John F. Kennedy was the 35th president of the United States. Kennedy was also a key component in the defence of this nation as a whole throughout the cuban missile crisis. Kennedy was a strong figure for the face of America. While Kennedy’s speeches do not cover the whole concerns of American people, Kennedy covers topics that are of utmost important to the country currently, not to future problems or obstacles, Kennedy’s speeches are very sound and console the American people in times of hardship and in very adverse situations. The writer of Kennedy’s Inaugural Address was Ted Sorensen, Kennedy had Sorensen study President Abraham Lincoln’s Inaugural Address before having it written. Kennedy’s use of history and the past events to connect the past to the future resonates strongly with the American people. Kennedy brings up a point in his speech which he subtly notions that if Americans, as a whole, have been a better nation, then why can’t the nation come together again to become better? The whole purpose of this speech is to lift American morale and spirit and to hopefully help nationalism and patriotism increase. “Not a victory of party but a celebration of freedom.”. This demonstrates Kennedy’s position on the united states as a whole. JFK also uses real life examples of poverty to support his agenda in this speech. “To those people in the huts and villages of half the globe struggling to break the bonds of mass misery, we pledge our best efforts to help them help themselves…”. Kennedy also changes his tone in the declaration “Let every nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend, oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty.”. This declaration serves the purpose of defending the pride of American citizens in stating fiercely that we will oppose any foe to assure the survival and the success of liberty. In this speech, Kennedy aims to accomplish two main objectives: unification of Americans and humans, and to call his audience to duty. His use of shared backgrounds and ethics is extremely effective in connecting the country and world as one, while also working to strengthen his call to duty. This call is also based on an argument of logical and emotional appeals. The entire speech is structured in a logical way that flows from point to point, and makes sense overall. Stronger than the appeal to logic, however, is the appeal to emotions. Feelings such as pride and hope are contrasted with emotions such as fear and pity, and this contrast works to evoke powerful emotions in the audience. Negative sentiments, such as the pity felt for people in “huts and villages” attempting to cast off “the chains of poverty” are used to propel the people into action (Kennedy). These unwanted feelings create a desire among all to eradicate these emotions? and their causes. Additionally, when contrasted with the sensations of hope and pride created through the unification of American and world citizens, this emphasizes the desire for increased pride and hope. And this can only be accomplished through rising to Kennedy’s challenge and answering his call to duty. Strong appeals to morals and emotions are important aspects of Kennedy’s inaugural speech, which was aimed at uniting the people of the world as one by referencing their commonalities? such as shared backgrounds, cultures, and values. Kennedy creates connections between the different societies and groups of people in the world to emphasize his powerful call to duty, which serves to further unite the audience together with a common goal to ensure that we can all live in a world of peace and stability, where basic human rights are protected for everyone.Kennedy’s televised civil rights address purpose was to recognize the disenfranchised and oppressed people of America, and in relation to this time period, these people were African Americans. Kennedy addresses his “fellow citizens,” in order to convey that he is addressing all the people of the United States, not just a select group of people. President Kennedy uses anaphora to express the disenfranchisement of African Americans to portray the hardships that African Americans have to endure on a day-to-day basis. “The Negro baby born in America today, regardless of the section of the State in which he is born, has about one-half as much chance of completing high school as a white baby born in the same place on the same day, one-third as much chance of completing college, one-third as much chance of becoming a professional man, twice as much chance of becoming unemployed…”. Kennedy also uses common moral principles such as the golden rule to fuel his argument. Kennedy creates pathos by using the golden rule because the golden rule applies to every living object on this planet. Everyone wants to be treated like a human being, and Kennedy points this out to say that one shouldn’t treat African American’s like trash, unless one wants to be treated like trash. This is common sense. Kennedy therein takes the argument back to the Civil War when President Lincoln created the Emancipation Proclamation, which freed all slaves, everywhere. He questions the audience and the world by asking why there is still prejudice in the country. Kennedy then states he will enact legislation to allow African Americans to be served in all restaurants, and to have no colored signs on toilets, water fountains, or any other places. He creates pathos to justify this decision. This relates to the audience because it concerns all of America, not just a potion or a half, but America as a whole. President Kennedy wins the hearts and minds of the citizens of America, mainly because he addresses all of America, as said previously, but not only because of this. He also digs deep into the roots of the citizens hearts and finds what most affects them directly. Kennedy supports his argument with all sorts of literary devices. The repetition that he uses are like daggers of sympathy that he uses to stab repeatedly into the hearts of Americans.Kennedy used a technique called anaphora, or the repetition of the first part of a sentence for added effect, when