PROJECT sample. KEYWORDS: Spent Mushroom substrate, resin,


                        In recent decade
agriculture waste in India have been generated enormously. One of the
agriculture wastes is spent mushroom substrate, Mushroom is produced form rice
straw bed and after the production rice straw bed is allowed to degraded or used
for gasifier. Our project is focused on using mushroom substrate and making
composite board from it and using instead of plywood. Our aim is to produce low
cost plywood. Mushroom substrate is pretreated and mixed with magnesium oxide
in proper ratio and it is produced in hot compression molding machine. After
that some physical test  such as tensile,
compression, Three point bending test, water absorption test, wire test, Flame test,
thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity have been done on the sample.

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                        Spent Mushroom substrate, resin, magnesium
oxide, plywood, testing











1.    Alternative
Rice Straw Management Practices to Reduce field open burning

            Open burning of rice straw causes
release of air pollutants, which contributes to enhance climate change related
issues. Moreover, the burning practice was a reason of losing carbon content
from crop land to the atmosphere. This study focuses on estimation of carbon
content loss to the atmosphere through open burning of rice straw and suggests
alternative rice straw management practices to reduce field open burning in
Thailand. Field experiments were conducted to collect samples of rice straw to
quantify residue to product ratio (RPR) and analyze their carbon content by
elemental analysis. Ash samples were also collected to analyze their carbon
content. Carbon losses to the atmosphere through field burning were then
estimated. To better understand traditional practices of open burning in
Thailand, statistics related to seasonal rice production/harvesting were also
investigated. Finally, economic and environmental benefits associated to
alternative rice straw management options were considered and discussed against
traditional open burning practices.   (Garivait, 2013)

2.    Biochemical
conversion of rice straw into bioethanol

            Growing energydemands in
transportation, industrial and other sectors with a simultaneousreduction of
greenhouse gas emissions. Development and performance evaluation of a new
thermal insulation material from rice straw using high frequency hot pressing.A
new thermal insulation material made from rice straw (RSTIB) was developed
using high frequency hot pressing. The goal of this study is to investigate the
effect of high frequency heating, board density, particle size and ambient
temperature on the properties of RSTIB.


3.    Effect
of decomposed rice straw at different times on rice yield

            Inoculant of Trichoderma fungi was used to treat into
rice straw at different times for decomposition to study “Effect of decomposed
rice straw at different times on rice yields”. The decomposed rice straw at 1,
2, 3, 4 weeks gave C/N ratio from 24.12 – 31.71 in dry season and from 16.64 –
31.12 in wet season, these C/ N ratio was lower as compared to rice straw.  (Ha, 2006)


4.    Engineering
Applications of Composite Materials

The water absorption and
swelling characteristics along the surface and thickness were determined for
particle boards made from coir pith of 0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 2.1 mm average
particle sizes using phenol formaldehyde and urea formaldehyde resins. The
water absorption, swelling along surface and thickness ranged from 30% to 133%,
0.7% to 3.7% and 24% to 112.6%, respectively. The water absorption and swelling
were least for the board made from largest-size particles and phenol
formaldehyde resin.


5.    Engineering
Applications of Composite Materials (volume: 2)

Composites are one of the
most widely used materials because of their adaptability to different
situations and the relative ease of combination with other materials to serve
specific purposes and exhibit desirable properties. 

In surface transportation,
reinforced plastics are the kind of composites used because of their huge size.
They provide ample scope and receptiveness to design changes, materials and
processes. The strength-weight ratio is higher than other materials. Their
stiffness and cost effectiveness offered, apart from easy availability of raw
materials, make them the obvious choice for applications in surface





















M. Garcia *, D. A. (2012). Resistance of Wood Wool Cement Board to the Attack
of termites. 7.


Garivait, K. K. (2013).
Alternative Rice Straw Management Practices to Reduce Field Open Burning.
International journal of environment and science development .

Ha, L. H. (2006). EFFECT

Han-Seung Yang, D.-J.
K.-J. (2003). Rice straw–wood particle composite for sound absorbing.
Bioresource Technology , 5.

Li Zhang, Y. H. (2014).
Novel lignocellulosic hybrid particleboard composites made from rice. 8.

Magdaléna Dufková, P. K.

Parviz Soroushian a, *. F.
(2004). Cement-bonded straw board subjected to accelerated processing. Cement
& Concrete Composites , 6.





















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