Managerial Roles within Functional Areas of Business
For a business to succeed there are lots of things and people required but among the most important people needed, the managers are the most essential and can make a difference between losing money and making profit. Cie?li?ska describes a manager as “a person who fulfills the primordial managerial functions (planning, organizing, motivating and controlling) and is the superior of given human team” (2007). There are managers at various different levels in a hierarchy, some are in top-management, others in middle-management and many more are in first-line management (Cie?li?ska, 2007). To discuss managers within functional areas of a business is to discuss managers in top-management positions. Although these managers’ main drive is to achieve the organization’s goals, the unique roles that these managers must take are nothing but the same within their particular functional area.
These main functional areas in which top-managers work in are “Marketing, Operations Management, Finance and Human Resource Management” (Jiang, 2009). Managers are crucial to the success of a company because they make necessary decisions and take on specific managerial roles according to their position in their respective functional area. Marketing is an “essential department of an organization” (Jiang, 2009), therefore it is vital to place a certain type of individual in the management position to manage this functional area. Specific tasks that are completed in this department are research of current and future market prospects and developing of new ideas that turn into products and services (Jiang, 2009). Specific duties that a manager in this functional area will be carrying out are noticing specific changes in regards to what is going on in the consumer world, predicting what products or services the customers may want and making sure the other departments of the organization realize the objectives of the entire organization (Jiang, 2007). When these managers notice the market behavior, they need to develop strategic roles and organizing roles to approach the consumer world (Cie?li?ska, 2007) to present a product or service in a way that is pleasant and unique to the consumer (Jiang, 2009).
The manager must be sure that the organization is “specialized in its own products and services [so] that others [are] not able to copy or imitate” (Jiang, 2009). By ensuring that the entire organization is up to date with the products and services, it can keep competitors from entering the field. The core idea of “strategic thinking is to keep the cost of entering this market very high so that competitors won’t be able to enter”, this way the “organization will develop very quickly as a result of carrying out such marketing strategy” (Jiang, 2009). Jiang states that “managers should try to be proactive rather than reactive” because most companies repel changes but by having a manager that is innovative the organization can respond correctly to changes (2009). The manager in this position exercises mostly an interpreter role and a leader role. While exercising an interpreter role, the manager is “analyzing possibilities of company’s development and implementing systematic changes and initiating different programs and scientific research” (Cie?li?ska, 2007). Another functional area is Operations Management, this refers to “satisfying customers’ needs and wants”. Closely tied in to Marketing, managers must ensure their branch is researching and developing products and services accordingly with the resource inputs needed so that they can set a sales price for each product and service. In Operations Management, managers must supervise and lead the team to come to a “final decision on making profits according to the cost and the price” (Jiang, 2009). In this position, the manager exercises mostly the monitor role and negotiator role. The manager portrays the monitor role as he/she “searches for the information concerned with the company’s activity which are necessary for making decisions” and the negotiator role by negotiating in group internal agreements to set prices (Cie?li?ska, 2007). A third functional area is Finance.
This area handles the issues of “raising capital for the operations and ensuring sufficient revenue is generated to cover the cost of any finance raised”. Namely, the department is required to assure that the organization has enough money to run accurately(Jiang, 2009). Here a manager must make organizational decisions if there is not enough revenue coming in to the business. Financial cuts may have to take place and he/she must plan out how to return to a place of stability. The manager mostly shows disturbance handler role by improving the organization’s structure, responding to conflicts and eliminating disturbances and negative events in the enterprise; this manager also shows resource allocator role by choosing where the organization will expand its efforts, distributing limited resources in the organization and prioritizing tasks and procedures (Cie?li?ska, 2007).
Lastly, top managers may be working within Human Resource Management. This manager is in charge of supervising the “training, recruitment and selection of new staff”. This manager is the one that goes through applicants’ resumes and schedules interviews. He or she then has to find new recruits’ strengths and weaknesses so as to place them where their strengths will mostly be beneficial to the organization. It is essential for this manager to be informed about the skills set and experience needed for each open position so that each recruit has the capability to perform their duties assigned (Jiang, 2009). In Human Resource Management, managers display resource allocator roles while they choose where to place human skills and abilities to benefit the organization as much as possible (Cie?li?ska, 2007). To put it briefly, managers are extremely important to the success of a company no matter what area he/she is in. The top managers mentioned above, take on similar roles but each have unique responsibilities within their functional area. They all display combinations of interpersonal roles, informational roles and decisional roles contributing toward the completion of stated goals.
Cie?li?ska, K. (2007). The basic roles of manager in business organization. Journal of agribusiness and rural development, 6(385), 3-12. Jiang, X. (2009). Strategic management for main functional areas in an organization. International journal of business and management, 4(2).