Main theory on
time allocation and household production is analyzed by Gary Becker in 1965. “A
theory of the allocation of time” is a theory that explains analytically how
time is allocated in non-market activities that refers unpaid working
activities which include unpaid domestic work. Becker contributes to literature
by developing a fundamental theory that is influence on economics and also
social studies. This theory basically analyses relationship between allocation
of time and household products by household production method that is a part of
time allocation theory of Becker. According to the production method of
households, households act as a producer-consumer and produce household
products that will benefit from using market goods and self-time as inputs to
the production function. The theorem aims to state interactive relation between
time allocation, production and consumption. The theory particularly has been
developed to explain level of female labor force participation that is directly
related with unpaid domestic work. According to Becker (1965), increase in the
allocation of time for housework causes to decrease in labor force
participation. Home production is depends on how much time is allocated for
that and Becker explains it by household production method. In this theory,
when allocation of time increases, the production of household at home
increases as well. Household production basically includes food consumption,
child and elderly care, shopping and care of textile.
Sayer (2005) allocating time for
housework is affected by major variables which are gender, age, level of
income, level of education and market activities. Household production that is
examined by Becker is influenced by those variables. Chester (2012) states that
gender is one of the basic component that affects time allocation for domestic
work. Gammage (2015) states that women have more burden than men. In this study
shows that women contribute relatively 70% more time to do domestic work then
men in Guatemala. Also Qi and Dong (2015) state that while women allocate 2
hours and 19 minutes of domestic housework when compared to men allocate
approximately 58 minutes per a day to perform domestic work at home.
Education level is
another determinant that has an impact on allocation of time. Marphatia and
Moussie (2013) find that when women’s education level increases, women are not
able to allocate time compared to lower level educated women since educated
women are able to locate in market work and they need to allocate their time
between market and nonmarket work. They state that when women’s education level
and labor market activities increases, household production decreases and
allocated time for household production decreases as well.
In my research, I
will search the determinants of domestic unpaid work in Turkey and how women
allocate their time for unpaid work. I will conduct the hypothesis as
allocation for domestic work decreases when labor force participation, age,
level of income increases.
• Having younger children leads
to increase in time allocation for unpaid work.
gender differences affect volume of unpaid work time or not.