Radiation induced injuries are
chiefly mediated by various free radicals that affects various molecular
targets such as DNA, membrane lipids and proteins. The deleterious effects of radiation can now be
strategically counterpoised by the use of many drugs and chemicals. However, chemical radioprotectors produced
hitherto are found noxious at their optimum doses 1. Therefore, development
of reliable and non- toxic radioprotectors for human safety has been an area of
immense interest for radiation biologists. It is obvious that several plants have
potential to mitigate from radiation induced damages in biological systems
(Jagetia, 2007). The use of plants and
natural products as radio-protective agents is advantageous over other
radioprotectors, as they are less toxic or practically non-toxic compared to
the synthetic compounds.
borivilianum (Liliaceae) is a conventional rare herb
which has many therapeutic applications. Different pharmacological studies on
tubers of C. borivilianum has indicated its antiviral 2, anticancer 3,
antioxidative 4, antidiabetic 7, antistress 5, aphrodisiac 6, antimicrobial
8, hypolipidemic 9, hypocholesteremic 10, anti-inflammatory 11,
immunomodulatory 12 activities. Major therapeutic components of C.
borivilianum are saponins, stigmasterol, Beta sitosterol, hecogenin, polysaccharides and mucilage.
investigation, an attempt has been made to study the protective effect of C.
borivilianum tuber extract against gamma radiation induced oxidative stress
in Swiss albino mice.
Animal Care and Handling: The animal
care and handling was done according to the guide-lines set by INSA (Indian
National Science Academy, New Delhi, India). The Departmental Animal Ethical
Committee (DAEC) approved this study. Six weeks adult Swiss albino mice (Mus
musculus), weighing 25±2 gm, from an inbred colony were used for the
present investigation. These mice were maintained under controlled conditions
of temperature and light (light: dark, 10h: 14h). They were provided standard
mouse feed (procured from Ashriwad Pvt Ltd, India) and water ad libitum.
2.2.Source of Irradiation:
Animals were irradiated by a Co60 source (Bhabatron-II TAW
telecobalt machine) in the cobalt therapy unit at Cancer Treatment Center,
Department of Radiotherapy, SMS Medical College and Hospital, Jaipur, India. Unanaesthestized
mice were restrained in well-ventilated boxes and exposed whole body to gamma
radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min from the source to surface distance
(SSD), that is, 80 cm.
2.3.Preparation of plant extract:
Tubers of C. borivilianum were collected commercially from local market.
Roots were air-dried, powdered and extracted in double distilled water by
continuous stirring at 50°C. The extract was filtered with whatman paper and
the filtrate dried for 48 hrs in oven at 50°C and then a powdered form was
obtained. This powder form was dissolved in double-distilled water (dose-50 mg/kg
b.wt.) just before oral administration.
To evaluate the radioactive potential of CBE, mice were randomly selected from
an inbreed colony divided into following groups-
Group I. Normal
(Vehicle treatment): Animals of this group were given double distilled water (DDW)
through oral gavage once in a day for 7 consecutive days.
Group II. CBE treated:
of this group were treated with CBE dissolved in distilled water through oral
gavage for 7 consecutive days once daily.
Radiation alone treated: Animals of this group were given double distilled water (DDW)
through oral gavages once in a day for 7 successive days. On the day 7th,
mice were irradiated with 6 Gy ?-radiations.
Group IV. CBE + Radiation treated: Mice of this
group were treated with CBE dissolved
water for 7 consecutive days (one time daily) before 6 Gy ?-irradiation.
Animals were necropsied
by cervical dislocation at 1st day, 7th day, 15th day
and 30th day post irradiation to determine the changes in various
biochemical parameters of liver viz. reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid
peroxidation (LPO), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total
mice were observed for their body weight as well as liver weight on each
autopsy interval to know irradiation effects.
following biochemical parameters were measured in the liver of Swiss albino
Glutathione (GSH): Reduced
glutathione was estimated in liver as total non-protein sulphydryl group by the
method as described by Moron et al., (1979) 13.
Lipid peroxidation (LPO): Lipid
peroxidation estimated in liver spectrophotometrically by thio barbituric acid
reactive substances (TBARS) method given by Okhawa et al., (1979) 14.
Superoxide dismutase (SOD): Superoxide
dismutase was assayed utilizing the technique of Marklund & Marklund,
Total proteins content: It was done by
the method of Lowry et al., (1951) 16.
Catalase (CAT): It was
estimated in liver homogenate according to Aebi et al. (1984) 17.
analysis: The results obtained in the present study were
expressed as mean ± SEM. The statistical differences between various groups
were analyzed by ANOVA and the significance was observed at the p