1. James A. Tyner, “The Geopolitics of Eugenics and the Exclusion of Philippine Immigrants from the United States,” The Geographical Review, 89, no. 1 (1999), 54-73. In this article, Tyner explains the pseudoscience and logic behind the discrimination against Filipino immigrants during the early 1900’s. Using eugenics as justification, the government made it clear that America was to remain a white-dominated country with little tolerance for immigrants.
A prime example of this anti-immigration sentiment was expressed by U. S. Senator Samuel Shortridge when he said “… we belong to the Caucasian branch of the human family. They of the Orient to another and different branch… these two branches of the human family are not assimilable … it is not wise that there should be mongrel or hybrid races” (pg. 66). I find this point of view very similar to logic of Adolf Hitler, who also sought to preserve the master Aryan race. . David Roediger, “Whiteness and Ethnicity in the History of ‘White Ethnics’ in the United States,” in Towards the Abolition of Whiteness: Essays on Race, Politics, and Working Class History (1994), 181-194. In this article, Roediger tries to explain the fine line between being white and non-white. He argues that immigrants will never become fully white, but are happy being classified as Americans because at least they won’t be treated like blacks.
I feel like Roediger is trying to say that being white is like being a part of a royal family bloodline. It is impossible for immigrants to really become white, but they can still hope to attain some sort of life. It’s almost like he’s comparing the nouveau riche to the gentry. 3. George Martinez, “Mexican Americans and Whiteness,” in Critical White Studies, 210-212. In this article, Martinez argues that Mexican-Americans were only considered “white” when it came to politics and benefiting the dominant Anglo-American group.
Even though classified as “white” Mexican-Americans still faced the same amount of discrimination as blacks and other people of color. I feel like this reaffirms the “American Paradox” because it claims that a race can be “white” without gaining any benefits, in order to benefit the rest of the Anglo-American whites. Week 7 1. Robin D. G. Kelley, “The Riddle of the Zoot: Malcolm Little and Black Cultural Politics During World War II,” in Race Rebels: Culture, Politics, and the Black Working Class (1994), 161-181.
The Riddle of the Zoot provides an innovative view towards the history of the zoot suitors’ culture, by belittling the goals and aspirations Malcolm X had of it and gathering various ideal so that the riddle, raised by Ellison in 1943, could be solved. A painted image of a unmasked powerful individual, who happens to be the leader of the hipster subculture that feeds it’s populace with ideals and regulations, is reduced in the text to the qualification of “product of lived experiences”.
Basically, The Riddle of the Zoot begins discourse pertaining to the new poor black generation in the United States i. e. “language, dress, music and hair styles rising out of today’s ghettos”. Kelley expresses the idea that hipster subculture notably shaped the mold of a new black identity through the twentieth century, but on top of that, he develops a stance that current ghetto black incumbents could still be qualified of “hep cats” because of the dances and musical styles affiliated to them.
In summary, hipster subculture could still exist nowadays and, to a further extent, that wave movements resulting from an identity of particular groups are perpetual, history does repeat and remain consistent throughout time. 2. Anthony Macias, “Bringing Music to the People: Race, Urban Culture, and Municipal Politics in Postwar Los Angeles,” American Quarterly 56, no. 3 (2004): 693-717. This article discuss how through the Music Bureau, the LA county tried to enable an activity to prevent the youth from getting to trouble, i. . gang activity. These particular programs were focused on solely Mexican decedents and not the other groups, the blacks. What Macias argues is that there was a goal to prevent racial music mixing. For me this article was very dense and really needs a fully discussion because i truly did not understand the point of this. I dont understand how music should be segregated, especially if both groups present in the article are part of the minority. Week 8
In the article “Anglo-Saxon ideologies in the 1920s-1930s”, Menchaca and Valencia depict the history and presence of segregation towards Chicano students in California. In the article, both authors prove, through a case study of Mexican Students in Santa Paula, California, “that a great deal of the current school segregation of Chicano students in public elementary and secondary schools in California has its origins in racial ideologies of Anglo-Saxon superiority and their subsequent impact on government policies” (Menchaca and Valencia, 222).
Segregation, as noted from both authors, stems from the enormous breach that is present between Chicano students and the ‘other students’ i. e. the Anglo students. In class there was large discussion about various topics such as white supremacy, white man’s burden, and various other ideals that link to the presence of Anglo domination. This article definitely highlighted the impact of those ideologies. This article for me was nothing surprising. The education system that is presently intact has roots in a patriarchal and very white system.
These systems try to promote whiteness and create a cycle of constant oppression to those who do not benefit. It is not a surprise that the education system present for Chicano students resulted in large drop out rates, as present in the article, because the education system is in tact is not for their benefit, only for the benefit of Anglo’s. In the article Crabgrass-Roots Politics: Race, Rights, and the Reaction against Liberalism in the Urban North, 1940-1964, Thomas J. Sugrue demonstrates the affects post World War 2 most particularly in Detroit.
Before the war, the prominent population that resided in Detroit was Caucasians; however, after the war, there was an influx of African Americans in the Caucasian areas. Now the effects of Blacks slowly moving into the white areas were many. “The simultaneous Black migration and economic dislocation in postwar Detroit created a sense of crisis among the city’s white homeowners” (Sugrue, 67). Because there was a flood of Blacks into the white areas, the white homeowners created groups and associations that stopped Blacks from getting into these areas. The experience of World War II solidified white Detroiters’ belief in their right to racially homogenous neighborhoods” (Sugrue, 75). After reading this article it was interesting to analyze how the government supported the segregation. I mean even an election in 1949 was based on public housing. Some of me want to say that the main reason for Detroit’s segregation and poverty in the African American community stems from this particular event.