An analogy is a comparison of one thing to another which emphasizes the similarities between them. In general, the know is compared to the unknown sot that a student can apply his/her previous knowledge to a new situation. For example, the flow of electrical current through a wire can be compared to the flow of water I a pip. A molecule in motion is analogous to a bouncing Ping -Pong ball. The rotation of the earth on its axis is analogous to a spinning top.
Don’t use an analogy unless the similarities being compared out-weigh the differences. Recognize the limits of an analogy—don’t give your students the impression that electrons flow through a wire because of gravitational attraction as is the case with water flowing through a vertical pipe. B23-E205-LAP2C -29Frames of Reference A frame of reference is the knowledge or set of attitudes which a person brings to a new experience. In learning a new concept, for example, the student must use hie/her knowledge as a reference and build upon it to master new knowledge.
Buy presenting information in terms of a learner’s previous experiences, a teacher can help students grasp new ideas quickly. The introduction to a talk is a logical place to use frames of reference. Another use of frames of reference is in teaching students to analyze situation from different points of view. For instance, a teacher who id giving a told on salesmanship might want to have students role-play a situation in which a dissatisfied customer returns a piece of merchandise to the salesperson who sold it.
Allowing students to see the situation from different frames of reference—the customer’s, the salesperson’s, the store manager’s—can help clarify the point that “the customer is always right. ” Or, a lecture on the importance of safety glasses might include a case study of a student who lost his/her eyesight through neglecting to follow the correct safety practice. Students could be encouraged to consider the consequences of the accident from different frames of reference—the student’s, the teacher’s, the school administrator’s, the parents’—to emphasize the importance of following the safety practice.
Frequently, frames of reference are established through group interaction in an informal learning experience. Discussions, for instance, are a very natural way to encourage students to analyze a topic from different viewpoints. A role-playing situation encourages students to act out their feelings, to analyze their own and other’s behavior, and to consider alternative types of behavior. A case study allows a student to analyze a problem and to consider his/her own solution to it in relation to other solutions. Analogies can also help to establish frames of reference.
If you draw an analogy between the flow of electricity and the flow of water—the resistance of the pipe to the water is analogous to the resistance of the wire to the electrical current, and water pressure is analogous to electromotive potential –you have established a frame of reference based on the student’s knowledge of how water flows through a pipe. B23-E205-LAP2C -30Anecdotes An anecdote is an amusing or interesting story which is designed to illustrate a point the speaker is trying to make. It may be true of fictional, long or short. Following is a typical anecdote: A young boy asked a wrinkled, tottering old man. How do you do it? What’s your secret for living such a long time? ” The old -timer replied, “Well, I drink a pint of whiskey a week; I smoke a pack of cigarettes every day; and I never go to bed before midnight. I know how to enjoy myself and I live each day for itself. That’s what keeps me young. ” After the young boy pondered the old-timer’s words a bit, he couldn’t resist asking a second q uestion, “How old are you anyway? ” “Thirty-five,” answered the old-timer proudly. This might be an appropriate illustration for a point about nutrition or rest.
Often an anecdote remains in our memory longer than the talk it was part of. If it makes a point, that point may remain clear in students’ minds long after they have forgotten the rest of the lesson. Anecdotes should be a natural part of a talk and suited to your particular students. Don’t force an anecdote into a talk where it really doesn’t belong just because it’s one of your favorites. Examples An example is a representative sample of a general principle, process, or idea. A Ford is an example of a car. A toaster is an example of a household appliance.
Using examples is a natural and effective way to illustrate a point. When you find yourself saying, “for example,” or “for instance,” you are using an example to illustrate a point. Make sure that your example is actually representative of the point you are trying to make. Be sure that you choose examples from your students’ frame of reference. In others words, be sure to use examples which they can readily grasp and apply to the concept you want to teach. In summary, when you are using any type of illustration to clarify a point, yo u should keep a few criteria in mind. • • • Does it relate directly to your point? Don’t use an illustration merely because it’s an attractive visual aid or idea. Make sure it contributes to the message you are trying to get across. Is it accurate? —Use factual, typical illustrations as much as possible. Avoid generalizing from a fictional or isolated case. Is it clear? —Try to use enough detail so that your listeners can follow you, but don’t bore or confuse them with irrelevant information. B23-E205-LAP2C -31- • • Is it the best way to present information? —Whether you are using verbal or visual illustrations, ask yourself if there is a better way to get your point across.
