Question No.01 Name and explain five major ways in which species can interact?Solution:-various types of relationships exists in nature between different species of organisms but Basically five major types of species interaction exists:i) Amensalismii) Mutualismiii) Predationiv)Commensalismv) Competition Amensalism:- it is an association between organisms of two different species in which one is inhibited or destroyed and the other is unaffected . it is a relationship in which an organism hurts another one but doesn’t mean to get anything out of it so it’s not really parasitism in which one is benefiting by the other one for example lice which are also called as Parasite are benefited by their host which could be human.Mutualism:- it is a relationship between organisms in which both of the species involved in the benefit to some extent with neither specie is being harmed. When evaluating relationships , we must examine the specie involved and see if they are both receiving benefits such as food, shelter, protection, dispersal or any other activity that aids in the success of the organisms. E.g. Lichens(protists and fungi) , pollination etc..Predation:- when one of the organism eats another organism in the relationship is known as predation. True predators kills and eats other organisms. For example herbivore kills or eats plants while grazers eats plants but doesn’t kill them. Predators are the organism that kills or eats while the prey are the organisms that are being eaten or killed by others , the whole process is known as predation.Commensalism:- it occurs when one organism is benefit in the relationship and the other organism for the most part is unaffected e.g. cattle egret and cows or bulls , the cattle egret like to follow the cows along because the cows stir up insects from the grass the cattle egrets eats the insects and the cows for most part are unaffected. Orchids are the type of flowering plants that like to make their base or attach to the branches of the trees , they benefits by getting sunlight and trees for the most part is unaffected.Competition:- it is a kind of interaction in the environment where both animals hurt each other and the most common type of interaction is competition. Competition could be on living sources , for reproduction etc . it could be intraspecific ( in the same species) or the interspecific (between the other species).Question No.02 How size and beauty of animal can be a secret weapon? Give one example? Solution:-Animals use their size and beauty as their secret weapons , they use them as a defense , protection for their survival .their are two basic defense mechanisms in animals i) cryptic colorationii) Aposometic colorationCryptic coloration:- it is also known as camouflage it is the appearance that makes something looks alike its surrounding; could be its shape or color. As we can also say that many animals are patterned to blend their surroundings to disguise their appearance . as for Prey animals camouflage makes them less visible for the predators so that there are very less chances of them to be eaten by the predators . it can be associated with seasonal changes e.g. blend in and hide it occurs in chameleons, octopuses ,insects etc.. Aposometic coloration:- in the other words we can say this as warning coloration these are described as the colors or patterns that act as warning for the predators that a potential prey species are toxic or dangerous. These colors are dangerous or show the specie as distasteful that’s why these are called as warning coloration. Very bright often red or orange coloration of poisonous animals as a warning so that possible predators should avoid them. Animals learn these by trial and errors. The larva of the Monarch butterfly is an example of the aposometic coloration. Mimicry:- it is basically an anti-predator device where a species copies the appearance, sound or form of model species in order to survive. In this an animal use to mimic another animal for the survival.we can say that weaker animal copies characteristics of stronger animals to warn off predators . some animals who commonly use mimicry includes snakes, beetles, butterflies , bees, sea slugs etc….Majority non poisonous specie use it to escape from predators to act as poisonous. e.g. hawks moths appears to be a snake when it’s a caterpillar. And the scarlet king snakes mimics venomous coral snakes. Viceroy butterfly mimics monarch butterfly, so these were some examples of mimicry.