Research income of the parents allows them

Research has also demonstrated that
students from two-parent families are less likely to drop out of school when
compared to students from single-parent and step families (Astone &
McLanahan 1991).  On the other hand, a
study by Pong & Ju (2000) found that a change in dissolution of two-parent
families did not increase the change of withdrawal from school, apart from the
effect that this change has on income.  The
effect of parental education in the education of their children depends on the
choices they make about the amount of time and resources invested in their
children, which is based on their objectives for education.  As an example, the income of the parents
allows them to provide more support to their children’s education through
better schools, after school programs and support from home learning. Coleman
(1988) argued that parental level of education and parental income were
insufficient to explicate the relationship among school achievement and family
background of students.  More recent
studies however confirmed that a strong relationship between parents and
students is likely to reduce the change of dropping out of school (McNeal,
1999).  Students are less likely to drop
out of school if their activities are being monitored and regulated by their parents;
emotional support is provided at home; independent decision-making is supported
and their parents are more involved in their schooling. (Rumberger, 1995).

The ratio of students to teacher has a
positive and significant effect on the drop out rate in high school according
to Rumberger (1995).  In another study by
Rumberger and Thomas (2000), it was found that the higher the quality of the
teachers as perceived by the students, the lower the drop out rate. 

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Factor which affect the drop out rate
are not only associated with the school and the family.  Peer groups and the community within which a
student lives also has an effect on the students’ withdrawal from school.  Crane (1991) argues that the lower quality
neighborhoods result in a higher school drop out rate.  Although studies have confirmed the influence
of communities on the drop out rate, they are unable to clarify how this


Finn (1989) developed two models as
influential on dropping out: “frustration-self-esteem” model and the “Participation-identification”