Is it appropriate to the audience? —Illustrations should be carefully planned for the ability level of learners. LECTURE SELF-TEST 1. What are the advantages and disadvantages of a formal method of presenting verbal information to students? 2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of an informal method of presenting verbal information to students? 3. If you were pla nning a presentation, what are some of the factors you would consider in determining whether to give a formal talk or an informal talk? 4. What are some specific things you would do to prepare a presentation? 5.
As a rule of thumb, it is suggested that the lecture be broken down into the following time limits: 20% for the introduction, 60% for the key points and 20% for the summary. Why should an introduction and summary be included in a lecture? 6. Student feedback is the basis for evaluating whether a lecture has been understood. What are some different ways of obtaining student feedback? 7. During a presentation, the teacher needs to be alert to students’ reactions. In an informal talk or lecture, students may contribute comments and questions throughout so that the teacher is constantly aware of how well he/she is communicating.
But, in a formal presentation, there is usually no direct verbal feedback from students until the presentation is finished. How can a teacher determine whether students are understanding a formal presentation? 8. Mr. Jones is an industrial ed. teacher who likes to sit at his desk while he lectures. He prides himself on being well prepared. He uses detailed notes and follows them very carefully. His students call him “Preacher Jones” because he has a tendency to dramatize his lectures and to shout occasionally to attract student’s attention.
Students like him, though, because he doesn’t seem to mind their doing their homework while he preaches. What do you think of Mr. Jones’ style of delivery? B23-E205-LAP2C -32- 9. Define the following types of verbal illustrations: analogy, frame of reference, anecdote, example. 10. Why are illustrations needed in a verbal presentation? 11. How can you decide whether a particular illustration is a good way to clarify a point? B23-E205-LAP2C -33- Feedbac k Compare your written responses on the Self-Check with the Model Answers given below.
Your responses need not exactly duplicate the model responses; however, you should have covered the same major points. MODEL ANSWERS 1. A formal presentation can be advantageous if the teacher is presenting information to students which is entirely new to them. This is particularly true if students would have little to contributes during the presentation. Formal presentations are also advantageous in la rge-group instruction where the number of students would prevent teacher-student interaction throughout the talk. If students listen well and take good otes, a formal talk is an efficient way to present information because the teacher can synthesize information from several sources and organize it into one talk. There are also disadvantages to using a formal presentation. It may be difficult to determine whether students are actually listening to and understanding the talk merely on the basis of their nonverbal reactions. A formal presentation, even a good one, may fall flat with a group of students who do not have good listening and note-taking skills. Another disadvantage is that formal presentations tend to lack spontaneity and liveliness. . Two important advantages of an informal method of presenting verbal information to students are (1) the teacher receives continuous student feedback during the presentation and can use this feedback spontaneously to direct the course of the presentation; and (2) students who have difficulty listening and note-taking passively can get actively involved in the presentation. The advantages of an informal presentation are partially offset by one important disadvantage: the larger the group, the more time-consuming it becomes to encourage student interaction throughout the presentation.
The teacher must act as a moderator to keep the talk on target. Otherwise, it can disintegrate into a bull session. 3. Following are some things you should consider when you plan a presentation: • • What type of students do I have? Are they good listeners? Can I tell whether they are understanding me just by watching their facial expressions or should I solicit feedback during the presentation? Does the subject of the presentation lend itself to student interaction? Do my students have enough background knowledge of the subject to contribute to the talk? B23-E205-LAP2C -34- • •
Is group feedback or individual feedback more appropriate to the size of the class? Would I personally be more comfortable with a formal presentation or an informal one? 4. Most teachers like to make notes to guide them through a presentation. The purpose of the talk should be written down briefly. Then, the key points should be listed in their correct order. If you need to illustrate any of these points, you should prepare visual aids ahead of time and have them on hand during the talk. Verbal illustrations should be thought out carefully in advance to be sure they are the best way to illustrate the point you want to make.
