Ronan Hurley 11/26/17 Chemistry H Ms. Solman Niels Bohr Born in Copenhagen on October 7, 1885, Niels Henrik David Bohr was already in the clear to be a strong influence in the scientific community. He was raised in an educated family where his father, Christian Bohr, a teacher of Physiology at the Copenhagen University, his mother Ellen Adler also came from a family who was strong and determined in the field of education. His father was t and was largely responsible for opening up the minds to his immense interest in physics while still at school. Niels in fact had 6 kids. After matriculation (an exam you take to be able to enroll at a college or university, current day SAT and ACT,) at the Gammelholm Grammar School in 1903, Niels enrolled at Copenhagen University. Whilst there he came under the guidance of Professor C. Christiansen, who was a well-known original and highly endowed physicist. He took his Doctor’s degree in 1911 and his Master’s degree in Physics in 1909. This was definitely the beginning of his career, and from on here he only grew in his knowledge and as an overall person more and more every day. In the year 1908 he won a prize, which consisted of a gold medal for the solution of a certain scientific problem, which then caused him to take up this experimental and theoretical investigation of the surface tension by means of oscillating fluid jets, after he had won this award it put into Transactions of the Royal Society, 1908. Bohr created the Bohr model of the atom, where Bohr found that the energy levels of electrons were constituting of a separate entity and that the electrons which were surrounding the atom move around in stable orbits around the atomic nucleus. These electrons can move from one energy level to a second or previous energy level. Although other models have replaced the Bohr model, its underlying principles remain in use. He created the idea of complementarily which says that items could be separately analyzed by means of contradicting properties, which is like behaving as a wave or a stream of particles. The notion of complementarily took over Bohr’s thinking in both fields of philosophy and science. Bohr in the end birthed the Institute of Theoretical Physics at the University of Copenhagen, which would now be known as the Niels Bohr Institute, it was in fact opened in the year 1920. Bohr taught and worked with important and influential physicists including, Hans Kramers, Oskar Klein, George de Hevesy, and Werner Heisenberg. He thought that the existence of this new and improved zirconium-type element, which was named hafnium (element number 72), after the Latin name for Copenhagen, where it was then discovered. In the future, the element Bohrium was eventually named after him. In the late 1930’s Bohr saved refugees from Hitler and the Nazi’s. After the Germans had taken over Denmark, he had a famous meeting with The Heisenberg, who then had become the top dog, of the German nuclear weapon project. In late 1943, word had spread and eventually gotten to Bohr that he was going to be detained by the Germans, so, he obviously needed to escape them. He then fled to Sweden. Once he was there, Bohr was brought to England, where he was accepted to the British Tube Alloys nuclear weapons project, where Bohr was a large piece to the Manhattan Project. After the war, Bohr called for International Cooperation on nuclear energy. Bohr was involved with the creation of CERN. He was also involved with the Research Establishment Riso of the Danish Atomic Energy Commission. Bohr eventually became the first chairman of the Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics in the year 1957, In atomic physics, the Rutherford–Bohr model or Bohr model which also been called the Bohr diagram, inagurated by Niels Bohr his partner Rutherford in the year 1914, depicts the atom as a tiny, positively charged nucleus which is surrounded by electrons which travel in circular orbits around the nucleus. This is similar to the structure of our solar system which consists of our planets, except with attraction given off by static forces rather than gravity. After the cube model, the plum-pudding model, the Saturnian model, and the Rutherford model came, the Rutherford–Bohr model or just Bohr model for short. The betterment to the Rutherford model is mostly a quantum physical version of all of these models. The model’s key success lies in the idea of the Rydberg formula for the stuff which it gives off lines of with atomic hydrogen. While the Rydberg formula had been known experimentally, it did not gain a hypothetical underpinning until the Bohr model was introduced. Not only did the Bohr model explain the reason for the structure of the Rydberg formula, it also provided a justification for its empirical results in terms of fundamental physical constants. In conclusion Bohr had some amazing contributions to the world of science and chemistry and his ideas and models and everything in-between are still being used today and are still being talked about today due to the mass footprint that he left on the society of science. From being born into a well, educated family to working with great scientists and then continuing to have 6 children who would live in his shadows I would say that he did a pretty good job.