Since their Spanish Rulers by launching an

Since Columbus’ voyages to the New World, Spain was able to have a profound influence in the Americas. With its colonies, Spain became a Global Empire, being heavily involved in world trade with the resources found within their vast territories. After three centuries under colonial rule, growing calls of independence spread throughout Spanish America. Between the years 1808-1833 most countries in Latin America had achieved independence, except for the Spanish colonies of Cuba and Puerto Rico. The Napoleonic wars crippled Spain, forcing them to hold these colonies to avoid financial ruin and keep them as strategic outposts.The United States sought these former Spanish territories by purchasing Florida from Spain in 1821 and acquiring Texas and California by going to war against Mexico in 1846. But, the United States was also interested in Cuba. With growing American interest in Cuba, former President James K. Polk wanted to purchase Cuba by following his expansionistic foreign policy, only to be refused by Spain. This belief in expansion came from his and many Americans belief in Manifest Destiny to spread their values and ideals throughout the region. Also, many Americans felt that Spanish colonial presence violated the Monroe doctrine, due to their aggressive behavior in quelling revolts/rebellions posing a threat to Americans living there and their investments. Later on, the U.S. sought to take advantage of the Cuban War for independence (1895) by supporting Cuban rebels. This in turn would protect their interests and $50,000,000 investments that were endangered in the conflict, but also lead to a war that only lasted 3 months against the Spanish Empire.Outbreak of War:Tensions arose in February 24, 1895 when Native Cubans have taken arms against their Spanish Rulers by launching an offensive across Cuban provinces. To support this cause Cuban exiles in America had sent guns, ammunition, and supplies mainly coming from the state of Florida and New York. President Cleveland sough to soothe the conflict by seeking peace negotiations between both actors in April 1896, with both sides refusing to agree to his accords. Spanish General and Colonial administrator began a reconcentration policy, which forced Cubans into camps. These Cubans suffered new problems from food shortages to a lack of clean sanitation. Yellow Journalism began around the same period. With this new type of Journalism authors were able to appeal to the readers by exaggerating their stories. For example, “reporters sometimes took brief and minor skirmishes into pitched battles full of valiant Cubans and treacherous Spaniards (Hillstrom pg 41).” Moreover, once William McKinley, entered office pressure to conduct military action persisted from the War Hawks and members involved in yellow press such as William Randolph Hearst. McKinley “feared that Cuban revolutionaries were winning their rebellion against Spain, if triumphant might threaten US property while ignoring American interests (Cox 48).” An American Naval Ship known as the USS Maine exploded suddenly without any warning. With the growing influence of yellow journalism blaming Spain and favoring the rebellion cause, U.S. popular opinion favored war against Spain. Therefore, in April 1989 President William McKinley declared war on Spain.”Splendid Little War”Americans marched into war chanting “Remember the Maine!” and “Cube Libre!” forming a new sense of patriotism. Around 1 million men volunteered towards helping Cuba with one of them being future President Theodore Roosevelt. Manila Bay was where the first battle took place within the war. Under Commodore George Dewey the Americans were able to defeat the Spanish in a couple of hours, capturing the harbor of Manila. On June 22, the Americans had set foot on Cuban shores. The following day the V-Corp was planning an assault on San Juan Heights under the command of major general William Rufus Shafter. With the battle of San Juan Hills in full swing the Rough riders and other cavalry units joined in, suffering heavy causalities stalling the battle for the Americans. Roosevelt led the final push with his Rough riders and other cavalry troops to a successful attack on kettle hill. Seizing strategic points, Roosevelt was able to help other forces especially in the San Juan Hill. After these loses, the Spanish decided to leave San Juan Heights, retreating to the lines of defense around Santiago.The port of Santiago was the main target for American naval operations. The battle of Santiago de Cuba was the largest naval battle within the war, which lead to the destruction of the Spanish fleet in the Caribbean and a decisive American victory. In the pacific, Captain Henry glass entered Guam’s Apra Harbor taking it easily from the Spanish without entering any form of conflict, by simply arranging a surrender with the Spanish Governor. Finally, in Puerto Rico the United States Fourth Artillery led by lieutenant Henry H. Whitney was able to establish a blockade in San Juan Bay that was invulnerable to the Spanish counterattack. Furthermore, battles took place around the island until the military actions were suspended on the 13th of August, with an armistice being signed. With all these defeats mainly in Cuba and the Philippines, Spain decided to negotiate and seek peace. The Treaty of Paris was signed on December 10, 1898 ending the Spanish-American War. Post War Impact:The U.S. became a Global World powerUS was able to receive Guam, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines as territories in exchange for $20 million dollars becoming one of the US’ first territories.Cuba become a protectorate under the United States with the introduction of the Platt AmendmentThe establishment of the Guantanamo Bay Naval BaseHawaiian Islands was annexed in 1898, opening the US to the pacific marketsThe Spanish Empire collapsedUS growing presence within Latin America (Panama Canal)