Make sure that you can cover each point in a reasonable amount of time for your particular group of students. Organize your talk around an introduction, key points and a summary. Then, plan and prepare the evaluation device to be used. For example, if you decide to lead a discussion, write down some key questions ahead of time. 5. The purpose of an introduction is to get students ready to listen. It should inform them of what they will learn and why it is important. The summary should briefly recap the main points of the lesson to reinforce and clarify them. The summary is also a bridge from the lesson to the evaluation activity. . Evaluation of students’ knowledge may be obtained by giving a test or assignment, soliciting questions and reactions from students or asking them questions, leading a discussion, using a role -playing or case-study activity, etc. 7. During a formal presentation, the teacher should keep an eye on the class at all times and watch for cues such as yawning, whispering, puzzled expressions, daydreaming, etc. , to alert him/her to students’ reactions. 8. Mr. Jones’ lectures should be conversational in tone, not dramatic exercises. His habit of stationing himself at his desk is also a poor one.
Moving around the classroom would help hold students’ attention. Apparently Mr. Jones pays more attention to his notes than he should since he doesn’t notice that students are doing their homework while he lectures. His habit of shouting to attract attention and his tendency to dramatize can become distracting a nd monotonous, just as any mannerism can if it is used routinely. B23-E205-LAP2C -35- 9. An analogy is a comparison of know object, idea or process, to an unknown object, idea, or process, in which essential characteristics of both things being compared are basically similar in nature.
A frame of reference is the background knowledge which a person brings to a new experience; i. e. , it is “where a person is coming from. ” An anecdote is a story which is used to illustrate a point. An example is a representative sample of a general principle, process, or idea. 10. The purpose of both verbal and visual illustrations is to clarify meaning. A wellchosen illustration can convert a vague generality into a clear concept. Illustrations are like handles which allow students to grasp larger ideas, to remember them, to use them. 11.
The criteria for deciding whether a particular illustration is a good one are as follows: • • • • • Does it relate directly to the point? Is it accurate? Is it clear? Is it the best way to present information? Is it appropriate to the audience? LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE: Your completed Self-Check should have covered the same major points as the model responses. If you missed points or have questions about any additional points you made, review the material in the information sheet, Presenting an Illustrated Talk, Pg. 3, or check with your resource person if necessary. B23-E205-LAP2C 36- Activity The following Case Script describes how Mr. Ahmed, a vocational teacher, gave an illustrated talk on the metric s system to a group of students. With criteria for presenting an effective illustrated talk in mind, read the situation described. CASE SCRIPT Mr. Ahmed stands up to begin his talk and glances at his class of ten students. Each student has a pad of paper and a pen appears ready to begin taking notes. He takes his notes out of his briefcase, then drops them back in. He is so familiar with the topic to be presented that he feels he doesn’t need notes. Mr.
Ahmed: At present, 85% of the world’s population live in countries that are using the metric system. It’s not going to be too long before we Americans are going to be using the metric system as well. How will the metric system affect our daily lives? Why should we bother to change from our present system to an entirely new system? These are two questions I would like to discuss today. Now, for the purposes of our discussion, let me call the process of changeover from our system—which is called the English system—to the metric system, “Metrication. ” Mr. Ahmed writes the word “Metrication” on the chalkboard.
The effects this changeover will have on our daily living is the topic of our discussion today. There are two very important types of changeover effects. We shall call them short-term effects and long -term effects. Mr. Ahmed writes the two words on the chalkboard. Short-term effects are those effects that are felt during the transition process. Long-term effects are felt over a longer period of time and show us the reason why we are changing from one system to another. First of all, changing from one system to another is always a very difficult process. Changing from one pattern of behavior to another is also very difficult.
How many of you have taken driver training? Do you all remember the problems you experienced when you switched from driving in the simulator to driving in a real car? B23-E205-LAP2C -37- Mr. Ahmed notices that two students appear to be silently laughing. The transition was a little bit hard to take. The same thing happens when we try to change from feet to meters and from quarts to liters. It’s going to be a very difficult thing for us to adjust to. For example, we’re accustomed to buying our milk in quarts, and we know how much milk is in a quart, how many people it will serve, how many quarts we need.
