Job design Essay

1.      Sure Starters Daycare Centre is a private daycare that cares for children from three months to eight years. It runs all through the year except during national holidays. It has a capacity to accommodate forty children. Its staff strength consists of fourteen caregivers, three administrative personnel and five support staffs. The caregivers are directly responsible for the care of the children. They take care of their personal needs, teach them and monitor the development of these children. Each caregiver has specific children attached to them and they are called the Key Person’s in charge of the children they care for. The administrative personnel are made up of the Administrative Secretary, the Care Guide and the Public Relations Officer. The Centre has a vision of giving every child a sense of belonging to the end that the child feels at home at the centre. The byline is “Home from home”. It was incorporated in April 2005, started running at full capacity and has had a waiting list since its first year of incorporation. It has a database of sixty-eight children that have passed through the centre and thirty-six students who are currently at the centre. The centre runs from 7a.m. till 7p.m. daily.

2.      From understanding, I explain Attribution Theory as the use of explanation, either in words or in thoughts, to justify the circumstances or current predicament one finds himself in. This might be positive or negative.

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With the busy schedule at the centre, there usually arises a situation whereby a key person might be found to have neglected a child. A child is considered to be neglected when he is not taking part in the current activity because he has needs in other areas that have not been met. For instance, a child that refuses to take part in story time because he is thirsty should be attended to. Failure by the key person to attend to the child will be considered a case of neglect. According to the child neglect policy of the organization, whenever a child is neglected for ten minutes at a stretch, the key person will be issued a query and her appraisal will be affected negatively for the week. To avoid this, the care guide goes round ensuring that there is no act of neglect by any key person. Five minutes after a child is neglected, the care guide will call the attention of the key person to the child. Statistics have shown that key persons always have a justification for the act of neglect. Some give personal issues such as the phone calls they were receiving as the reason for neglect of the child, another key person said she was overwhelmed at the moment. Three members of staff were laid off because they were found in the habit of neglecting their wards too often and their responses to the queries on their act of neglect were somewhat nonchalant. Speaking with one of them after being laid off, she attributed the cause of neglect to exhaustion. She said the activities were stereotyped and did not afford her the opportunity to use her creative ideas while working with the children. This, she claimed, boxed her in and made her spend more time at the board trying to check the activities of the day as she goes through them. On the other hand, some members of staff, especially those who rarely have instances of neglect, disagreed with the reasoning that the activities were stereotypic. They were of the opinion that the activities were consistent and not stereotyped. They attributed their consistent ability to care for the children to the daily activities schedule drawn out. Each person argued her points from the current result she was obtaining. There was an employee who was having difficulty with keeping up with the daily activities schedule. She went for a session of training in “Principles and Values of Child Care”, upon her return, there was marked difference in her approach to child caring. Her attribution of the result she was producing changed from blaming the system to praising her ability to work things out. It was therefore noted, through experiences with the employees of Sure Starters Daycare Centre, that people will explain things in their favor no matter the circumstance.

3.      (a)       The organizational structure has been designed since inception and anyone employed at the centre will be handed a predesigned job description. So many people do not see the need to personalize the job description. This can be overcome in two phases. When each person recruited has a discussion with the employer to discuss the tasks expected of the new employee, it passes a message across to the employee that she is very important. Some will emerge from the meeting with excitement and a high level of responsibility because they will perceive the meeting as a forum where their job description was customized for them. From experience, I’ve noticed that when a person is made to be part of decision making, notwithstanding the field of endeavor, she comes out feeling important, responsible and ready to work on the task. It boosts such person’s self esteem and gives the person a sense of ownership of the idea. After a while usually, a routine is set and this usually leads to boredom. At this time, there should be an incentive of increased responsibility. Increased responsibility communicates to the employee that her efforts are recognized and rewarded. This might be done by a simple act of moving the employee to handle older children. Though there has been no promotion or increased remuneration, there is an added level of responsibility. Alternatively, there can be job rotation once in a few years. This will resolve the issue of boredom and also increase the productivity of the employee.

(b)       The caregiver should be at liberty to choose the activities they will do each day of the week. The guiding rule should be that all activities drawn out for the week must be carried out within the week. In doing this, each employee is able to take the children through all the activities without feeling stereotypic. To this end, there will be a conscious effort by the caregivers to involve all the children as all the activities chosen will be their idea.

A teacher’s forum should hold once in a month. At this forum, the caregivers should be able to discuss new ideas they have, new discoveries they have made, improvements they have had on their jobs, positive criticisms, challenges they had. Personal issues can also be discussed. The essence of this forum is to the employees by creating an atmosphere for relaxation. Therefore, there should be no indications of official atmosphere at the forum. This is very necessary when the byline of the organization is put into consideration. Immediate feedback on the weekly appraisal will help the employee to know what she is doing right, where she needs to improve and what she needs to change. It will also build confidence in the employee.

