Personality and motivation of sports performance Personality is the sum of characteristics that make a person unique. The narrow band theory states there is two types of personality, type A and type B. Type a have a strong urge for competition, works fast, likes control, strong desire to succeed. Type B are none competitive, works more slowly, and does not enjoy control. Some people believe that personality affects sports performance so im going to show you various theories that could back this up. Trait theory: the trait theory suggests that individuals have certain characteristics that will partly determine how they behave. It states all behaviour is innate and genetically programmed .There are four subsections that these characteristics are split into
Introverts tend to be shy and reserved, prefer isolation from others, and become aroused quicker than extroverts. Introverts tend to be more aroused by certain events Such as Rory Mcllroy as golf is a sport you don’t really have to socialised and is always competing in events. Extroverts are outgoing and sociable becomes aroused slower than introverts and affiliates well to other people. Extroverted people perform best in conditions of high arousal hence why i chose Freddie burns as my example because hes put in high arousal conditions all the time, rugby is also a sociable sport. Neurotic display extreme and unpredictable emotions such as mood swings, their moods are unreliable, they experience high degrees of stress and their recovery from stress is slow. I chose Eric Cantona as an example as he changed his mood instantly hence kicking a fan Stable display predictable emotions in appropriate situations, there moods are predictable, they tend not to experience intense stress and their recovery from stress is rapid. I chose Tyson gay because his moods are always predictable, win a race happy, and lose a race sad.
And if he did lose a race he would train harder ready for the next race. I partly agree with the trait theory as i can see how certain characteristics can make a person choose their sport they want to do however it does not guarantee success there are other factors that need to be taken into account such as environmental influences on personality such as the way the child was brought up or if all his friends played rugby yet his characteristics were all introvert so was more of a golf player he would
still probably play rugby because his friends do. Therefore i have to disagree with the trait theory.
Social learning theory:
The social learning theory states that rather than being born with characteristics we learn them from other people especially significant others that include family, peers, teachers, heroes an example of this would be jonny Wilkinson’s kicking once people could see his style of kicking was working and that he became one of the best out there others tried to adopt it from kids too other professional players using visual guidance. How it works is first of all the athlete must have a certain level of respect and admiration for the model they are observing so of high status professional footballer such as Cristiano Ronaldo especially with kids as they have think if they copy him they will also be successful . Next the athlete must be able to retain the observed skill through visual guidance in their memory ready to recall when needed. Motor reproduction is where the athlete must be able to physically perform the task; time is required to practice the skill in order to learn how it’s performed and to be able to perfect it. If the athlete cannot perform the skill well if may knock their confidence and may have a decrease on motivation Last is the motivational response, unless they athlete is motivated they will not go through the first 3 stages of modelling. Motivation is dependent on the amount of reinforcement, such as, praise, feedback, pride or achievement. The perceived importance of the task, and the status of the model if the task is important the athlete is more likely to want to practise it enough to get through the first 3 stages. Such as for a tennis serve you need to practise it again and again in order to achieve the kinaesthetic feel for it and therefore over learn it so you can perform it at a high quality each time you do it. I agree with the social learning theory because in order to try and learn something it is best to get a visual guidance first so you can see how it’s done and move through the stages however it does not take into consideration we are born with certain traits
Lewin’s theory states that behaviour is a combination of both inherent
personality traits and environmental factors.