But if we were to suddenly start buying our milk in liters, we wouldn’t know how many liters would be needed to serve a family. Also, for example, suppose we see a briefcase on sale, and it says, “This briefcase weighs 1 kilogram empty. ” Does this mean that this a nice, light briefcase, or a heavy briefcase? How could we tell until we’ve learned to metric system? And learning that systems going to be very difficult. Now, these aren’t the only troubles we’re going to have when adjusting to the new metric system. We’re also going to have to face certain economic problems.
Presently, we buy nuts, bolts, and tools according to their measurement in fractions of feet and inches. For example, we have a ? ” nut. Now, if we change to the metric system, that ? ” nut will become a 12. 7 millimeter nut. How are we going to remember such odd numbers? That transition will be difficult for us. However, manufacturers will help us a little bit in this direction. During the transition process, they will indicate both the English and the metric system measurements of goods. Some of you may have already experienced this when buying dress patterns.
You’ll find both the metric and the English system written on the back of the pattern. Mr. Ahmed notices a girl is nodding her head at that remark. At this point, I’ll bet you are asking yourselves why we should switch systems. In the long run, how are thing going to be better off in the metric system than in our English system? Why should we have to inconvenience ourselves to learn a new system? Well, let me see if I can answer some of those questions. We are familiar with certain basic measurements in the English system. For instance, we know that there are three feet in a yard, 5,280 feet in a mile, and 43,560 square feet in an acre.
We ha ve to remember all these numbers and all these units and conversion factors. That’s a lot to remember since there is no apparent logical pattern to these measurements. In the metric system, there is a pattern. Let me give you an example of the difficulty of a system where you’ve got all these different numbers and measurement patterns to memorize. Now, our currency consists of 1-dollar bill, 5 -dollar bills, 10-dollar bills, etc. Most of our units of currency are in multiples of 5 and 10. Now, if you were to go to Kenya, and try to transfer form our currency system to theirs, you would experience many difficulties. B23-E205-LAP2C 38- In Kenya, a pound sterling is 240 pennies make up a shilling. How are you going to remember all these things? Instead of units of 10’s, you’ve got to worry about units of 12. 12, and 240. How do you remember these things? how do you keep all those units straight in you head? In the metric system, everything is in multiples of 10 or in tenths—100, 1000, 10,000, and so on. Everything is in terms of ten so it makes it easier to remember the conversion from one system of units to another. But more than that, the names of units to another. But more than that, the names of the metric units help you remember the correct conversion.
A kilogram, for example, is 1,000 grams. A millimeter is 1/1000th of a meter. A Kilometer is 1,000 meters. Even the names themselves suggest what the conversion factor ought to be. Of course, you have to memorize the prefixes that tell us what the relationship is, but that’s easy. The metric system has an additional advantage. It measures the conversions in units of 10 so it fits in perfectly with our decimal system. For example, I can convert 100 millimeters to centimeters very easily: 100 millimeters equal 10 centimeters; milli means 1/1000, centi means 1/100; centimeter is 10 times as big as a millimeter.
So all I have to do to make this change is simply change the decimal point. However, if you want to change some measurement from feet to yards, or from yards to miles, you’ve got a much more difficult conversion factor to go through. It’s not as simple as just moving the decimal point. Mr. Ahmed notices with satisfaction that he still has his students’ attention and that their notepads are filled wi th notes. In addition, there are certain economic advantages that you will experience once we’ve changed to the metric system. As I pointed out before, 85% of the world’s population already use the metric system.
They produce goods and services which we import to our country. We produce goods and services which we export to their country. The business of exporting and importing will become a simpler process when we can work under the same system. For example, when I buy an American tool, I’ll be able to use it to fix my Volkswagen or Toyota because everything will be measured in the same units. Screw, bolts, and various other parts will all be standardized and, therefore, interchangeable. This standardization will help to improve communication between countries, especially in the business world.
Once we have established these better relationships, then, hopefully, businesses in all countries will improve the quality of their work in order to maintain competition. We all benefit because we get higher quality products. So that is, basically, the long -range effect of changing to the metric system. B23-E205-LAP2C -39- Tomorrow we’ll investigate the origin of the metric system. Later this week, we’ll investigate why a ? ” bolt made yesterday still can fit a ? : nut made today, and we’ll analyze how we can standardize the units of measurement. Well that’s about it for today. Are there any question’s? Mr. Ahmed pauses momentarily.
