1. Appadurai, A. (1990) Disjuncture and difference in the global cultural economy, Journal Theory, Culture Society 7: 295-310 (available at NTU ejournals) Appadurai discussed the various situations and differences in the development of global cultural economy. Some cultural problems of homogenization and heterogenization are concentrated. From the perspective of homogenization, the argument of Americanization and commoditization which both show great dynamics and differences dependent on different countries.
As the diversification of global cultural economy, Appadurai design an elementary framework of exploring the disjunctures to find out the term of dimensions in global culture including, technoscapes, ethnoscapes, mediascapes, finanscapes, and ideoscapes. That collection of main three dimensions of ethnoscapes, technoscapes and finanscapes is disconnected and unpredictable for their own constraints and incentives, while mediascapes and ideoscapes are built up on disjunctures.
The applications of varieties object of homogenization and applied by both local economies of political and cultural are embedded in globalization. It is regarded as national sovereignty heterogeneous dialogues, fundamentalism, free enterprise, etc. where a delicate and increasing role they are played. It is concluded that the main characters of today’s culture mainly concentrate on the interact effort of whether it is same or different embedded in the culture from one to another. Which claim the successful initiation ideas of universal and particular.
In this report, a view with criticism is conveyed that global cultural process have two sides where large quantities of products with altered exclusive contest of similarities and differences which are characterized by disconnections radically between different uncertain landscapes and flows, thus creating with these disjunctures. Changes will be resulted in with changes of the globalisation and development; further study will be given in the near future. 2. Sassen, S. (2008) Neither global nor national: novel assemblages of territory, authority and rights, Ethics & Global Politics, 1 (1-2), available: http://journals. sfu. ca/coaction/index. hp/egp/article/viewArticle/1814/1794#FN0001 The main argument of this essay mainly concentrates on the proliferation of normative orders in the state, once it is ruled and dominated to make a single framing with normativity. In this report, Sassen uses frameworks of interdependencies among the law and power, rights and obligations, allegiance and exits, wealth and poverty. Then main focuses of the argument regardless of majority original formations, extremely unsettling arrangements which are belong to common institution which constitute of systems within and beyond national-states to solving problems with justice and order.
The valence of particular purposes and utilities varied in the search from fairness to self interest. According to Sassan’s study to consider from the aspects of types of territoriality, Normative and political implications which indicate the unitary character of nation-state becoming disaggregated, sovereign authority become partial disaggregation. The latest idea indicates that processes and institutions in the globe are quite too young to apply in reality.
To sum up, the implications which are normative and political are moving toward differences and diversifications in developing nation-states. Further studies on research and theorization should be focusing on three distinct subjects. Concerns on specific degree of urgent assemblages which caused by single framing of nation-states will be analyzed legibility and nirmativity in extention. In the second place, concerns should be on assemblages’ power and complex level to present the character of the element with organisational complexity, inside dynamics, and national social thickness.
In the third place, subject will be focusing on the changing of single normative and alignments within nation-states for proliferation of various assemblages. 3. Tomlinson, J. (2007) Globalization and Cultural Analysis, in: Held, D. and McGrew, A. (eds) Globalization Theory, Cambridge: Polity Tomlinson (2007) implied that globalisation is not satisfied by people for the reason of overstates and smacks and tend to make universal and over-generalize. Proliferation will lead to oversimplifications and confusion in sphere of culture.
The particular theoretical influence indicates that cultural analysis results in the debate will bear on the discussions in both the side of political and economic spheres are conducted. According to John Urry (2003) argues the study of the global disrupts conventional debates and should not be treated as an additional added level to the remaining social analyses to be carried on. Globalization reveals the possibility of culture that is relatively independent from places instead of ideas dominant the culture defined geographically to be the most crucial influence.
To investigate the quality of dererritotialization, Tomlinson had implied the globalisation process demands analysis at level of both micro-social phenomena and everyday lived experience, respect to telemediatization. Additionally, widespread interpretation of culture identity is discussed and categorized as direct expression of subjectivity, arguing instead of being regarded as key institutional entailments of global modernity. It is mentioned that the denominator of process and experience of globalization is the global capitalist economic system.
In this study about global analysis and cultural, more studies and aspects of globalization and the diverse of cultural should be considered in the future researches. The description of cultural-political shall be mentioned usefully by focusing on both political issues and humanity institutions of identity position. Further suggestions about dynamics of culture should be enacted and experienced which might offer valuable insight in the end into solution of political violence and conflict. 4. Harvey, D. (2005) A Brief History of Neoliberalism, ‘Freedom‘s just another word’ pgs 5-38 – read the few intro pages too.
