p on the network can trace a

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M. B.
(2006) proposed
Authentication-Based
Resolution Strategies and Intrusion Detection-Based counter measures
to save guard position verification .The
approaches uses Public Key Cryptography for Resolution Strategies,
though the Public Key represents static data unless it is change
periodically and as such, can potentially be discovered using other
mechanism. Similarly, Vora
(2009) Proposed
Homomorphic Linear Authenticator (HLA) as the mechanism to
identifies and reports faults in packet from individual nodes on the
network. This shows that, security is uncompromised in VANET, as a
malicious node may send erroneous information into a node on the
network or misleads the other nodes during packets broadcasts with
the aim to cause severe catastrophe in the network. However, Mahajan
& Alka (2010) proposed new proxy re-encryption scheme that
replace public key with private key to get better result for
authenticity and privacy in rapidly changing networks; scheme shows
reduction in networks overheads on mobile nodes. In related work by
Chim, S., & Lucas C. (2011), the authors provides a
software-based solution which uses two shared secrets keys to satisfy
the privacy requirement and produced lower message overhead. The
proposed work follows the approach of letting RSU to aid the
signature verification process. It provides group communication
protocol that allows vehicles to authenticate and securely
communication with others in a group of known vehicles; though the
scheme is applicable to vehicle to Infrastructure communication and
can be apply on vehicle to vehicle communication. However, Hsiao,
Ahren, Rituik, Elaine, & Adrian (2011) proposed threshold-based
event validation protocol, the solution uses public key
infrastructure , and use of public key may have limitation since it
add more computational overheads which can affects the performance
of the system as mentioned (Mahajan
& Alka, 2010).

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Kim & Im-Yeong (2014)
proposed protocol for vehicle to RSU communications; the protocol
enables RSU to verify a large number of signatures as a batch using
pairing operations. However, the work has some drawbacks; Firstly,
the protocol defends on tamper-proof hardware device installed. Once
one of the devices is cracked, the whole system will be compromise.
Secondly, any one on the network can trace a vehicle’s real
characteristics of node due to the tamper-proof device, thus, the
protocol does not satisfy the privacy need. Thirdly, the protocol has
a flaw such that a vehicle can use a fake identity to avoid tracing
and identification or even imitate another vehicle. Fourthly, in the
batch verification design, if any of the signatures is erroneous, the
entire batch is drop. But in related issue, Isha (2015) proposed
mechanism that authenticates vehicles before joining network by
allocating
time slots for
authentication and any node passes the verification test becomes
member of the network. Similarly, Hegde (2016) proposed algorithm
based on smart antenna technology and shared key exchange techniques
to detect and prevent MAC attack. This approach is not applicable for
infrastructure less vehicular network.

2.2.3 Packet transmission in
vehicular network

According to (Garg,
2010), nodes in
mobile settings are vulnerable to security attacks like packet drop.
Information
transmissions between nodes in vehicular network need to reach target
destination securely. Therefore, it becomes essential to explore
mechanism will enhance communication in vehicular network. Hao
Jiang (2010)
propose Real time Packet Loss Estimation (RPLE), the RPLE is an
estimation algorithm for packet loss on VANET; the scheme uses
selected probe packets to enhance accuracy estimation of packet loos.
The Packet Loss Rate (PLR) is the evaluation of mass on-road
measurements from Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM). The RPLE estimates
link package loss rate with a minimal error and can track changes in
packet rate. RPLE can grasps the overall characteristics of the link,
enhance data transmission control and estimation of the network link
quality. In (Malla & Ravi, 2013), solution to denial of service
threat was proposed; the approach uses lines of defence to contradict
attacker and its effect. The line of defence proposed was capable to
handle DOS attack. However, the scheme controls congestion of network
traffic and broadcast storm during propagating of emergency warning
messages among vehicle even in the absence of DOS attacks. Similarly,
M. & Abhishek (2014) proposed batch verification technique to
verify multi-signed messages; as described in the scheme, the RSU
performs batch verification on behalf of vehicles. It turned out
efficiently in the condition intense with cars per RSU. However, it
is inefficient there is less intense of vehicles per RSU.
Furthermore, it has a limitation of high overhead in processing
ID-based signature verification for vehicles. To address similar
threat (Pimpalkar & A., 2015) proposed mechanism that classify
packets as legitimate or not using cryptographic technique and filter
the attack packets. Once packets are marked as an attack type, the
packets are drop at the border router of the target network before
reaching the victim; the solution is infrastructure base, and the
infrastructure can be attack or damage, if one of these happens the
entire system can be compromised. Furthermore, Rupareliya, Sunil, &
Chirag (2016) proposed watchdog approach to identify attacker using
Bayesian filter to reduce false positive of node; in this approach,
each node monitor message flow in the network and report to other
nodes if suspicion arises from the monitored messages, the approach
was capable of detecting the malicious node and increases false
positive detection ratio of malicious nodes.