None? Okay. See you all tomorrow. B23-E205-LAP2C -40- Below is a Critique Form with questions to guide you in p reparing a written critique of Mr. Ahmed’s competency in presenting an illustrated talk. Read each question, and indicate by circling the Yes or No, whether or not Mr. Ahmed accomplished each item. Briefly explain your response. ON SEPARATE PAGE 1. 2. 3. Did the teacher state the purpose of the lecture in the introduction? Did the introduction orient students to the lesson? Was the teacher’s style of presentation, i. e. , formal, suited to size of the group and the nature of the material being presented?
Did the teacher select information to present which was suited to students’ level of understanding? Did the teacher observe during the presentation to see whether they were listening to and understanding the talk? Y Y Y N N N 4. 5. 6. Y Y N N In the introduction, the teacher said he would discuss two things: how the metric system will affect our lives, and why we should change to this system of measurement in buying things and making things and that this transition would be difficult. The second point he made was that we should change to metric system because in the long run it is easier to use and it will improve our standard of living.
Did he summarize these two points in the conclusion of the talk? Y Did the teacher use student feedback to evaluate the talk? During the introduction, the teacher used the chalkboard twice. In the first instance, he wrote the work “metrication” and in the second, he wrote the two words, “short-term” and “long-term”. From what yo u know about visual illustrations, is this use of the chalkboard an effective way to illustrate the introduction? The first key point which the teacher makes is that “Changing from one system to another is always a very different thing. To illustrate this point, the teacher draws the analogy that changing from the English system to the metric system of measurement is like changing from a driving simulator to a real car because both adjustments are very difficult. Is this a good analogy? Y N N 7. 8. Y N 9. Y N 10. The teacher uses the following example to illustrate the difficulty of converting from the English system to the metric system: “Suppose we see a briefcase on sale and it says, “This briefcase weighs 1 kilogram empty. ” Does this mean that this is a nice light case or a heavy briefcase? Is this example suited to a high school audience? B23-E205-LAP2C Y N -41- 11. The teacher makes the point that using the metric system will simplify our calculations because in the metric system everything is in multiples of ten. To illustrate this point, the teacher establishes a frame of reference on the basis of the ease with which we can calculate how much money we have when we have an assortment of currency, since our money is in multiples of five and ten. Does this frame of reference help clarify the point that calculations will be simpler in the metric system? Y N B23-E205-LAP2C -42- Feedbac k
Compare your completed written critique of the Case Script with the Model Critique given below. Your circled responses should exactly duplicate the model responses. Your written comments need not exactly duplicate the model comments; however, you should have covered the same major points. MODEL CRITIQUE 1. YES. The teacher described two purposes of the lecture: (1) to know how the metric system will affect our daily lives, and (2) to know why we should change from the English to the metric system. 2. NO. The teacher did not relate the present lesson to previous lessons or tie it to other relevant student experiences. 3. NO.
Since the group was quite small, the teacher could easily have obtained student feedback during the talk. The illustrations he used could have been drawn from individual students’ experiences if he had solicited feedback throughout the talk instead of waiting until the end. The question as to the short-range effects of using the metric system in particular lends itself to student involvement. If students were given a case study or a problem to solve which required them to use the metric system instead of the English system, they could easily discover and discuss the difficulties they encountered in using the metric system. 4. YES.
The metric system can be taught to elementary children as well as high school students. However, the teacher did attempt to make the point that a free exchange of goods and services because of competition for the market, and that the result is a higher standard of living for all. This concept might be a little difficult for high school students to understand. 5. YES. The teacher did not read from his notes or concentrate on them while he talked to students. He observed the class as he spoke. 6. NO. There is really no summary. The teacher breaks off abruptly from the second main point and announces what the next week’s lessons will cover. . NO. The teacher asked if there were any questions and when the students did not volunteer any, he closed the lesson. The teacher should be prepared to ask questions himself if students do not volunteer. The fact that they were taking notes during the talk does not indicate that they understood what was in their notes. B23-E205-LAP2C -43- 8. NO. The word “metrication” is used only once during the entire lecture—in the introduction. Since the teacher never refers to it again, it is likely that the word itself does not enhance or clarify the meaning of the lesson.