Referred to Harvey, the founding figures of neoliberal are political thought of freedom of people and dignity as fundamental and main value in civilization. The ideal of freedom and dignity for human beings are based on their own right and considered to be powerful. Ideals of freedom appeal to the people who value the ability to make decisions for them. In this report, the develop history of Neoliberalism are being introduced and some empirical studies on countries as Iraq, American, Chile and many other countries are analysed.
The neoliberal theory are stated as the sots measuring what Bremer give an outline which are sufficient and necessary of creating wealth, however, it will increase the population at a large scale. Based on the development of different countries, restructuring took place at different places in the world with different time period. They were mostly impacted by the United States who advises that power of US rely mainly on proliferation all over the world of neoliberal since mid 1970s.
In 1944, idea of Karl Polani has rep;aced by Mont Pelerin to be the ruling idea of that time. Freedom was produced and was highly prized in the economic market. Freedom is obtained everywhere in the society as the new idea of the world. The idea of freedom represents the freeness for people with good salary, quality leisure and enough security without improving. With more liberty to people, the democratic rights will be used properly which can gain protection from the power and keep the property of owners.
The beginning of market economy can result in limited freedom, where actual freedom is wider and more general within regulations and control. Freedom is not privilege, but the legal right in political and economic way in the society, new freedom should be generated with leisure and securities based on the old civic rights of freedom, and apply it to all the people in the society. 8. Martell, L (2010) The Sociology of Globalization. The Globalisation of culture: Homogeneous or Hybrid? Polity Press. Chapter 4.
This study is about the formation of globalisation where analysis of culture in societies and the influence of culture on identity of westernization, heterogeneity, homogenization, localization of global culture, clashes of culture, inequality in production, consumption of culture and many other perspectives. All the perspectives agree the immigration of culture and media are now developing out of national boundaries. The globalization and development of culture is a combination of different characteristics which consisting hybridization and homogenization.
Analysing hybridization presents a perspective from remedial to over-homogenize. While Globalization is occurred in the form of media, migration, travel and consumption, dynamic hybrid cultures are created. Culture is combined with power and economy and is distributed globally when there is money to be made. Power, inequality, economy and modern capitalism are all important parts of globalization in the spheres of culture and media. Other factors are also influencing globalization such as people. Movement of people across national boundaries should be considered in further study. . Volkmer, I. (2008) Satellite cultures in Europe : Between national spheres and a globalized space, Global Media and Communication,4 (3); 231-244 (available in NTU e-journals) According to Volkmer (2008), evidence of a new TV sphere is Trans-Europe, different examples are considered based on real situations from European broadcast culture where both national and regional limitations of conventional terminologies are demonstrated. As recommended by the author, in order to make various forms of satellite cultures structured in a newly established European sphere.
As researches pointed out that the logical argumentation of satellite space for global and national present three main domains that further studies in three aspects should be focused: national deterritorialization in public, establishing new forms if services in satellite communication and positioning of European sphere in politic means. Based on study of Jean Chalaby, his previous study about the transnational satellite of European TV followed the comment of market of Europe are not integrated and is dominated by national broadcaster.
It can be obtain that the framework of National broadcast maintains a leading place in the communication culture of trans-European. The development of Europe has led to the sphere of European public to become politic within its positioning. Public sphere of Europe and global public are not clearly defined as methods to assist to build the normative public work of transnational. in addition, the work should be reframed to both transnational and tanscultural in public communication.
It is concluded about the developing of European culture, national identities were considered to be historical and exclusive uncivil. For further study about satellite of European, model of public sphere of Europe with evaluation of speech with nation and through a relevant model of communication flow public sphere between a politic spaces. This different model of communication and politic is a combination of spheres from local to global, but it does not concern about transcultural spheres in global, nation or local.
Therefore, in this sense, the culture of the European satellite will create a public space with intercede within nations and also offers experience of culture in newly set up communication networks, resettling the culture of transnational broadcast and traditional as well. 10. Cottle, S (2011) Taking global crises in the news seriously: Notes from the dark side of globalization, Global Media & Communication, 7(2): 77 -95. Cottle mainly stressed on requirements and establish the case of taking global crises seriously in the aspect of ontological and epistemological and