(c)       Job enrichment implies that the employee now has responsibility that is greater than what she has been equipped to do. This, therefore, requires that the employee be trained in the capacity to which she has been entrusted. Invariably, she is sent for trainings in that area. For a period of time, there will be adjustments to be made. The parents, teachers and most especially the children will need to get used to the new arrangement.

(d)       The essence of job enrichment is to give a higher level of satisfaction to the employee. It is trust in a person’s ability that will produce such level of responsibility. This inadvertently boosts the person’s self confidence and such person will make efforts to meet up to responsibility. Satisfaction that comes from job enrichment is reflected by the increase in result that is generated by the employee to the expectations, these results in a chain reaction to the end that the clients will be impacted. Referrals by current clients, which are a guaranteed form of publicity, will cause an influx of clients to the organization. Existing clients will, also, willingly pay more when the need arises. This will directly impact on the income of the organization and subsequently, the income of the employee.

4.      (b)       Based on the large variation in his job description, the Administrative Secretary has reasons and opportunities to use varying methods in relating with people. His leadership approach is determined by the position of the person he is dealing with. For instance, he relates using the same leadership approach with the caregivers notwithstanding their experience, level of commitment or productivity. This however creates a situation where more experienced caregivers believe that their skills and experiences are being undermined. Using the situational model of leadership will make him relate with each employee according to the employees abilities, experience and level of productivity. Personality tests can be done by all members of staff. This will be a starting point for assessing the approaches he needs to deploy for each person.

(c)       On a monthly basis, I was given a book on leadership which I must review at the end of the month and site instances where I deployed what I learned from the book. In his assessment of my performance on the task, I am given the opportunity to attend interviews that he has lined up for the month, I also got a bonus salary if there was consistency in my assessment. His approach to leadership in the reward for task carried out is commendable. Nonetheless, I believe there are books that could have greatly influenced my job if I was given the freedom to read them. He will do a better job by allowing me to pick a book by myself every three months.

(d)       The reward system worked best for me. A little more freedom and it would have been very perfect. Nevertheless, that is my recommendation.

5.      (a)       The Administrative Secretary of the Daycare Centre performs general office duties such as coordination of meetings, preparing and circulating the agenda and minutes of the meeting, receiving and reviewing incoming and outgoing correspondences, generating internal correspondences. He conducts interviews for applicants, makes travel arrangements and other related matters. He also maintains the database of children, employees and those on the waiting list. He maintains and reconciles office budget, prepares information needed for administrative decisions. He maintains and updates the calendar and schedule of activities for the Centre. He coordinates and monitors special projects, assignments and activities

(b)       It will aid his understanding of the organization’s objectives, It will help him to understand his specific tasks and responsibilities and how it helps to achieve the organizational objectives, performance measurement becomes easy. Reward become easily ascertained, It enhance total quality management.

(c)        I will communicate the organizational objectives and his personal business objectives to him in clear terms. I will set up measuring standards for his job and how it affects the overall achievement of the organizational objectives. I will create a platform for feedback regarding his progress. I will put a reward system in place to help motivate his commitment towards his goals.

(d)       The organizational objectives will be achieved. The worker becomes more effective on his work, having a sense of relevance in the organization and become highly motivated. It will also encourage creativity and enhance knowledge sharing in the organization.


Behaviour (original statement):                                 Late resumption to work

Behaviour (stated as desired):                                              Punctual to work and appointments

Behaviour (operational terms and as desired):            Resuming in the office at the time when parents can be reached and issues with the public will need to be resolved.

Responses when the behaviour occurs                      F/U      P/W     RESP  STR

I          Punctual to work                                           U         P          PR       POS

II         Attended to dissatisfied parents                   F          P          PR       POS

III       Submitted report                                           F          W        PR       INC

Responses when the behaviour doesn’t occur                       F/U      P/V      RESP  STR

I          Late to work                                                  F          W        PCP     POS

II         Failure to submit report of meeting               U         P          PR       POS


(b)       A monthly recognition of the best staff should be done using punctuality and report submission as part of the criteria. This will make every employee aim for a position in the hall of fame.

7.      (a)       Motivating employees rather than the issuance of queries. He used practical experiences he had learnt from to teach me how I could build relationships with employees and get the best out of them at all times.

There was a point of discussion where there was an appeal to the personalities in both cases. There was also the difference of motivated result. While my actual incidence got immediate response, the other case had a series of guidance before results could be obtained.

(b)       Acknowledging; Rhetorical questions; Sharing. His acknowledgement of my predicament gave made him draw my attention to the results he was going to proffer. He asked questions that made me draw out solutions I did not know I possessed and he also gave instances when he had to use those approaches I laid down. I do not think there were more accurate guidance I could have received at that time.


Janine(1999). Bempechat . Learning from Poor and Minority Students Who Succeed in School. 1991.