he said Cuba will be “free from foreign domination, free to choose their own leaders, free to select their own system, free to own their own land, free to speak and write and worship without fear or degradation.” He used alliteration, such as “large, long-range missiles.” He also used metaphor, when he said that “the fruits of victory would be ashes in our mouths.” In her 2007 analysis of the speech published in “Gnovis Journal,” Megan Weintraub describes Kennedy’s use of the metaphorical construct of a container, in which he separated the Western hemisphere from the threat of communism. Containment was also the U.S. strategy in regard to communism. Apposition, a grammatical construction by which two elements are placed side by side to modify one another, appears in the phrase “…and our history – unlike that of the Soviets since the end of World War II – demonstrates that we have no desire to dominate or conquer any other nation.” Phair, Collete. “Rhetorical Devices of Kennedy’s Cuban Missile Crisis Speech.” Synonym, Leaf Group, classroom.synonym.com/rhetorical-devices-kennedys-cuban-missile-crisis-speech-23663.html. The Cuban Missile Crisis was one of the extremely dangerous obstacles that Kennedy had to endure during his time in office. The purpose of this speech was “…our evaluation of the evidence and our decision on a course of action, this government feels obliged to report this new crisis to you in fullest detail.”. Kennedy also creates Pathos in this quote “Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right… not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom…”. After gaining the American people’s trust, Kennedy offered seven points to the American people to help recover from this crisis. First point was to create a blockade around Cuba so as to control what weapons may be entering or leaving the island. The second point Kennedy made was to continue and increase surveillance of Cuba. This gave comfort and knowledge to the people that they would be able to know exactly what was going on in Cuba with relation to nuclear missiles. In his third point, Kennedy stated that any missile launched from Cuba against any nation in the western hemisphere would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union against the United States. By doing this, Kennedy clearly defined that the Soviet’s were the enemy to anyone in the western hemisphere. In his fourth point, Kennedy regarded that they have reinforced the United States base at Guantanamo and ordered military personnel to be on stand-by. By stating this, Kennedy showed that America was ready for any type of action taken by the Soviets. In Kennedy’s fifth point, Kennedy identified that Cuba was not only an enemy to the United States, but to all of our allies in the western hemisphere (that could have been struck by the nuclear missile). When Kennedy did this, he made the point that it was not just America in danger, but any nation in the western hemisphere. By doing this, Kennedy used an identification appeal to his an international audience that put everyone on a common ground. This created a common bond between America and others in the west that may have been struck by the missile. JFK reinforced this in his sixth point, with the statement that they needed to take action against “this latest Soviet threat to world peace”. “His October 22nd speech openly addressed not only American citizens, but also countries of the “Western hemisphere”, the “World community of nations”, and “Peoples to whom we are committed.””(Bostdorff 1994) In Kennedy’s seventh and final point, he asked that Khrushchev “halt and eliminate this clandestine, reckless and provocative threat to world peace and to stable relations between our two nations…abandon this course of world domination… by refraining from any action which will widen or deepen the present crisis”. This was Kennedy’s attempt to make public the effort on his part to get the Soviet Union to peacefully end this crisis. At the end of his address to the nation, Kennedy made public the organization’s goals which were being threatened by the Soviet’s. “Our goal is not the victory of might, but the vindication of right- -not peace at the expense of freedom, but both peace and freedom, here in this hemisphere, and, we hope, around the world. God willing, that goal will be achieved.” By defining this goal at the end of the speech, Kennedy called forth two major qualities of being an American that were being threatened by this crisis: peace and freedom. These are two definitive qualities of what makes up being an American citizen. When Kennedy conveyed that not only the American people’s civil right to freedom was being threatened, but they might incur a violent attack on American soil, he drew the audience more into his speech to see how he could fix the situation.John F. Kennedy’s address to the nation was a successful example of crisis communications. It not only informed the people of the dire situation, but it also reinforced the people’s confidence in the United States Government, and displayed to the world reasons why they should back the Americans in this situation. This speech allowed for the American people to stand behind its government, rather than be fearful that it would be weak in the standoff with the enemies to American life and culture. By showing strength in his diction and efforts to handle the situation, the people could live their lives with certainty that the crisis would be dealt and the belief that everything would be fine. Long, Jamie, and Sean Swett. “John F. Kennedy and the Cuban Missile Crisis: An Analysis of Crisis Communication within Our Nation.” Jamie Long, Backpacking Matt, 11 May 2010, jamiethomaslong.wordpress.com/writing-2/john-f-kennedy-and-the-cuban-missile-crisis-an-analysis-of-crisis-communication-within-our-nation-written-by-jamie-long-and-sean-swett/.Be sure to format the sources and also make sure you do not have run on sentences.Fix grammar and explain more how a lot of the pathos relates to the audience. Explain how the techniques he uses affect the audience’s view on the subject.