Writing it on the chalkboard teaches students nothing further about the purpose of the lecture than has been already stated. Similarly, writing the words “short-term” and “long-term” does not answer the question. “What is a short-term effect or a long-term effect of converting to the metric system? : “or the question, “How short is a short-term effect and how long is a long -term effect? ” As an alternative method of illustration, the teacher might have shown students a world map which was color-coded to indicate which countries use the English, and which use the metric system of measurement.
This sort of visual illustration could add depth to the opening statement, “At present, 85% of the world’s population live in countries that use the metric system. ” 9. NO. Even if we assume that all students are familiar with the process of changing from a familiar with the process of changing from a driving simulator to a real car, so that this part o f the comparison is “known,” and even if we assume that changing from a driving simulator to a real car is in fact very difficult, the two processes are still not analogous. The function of a driving simulator is to make it easier to drive a car.
The transition may be difficult, but should not be difficult. On the other hand, learning how to use the English system of measurement does not facilitate learning how to use the metric system—in fact, it complicates the process. The essential characteristics o f the two processes being compared are not actually similar. 10. NO. Most high school students would not be concerned with the weight of a briefcase since few would need to buy one, and they might have trouble knowing a “light” one from a “heavy” one even if the measurement were in pounds.
The teacher could have selected an example of more interest or relevance to this particular group of students. He might have chosen the size of an automobile engine or the distance covered by a home run to arouse students’ curiosity. 11. YES. The teacher has built on students’ previous knowledge (i. e. , their understanding of the U. S. currency system and the ease with which it can be used) to give them an idea of how easy it would be to calculate distances, weights, and measures if our measurement system were similar to our currency system (ie. , in simple multiples of ten). B23-E205-LAP2C -44-
LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE: Your circled responses should have exactly duplicated the model comments. If you missed some points or have questions about any additional points you made, review the material in the information sheet, presenting an illustrated Talk, Pg. 3 or check with your resource person if necessary. B23-E205-LAP2C -45CHECK-OFF LIST FOR TEACHING TECHNIQUES A. THE LESSON PLAN With regard to your lesson p lan: 1. Does the title of the lesson indicate as accurately as possible the exact content of the lesson? Do the objectives state what the outcome of the instruction is to be in terms of student skill and understanding?
Are specific references and training aids listed? Does the introduction explain the relation of the lesson to previous lessons? Does the introduction explain in a general way what is to be covered in the lesson and how? Does the introduction tell the student how he/she will use the material of skills acquired from the lesson? Is there a timetable showing approximately how much time should be spent on each part of the lesson? Is the amount of time spent of various parts of the lesson consistent with the importance of those parts? Are there sufficient questions for checking student understanding of key points of the lesson?
Do YOU know the answers to the questions? Do questions make students apply and interpret information? 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Is the outline of subject matter and the steps of procedure complete and definite enough so that no essential materials can be omitted? 11. Are training aids scheduled at the right time for maximum effectiveness? When a film is used, does the lesson plan provide for and introduction to the film to show students what to look for in the film? Does it also provide for follow-up? 12. Are key points of the lesson made to stand out in the plan? (Underlining, capitalizing, colour, etc. ) 13.
Does the lesson plan provide for maximum student participation and drill without sacrificing other important phases of the lesson? B23-E205-LAP2C -46- 14. Is there provision for repetition and emphasis of important points? B. DURING THE INTRODUCTION TO THE LESSON, DID YOU: 1. Test the group’s knowledge with well-planned questions? 2. Tell what information and what degree of skill were to be learned in the lesson? 3. Emphasize the need for knowing the information and skills to be learned? 4. Illustrate (from you own past experience or that of others) how content of lesson will be-used in a practical situation? . Tell the students how the class was to be conducted? 6. Try to develop student interest in the subject by illustration, personal stories, and information on related new developments? C. IN TEACHING PRINCIPLES, DID YOU: 1. Give sufficient information to properly introduce the principle? 2. Build on students previous knowledge? 3. Bring out each idea in logical sequence? 4. Clearly explain relationship of one idea to the next where possible? D. IN TEACHING AN OPERATION BY DEMONSTRATION, DID YOU: 1. Do and tell? 2. Then do while a student told? 3. And then did selected students do and tell? 4.
