One modern technology and science is astrology.

One field of thought that has been largely challenged with the rise of modern technology and science is astrology. Astrology is the study of the astronomical positions of “celestial bodies” that can be translated to having physical influence on the natural world and human life. This field of knowledge was created by the Greeks in the 4th century B.C, and due to the studies and observations of distinguished philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato, astrology became widely accepted as a science. (American Federation of Astrologers) There are still practitioners today all over the world that regard this fountain of knowledge as their exclusive truth. This being said, as modern science and human inquisitiveness have developed over time, some of their core principles are no longer valid. For example, there is no scientific mechanism to measure astrology. There isn’t a known method to explain how it works, therefore its plausibility cannot be objectively measured, therefore is is simply based on belief and faith of the individual. This being said a counterclaim to this statement is that the lack of a scientific mechanism is not sufficient justification for dismissing a phenomenon. There are many instances in history in which methods were used that didn’t yet have a scientific explanation. One example would be the the use of the lodestone, or, compass. The lodestone was used for 2,000 years before anyone had discovered the Earth’s magnetic field in the 20th century. (Mills) Similarly, the German physician, Ignaz Semmelweis introduced antiseptic practices like handwashing in obstetric clinics in the 1800’s before microbes and germs were even understood. He was ridiculed by colleagues as he could not provide a scientific reason, but his theory later became accepted when Louis Pasteur conducted experiments that confirmed germ theory. (Zoltán)  This claim can also be countered with the fact that, although there have been examples of successes in history that arose without scientific explanation, these discoveries were measurable. The compass was used because it worked, it brought people where they wanted to go and allowed them to navigate land and sea safely. Antiseptic measures like washing hands, were accepted by hospitals because they drastically reduced mortality rates. All of these foundations of knowledge were quantifiable before scientific method proved them. Astrology has no measurable grade of success, it just provides insight on someone’s life based on the alignment of the stars, without being able to confirm if it is true or not. Another claim that could be made to discredit astrology is that astrologers begin there predictions and celestial readings at the moment of birth, not the moment of conception. This raises knowledge questions like “At want point can an embryo be considered human? Is an individual only considered “alive” after birth? A counterclaim to this statement and many astrologers “explanation” for this is that the time of birth can be known, but the time of conception or when life begins cannot be. For example, the Hellenistic Stoics believed that life started with the first breath, while most astrologers see the prenatal time as developmental, while the physical separation between the fetus and the mother is the beginning of life as a conscious entity. While these beliefs would have made sense hundreds of years ago, as modern medicine and research furthers, we as a society are gaining more understanding about when consciousness of “life” actually begins. According to Dr. Peter Vishton P.HD, after 3 weeks of gestation, the embryo has formed a neural groove, which is the base foundation for brain structure. By 6 weeks, “recordable brain activity appears” and by the second month “the neural tube (brain, spinal cord and other neural tissue of the central nervous system) is well formed”. (Vishton) This informations suggest that even in the slightest degree, the embryo is already beginning to form a personality and consequent thought process. This debate between astrology and the introduction of modern science uses ways of knowing such as reason, faith, sensory perception and intuition, while also pertaining to the overarching areas of knowledge such as natural sciences, human sciences and religious knowledge systems.A second situation that proves the theory that with more knowledge comes more doubt is the relationship between meteorology and the Christian religion. In the Christian bible, there are many instances where God would punish humans on earth with natural disasters, as a way to provide a reason for natural phenomenons that they did not understand. For example. In the book of Genesis, God saw human violence and wickedness on earth and as a punishment flooded the entire world, except for Noah and his family. If one literally interprets bible, it says that if you sin, God will wreak havoc on Earth in the form of natural disasters. With discoveries in science and specifically meteorology, it is known that “a flood occurs when water overflows or inundated a land that is normally dry. This can happen because of excessive rain, a large storm or tsunami, a ruptured dam/levee or rapid ice melting in the mountains.” (National Geographic) Similarly, in the old testament, when the Israelites were returning from their exile to Babylon, they began to rebuild houses and markets instead of rebuilding the temple. Due to the materialistic behaviour of the Israelites, God caused drought, resulting in lack of produce. In actuality, drought is caused by changing wind patterns causing moisture to relocate and cause a certin place to not receive their normal amount of precipitation. (National Geographic) This real life situation ties in the ways of knowing: religious belief systems, faith and reason, and pose knowledge questions like, “Does that discredit the entire religion?”