2.2.4 Defence against secure
information transmission in vehicular network

Toledo & Xiaodong (2008)
proposed a technique
based on the truncated sequential Kolmogorov–Smirnov statistics to
monitor successful transmissions and the collisions rates of the
nodes as well as observations report for denial-of-service attacks in
vehicular communication.
Malicious Packet Losses detection protocol was proposed in (Alper
T. Mzrak, 2009),
the protocol is invokes based on some characteristics such as
measurement of traffic rates and buffer sizes and the number of
congestive packet losses that will occur at a given time period. The
protocol helps to remove congestions attributed to the packet losses
as the result of malicious actions. In similar approach, Barapatre
& Vikrant (2014)
proposed the use of Received Signal Strength (RSS) based on spatial
correlation property of each node and provided theoretical analysis
of using the RSS readings for attack detection inherited from nodes
during data transmission. The solution detects the existence of
attacks as well as identifying the number of attackers in wireless
setting. One of the benefits of this scheme according (Kennedy
Edemacu M. E., 2014)
is supports node monitoring ; the nodes monitor the packet
transmissions and save the copy of packets buffers during
transmissions and forwarding process of the packets to the next
nodes, in this approach all the nodes in the network act as an agent
of the monitoring. The approach helps to monitor and control the
packet forwarding process among the nodes. In (Youcef
Begriche, 2015)
robust distributed reputation model was proposed based on Bayesian
filter, the model allows nodes to establish profiles on their
neighbours and to detect malicious behaviours , the nodes monitor
their neighbours and estimates their status in accordance with the
abnormality difference between received and transmitted packets .
Similarly, Chen
Chen (2016)
proposed distributed congestion control scheme to overcome packet
congestion during information propagation in VANET, the scheme was
based on non-cooperative bargaining game approach. However,
geographic position and clustering were used, the clustering divides
the vehicles into dissimilar clusters and an estimation is made on
route load, the observed route load is use to forward the packet to
the intended node. However, Sneha
C.S (2016)
proposed mechanism to
detect packet drop attack from malicious act by means of correlation
between packets; the mechanism requires information about the packet
loss and route. In a similar problem, Landmark-based Routing using
global Real-time Traffic (LRRT) based on AP support services was
proposed in (Wenjie
Wang, 2016). The
LRRT was designed for data transmission between vehicles and AP.
During data transmission, vehicles establish route discovery to APs
using shortest path algorithm of Dijkstra approach and the packets
are forwarded in a form of hop-by-hop mode. This scheme is applicable
to infrastructure vehicular network as the route connection is
achieved through the services of AP but cannot be apply in vehicle to
vehicle communication. In a related work by Bhupendra
Singh (2017),
the author presented Communication Based Train Control (CBTC)
network, the scheme works on automated control network to provide
safety of rail vehicles. CBTC was designed to tackle Random packet
drops during handover process between two Access Points APs, though;
the approach was base on infrastructure base network and cannot be
apply on ad-hoc mode of vehicular setting.