And finally did all students do under your supervision? E. ON KEY POINTS OF THE LESSON, DID YOU: 1. Go over main points more than once for emphasis? 2. Drill on those points that must be known? B23-E205-LAP2C -47- 3. Ask challenging questions so that students had to think through on basic principles? 4. Illustrate or emphasize key points with training aids? 5. Explain new terms? Write them out on chalkboard/overhead projector? 6. Use personal experiences or stories where appropriate to emphasize points? 7. See that note -taking was significant, was not just “busy work” and did not interfere with presentation? . Show students how to record notes on main points of lesson? (It is often more effective to give students a mimeographed sheet of basic notes to which then can add notes and comments). F. WHEN QUESTIONING, DID YOU: 1. Where appropriate, first direct the question to the class as a whole— pause and then call on one student to answer? 2. Provide for individual responses to most questions? 3. Evaluate answers to emphasize correct responses? 4. Ask clear, brief, and challenging questions? 5. Contact as many students as possible? 6. Encourage accurate, complete answers? 7.
Call on students by name “at random” rather than follow an alphabetical list or seating arrangement? 8. Use questions all through the lesson? 9. Frame question extemporaneously to clarify dubious points or to follow-up when questions are partially answered? (Probe) 10. Use the question to correct errors as well as to detect them? B23-E205-LAP2C -48G. IN PROVIDEING FOR LEARNING BY DOING, DID YOU: 1. Ask questions at proper checking or measuring levels? 2. Encourage students to take notes on key points in this lesson? 3. Provide problems to solve and thoroughly check for errors? . Introduce problems that made use of facts taught in lesson and which made the students think in order to apply those facts? 5. Stay with the student after the correction was made to make sure that the right way is put into practice? 6. Give students a definite level of skill to work toward? 7. Secure maximum student participation and drill without sacrificing other important phases of the lesson? 8. Let students practice under your supervision and with suggestions, without “taking over” yourself when difficulty was encountered? H. DURING THE SUMMARY TO THE LESSON, DID YOU: 1.
Repeat important points of lesson? 2. Question students on what had been seen in films and film strips? 3. Write unfamiliar words on chalkboard if there is doubt about spelling or meaning? 4. List important steps of procedure on board or use charts, handouts, etc.? 5. Make appropriate use of competition between individuals or groups as a means of keeping up student interest during practice or problem solving? I. WITH REGARD TO TRAINING AIDS, DID YOU: 1. Have material arranged for smooth, easy presentation? 2. Keep extraneous material out of sight during class? 3.
Evaluate the aid to make sure it was worth the time spent using it? 4. Make sure mechanical devices operate properly? B23-E205-LAP2C -49- 5. Introduce the aid adequately? 6. Follow the use of the aid with summary and questions? 7. Use aids to proper advantage all through the lesson? J. WHILE TEACHING, DID YOU: 1. Use colorful and yet accurate language? 2. Stay on your feet or in a position to demand attention? 3. Use meaningful gestures? 4. Know your subject so that yo u were sure of yourself? 5. Stimulate discussion but remain in control at all times? 6. Employ humour when it would add to the lesson? 7.
Change the pace of speaking where it would make the lesson more interesting? 8. Keep interested in the subject and in the job of teaching? K. WITH REGARD TO HUMAN RELATIONS, DID YOU: 1. Try to understand the reason for each student’s behavior? 2. Avoid sarcasm and ridicule? 3. Refrain from being “one of the boys/girls” (fratenising)? 4. Give credit for good work? (Verbal & non-verbal) 5. Attempt to judge students on what they are doing today rather than on their past record? 6. Try to be a good sport but maintain sufficient reserve? 7. Avoid unfavorable references to personal beliefs that may be sacred to others? . Use informal methods yet hold the respect of the class? B23-E205-LAP2C -50L. IF DISCIPLINARY ACTION WAS NECESSARY, DID YOU: 1. Reprimand with justice and tact after determining that caused of student’s behavior? 2. Adjust any disciplinary action on the basis of what will produce the desired results with individuals? 3. Consider student’s mental physical condition at the time of the reprimand? 4. Stay calm and avoid all argument? 5. Speak with objectivity? 6. Have and use facts? M. WITH REGARD TO PARTICIPATION, DID ALL STUDENTS: 1. Participate in directed discussion? 2.
