With many new factors making the world globalized and as steps were taken toward modernization in the 1700s, the world underwent many changes, however still keeping some of its initial traditions. From 1700-1900 in Eastern Europe, the economy had switched from agricultural to manufacturing due to the growth of factories and industry in the 1800s and serfdom was abolished, however the tsars still remained the center of authority. In 1700, the world was becoming globalized as the New World was brought into the world economy.
Most nations were ruled by absolute monarchies with divine right. This was true in Eastern Europe, where the tsars of Russia had complete control. Society had a rigid social structure based on serfdom and there was very limited social mobility. The economy was based upon that of agriculture and crops such as wheat and barley and labor was done by hand, as was rest of the world since industrialization had not occurred yet. Russia was expanding its borders under powerful tsars and was a great world power.
In 1700, serfdom had been what Eastern European society was based on in Russia. Serfs were tied to the land as a limited form of slavery. While forms of democracy was spreading across the globe in the late 1700s, Russia was behind and barely affected by the new ways of nationalism inspired by the French Revolution. However, Alexander II had serfdom abolished in the 1861 because he did not believe a country could compete in the modern world if it was based on slavery.
However, although serfdom had ended, the status of the peasants did not as remnants of the class structure remained and the liberated serfs remained at the bottom of the social ladder. By the 1860s, when Russia was industrializing, the role the lower class played in society would shift as the liberated serfs moved to the cities to seek work in the factories. This change exists because of the severe hardships in the rural population due to increased taxes on the land.
The increase of urbanization and factories lead for the creation of the new working middle class made up of the poor peasants, growing in 1900. The economy of Eastern Europe in 1700 was based on that of agriculture and products such as wheat and barley because serfdom was still thriving in Russia. The serfs were the labor force and basis of the feudalistic type society until the reign of Alexander II. However, while other nations were becoming modern, the Russia economy was backwards compared to the rest of the world due to the fact that is was based on a form of slavery.
But when industrialization occurred in Russia in the 1860s the economy had gradually switched to that manufactured good as factory and industry increased. The railroads from industrialization allowed for easy trade across vast and mountainous territory and also increased global trade with nations in the West as Russia could trade their various natural resources for a profit. However, by 1900 Russian’s economy was collapsing as they were still not industrializing a quick as the West and agricultural technology was not as up to date.
In 1700 in Eastern Europe, the Russia tsar Peter the Great was the head figure in the government, and this continued up until Russia’s last tsar Nicholas II. In the 1700s, the tsars of Russia practiced absolutism, claiming divine right and having complete authority over their subjects. However, by the 1850s after the embarrassing losses in the Crimean War, due to the fact that Russia was far behind the West in technology, opposition against the tsar began to grow.
In the 1860s, when Russia began to industrialize, they did not escape the horrors of industrialization and faced the same problems from the rest. Opposition for the tsarist regime grew even more due to the hunger, poverty, poor working condition, pollution, and low wages that industrialization brought. However in 1900, the tsars would still remain the head authority of the Russia state, as the last tsar of Russia, Nicholas II, would not be overthrown until the 1910s. In 1900, the world economy was very integrated as foreign investments made nations dependent on one another.
By this time, industrialization was in full force in many countries and work was no longer done by manual labor but by machinery. Governments across the globe were becoming modern democracies, while Eastern Europe lagged behind with the tsarist regime. In Eastern Europe, Russia was still behind the rest of the world technologically its economy was at near collapse because of the horrors of industrialization while its society was unsettled due to growing opposition against the tsar.
From 1700-1900 in Eastern Europe, the economy had switched from agricultural to manufacturing due to the growth of factories and industry in the 1800s and serfdom was abolished, however the tsars still remained the center of authority. Modernization was occurring worldwide from 1700-1900, and while Russian society would alter to keep up with this, significant continuities would set the stage for Russia in the 1900.