Contribute ideas? 3. Appear interested? 4. Ask question that indicated thought on the lesson? 5. Answer questions in full and with apparent understanding? 6. Use tools and/or equipment while learning? (Not just handouts) 7. Voluntarily have their work checked the instructor? 8. Appear anxious to develop skills? 9. Show appreciation for equipment properly used? N. CONSIDERING VOICE AND APPEARANCE, DID YOU: 1. Speak loud enough without shouting? 2. Keep tone of voice friendly? 3. Speak with enthusiasm? 4. Speak clearly and with careful selection of words? B23-E205-LAP2C -51- . 6. 7. 8. 9. Use your voice to give emphasis (such as pausing before and after important points)? Use the correct pronunciation of words? Dress properly for the job? Present a neat appearance? Avoid mannerisms, such as playing with belt buckle, –mannerisms that were without force and meaning? 10. Control temper at all times? 11. Face to talk to the class? (Eye contact throughout room) 12. Show enthusiasm? O. WITH REGARD TO MANAGEMENT, DID YOU: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Do all you could to provide proper temperature and ventilation? Make the best use of available light?
Keep training spaces clean and orderly without limiting worthwhile activity? Make sure that all students could see and hear? Move students when this would provide a better learning situation? Help students to be as comfortable as facilities permit? Keep standing students from gradually working forwarding until some could not see or hear? Manage so that front seats were filled first and all seats filled from front to back? Arrange seats properly before the group reported for instruction? 10. Manage charts, models, and other training aids, so that they were available when needed and properly stored when not in use? 1. Tactfully discourage interruptions by other training or office personnel? 12. Provide for equipment to be ready and placed so that it would be used with minimum disturbance? B23-E205-LAP2C -52- MICRO-TEACHING ASSESSMENT FORM NAME: _________________ THE LEVEL OF THE TEACHER’S ACCOMPLISHEMENT WILL BE INDICATED BY A CHECK MARK IN THE APPROPRIATE BOX UNDER THE LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE HEADING. Lesson Topic ________________________ Teaching Method ______________ LEVEL OF PERFORMANCE 0 N O N E 1 P O O R 2 F A I R 3 G O O D 4 B O N U S 1. SET-INDUCTION (INTRODUCTION) THE STUDENTS WERE TOLD: a. b. . d. WHAT the students will be able to do after the lesson WHY the objectives are important to the student immediate and future need HOW the objectives relate to past classroom experience or to future experiences. HOW the objectives will be accomplished. WHAT will the teacher and students do today to meet the objectives o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o THE TEACHER USED: e. Motivational and/or attention getting devices. (story, anecdote, props, etc. ) f. Questions: (3) Correct order of questioning Student names Reinforcement techniques
B23-E205-LAP2C -53- 2. PRESENTATION A. Viewing Arrangement 1. All students could see and hear 2. Students positioned to prevent to prevent disturbance & undesirable contact with tools, materials, & equipment 3. B. Teacher at focal point of lesson Teacher Verbal Behavior o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1. Explanations clear & concise : examples, analogies, & anecdotes used 2. Sufficient content presented to satisfy objectives 3. Sequence logical & easy to follow 4. Pace and time appropriate 5.
Key Points and SAFTEY emphasized 6. Voice, volume & projection good 7. Spoke in a tone which was relaxed, & natural. (No monotone) conversational o o o o o 8. Vocabulary appropriate & English good ____________________________________ ____________________________________ ____________________________________ 9. Questions asked. No. of? a. Questioning order correct b. Use of students names c. Verbal feedback. Reinforcement d. Correct & incorrect answers attended e. Level of complexity suitable. K – E f. Divergent & convergent questioning o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o