This is a paper on the Jewish History. This paper will analyze the Jewish history looking from the period of 1930 to the end of World War II. This paper will focus at the U.S. and aboard in these terms unity concentrating on the ideas that caused the separation and the impacts the U.S community had on the Jewish faith. The second focus is on identity looking at what it was like to be Jewish at that period of 1930 to the end of World War II and the contrast between the old and the young in terms of the future of the faith. The last focus is on self sacrifice looking at the chances members of the Jewish community took to save and insure the future of their people, the challenges that the American elites faced when lending their support to the Jewish community and challenges Jewish leaders faced when becoming out spoken. The other subtopics that will be discussed in this paper is about the problems Jewish businesses and business practices faced during this period, the publics opinion of the Jews in the U.S. and aboard, avenues the Jewish Community took to overcome the overwhelming odds against them. This paper will also look at the role of Non-Profits during these trying times and the role of Jewish Banks and Film maker in the U.S. lastly this paper will discuss the solutions the Non-Profits provided to the banks and film makers.
The Jewish have been faced with a lot of problems throughout their history and many people have wondered the miracle that has enabled the Jewish people existence even though they suffered ridicule and persecutions from other communities (Birnbaum, 2006). The problem began when the Palestine chased the Jews out of their country during the 2nd century. The Roman Empire was the pioneer of the problems that were faced by the Jews due to the ban of the Judaism (Kamp, 2008). The Jews have lived in many abroad countries that include Monrovia, Czech and Hungary and Germany. By the period of 1930, 80% Jews had emigrated from other countries to Czech Republic (Porges, 2008). The Jews were involved with many aspects in the countries that they resided. Politically, the Jews participated in councils in countries such as Czech and Hungary. The Jews were also actively involved in the economy of the countries such as Czech and Hungary (Porges, 2008; Weiner, 2008). In Hungary, the Jews lived there since the Roman Empire time during the 9th century. In Hungary, the Jews settled in Buda, Sopron, Old Buda, Tata and Esztergom towns (Weiner, 2008). The Jewish history greatest exodus happened during the 20th century. In this exodus, many Jews had immigrated to the United States from their native country (Lazin, 2004, p. 377).
I. From the period of 1930 to the end of World War II in U.S. and abroad
1. The ideas that caused separation in the community
The Jewish communities were separated from the other communities while residing in the countries that they had immigrated to. Some of the ideas that caused the separation between the Jewish and the other communities were because the other communities discriminated the Jews just because they were perceived to be the Christ Killer among other stereotypes (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 1).
2. The impact the community had on the Jewish faith
The Jewish communities had to fit in the community of the areas that they had immigrated to which therefore led to a lot of impacts to the faith of the Jewish. Some Jewish were forced to convert from their religion to Christianity due to the discrimination that they were facing (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 1).
1. What it was like to be Jewish at that time
The Jews faced a lot of anti-Semitism during the period of 1930 to the end of World War II. It was very had for the Jews to mix with the other communities since they were stereotypes as the Christ killers and other names such as child murders. Many Jews were chase from the places they lived for the reasons of just being a Jew. Even though some of them changed to Christianity to fit in, they still faced challenges since some people argued that being a Christian is not an identity of religion but a matter of genetics and blood. The Jews also faced death from Germans since they were perceived to be undesirable for living. The Jewish were also not willing to the other that they were Jews to reduce the discrimination that was instilled to them (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 1).
2. The contrast between the old and the young in terms of the future of the faith
There is much contrast between the old and the young Jews on the future of their faith. This is because some of the young Jews believe that they have no future for their faith. While the other concerned about how the faith of the Jewish community can survive in the future. Many of the Jews believe that the only religion that can survive is the orthodox other than the Jewish religion (Cohen, 1990, p. 3). The younger Jews have also been less active in the religion leading to the less survival of the Jewish religion than the older Jews (Cohen, 1990, p. 4).
C. Self Sacrifices
1. The chances members of the Jewish community took to save and insure the future of their people
Many of the Jews fought with the anti-Jewish in order to secure the future of the Jewish people in every day o their lives to prevent the abused that they were facing. The Jewish people formed partisans in order they could fight the Nazis that were discriminating against them. The other way the Jewish took chances was by pretending that they were Christians by going to churches. In this ways they could secure their future survival by mixing among the Christians. The other chances the Jewish took were by practising secrecy in all that they could do. The Jews had to use fake identify for joining the Maquis. The Jews also used forces for facing the anti-Semitics that was affecting them (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 2).
2. The challenges that the American elites faced when lending their support to the Jewish community
Many Americans were also faced with the challenge of supporting the Jewish community to their country. This is because America was the country that had a positive welcome to the Jewish community that immigrated to the country. The Americans were then forced by the other countries to stereotype the Jews. This therefore reduced the support that some of the American elites had on the Jewish community (Kamp, 2008).
3. Challenges Jewish leaders faced when becoming out spoken
One of the challenges that the Jewish leaders faced was on the resettling the Jews to their native country, Israel since many of the Jews preferred resettling in the U.S. and other countries other than their native country (Lazin, 2004, p. 377). The Jewish leaders in the 1930s were also not allowed access to the officials of the government. The Jewish leaders also had the challenge of convincing the American government to allow the Jews to immigrate to America. The Jewish leaders in the 1930s were also old sick men and had no influence in the politics. The Jewish leaders were also challenged in their leadership since they were ashamed of being Jews and were busy for doing their work as leaders (Lazin, 2004, p. 378).
II. The problems Jewish businesses and business practices faced during this period
1. How Governments criticized their practice
There are Jews who have lived in Hungary from the period of the Roman Empire. The number of the communities of the Jewish that lived in Hungary grew since many had emigrated from the other places such as Moravia, Germany and Bohemia. The Jews in Hungary were faced with the problem of restrictions that were placed by the clergy of the Christians and Christian institutions. The Jews were faced with problems of intermarrying with the Christians. The Jews could also not work on Sundays and during Christian holidays. The influence of the government on the Jews was faced during Louis the Great reign in 1342 to 1382 leading to expulsion of the Jews from Hungary because of the Black Death. The problems of the Jews were also faced during Louis II reign from 1516-1526 (Weiner, 2008). The Jews’ problems increased during the Maria Theresa reign in the 17th century.
2. The scrutiny of the effects of use of stereotype in criticism
Some of the stereotype that faced the Jews was due to the relationship of the black and the Jews. In many countries where the Jews resided, there were problems of black anti-Semitism which was the problem of the relationship between the blacks and the Jews (Petigny, 2007, pp. 556-564). The Jews were also stereotyped as being child murderers, devils and helpers of the devils and Christ killers. The Jews were also stereotypes as being sub human by the Germans since they were considered to be cancer to the society of Germans (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 1). The Jews were also called the chosen people since they believed that they were God’s chosen people the Jews were also named was the dirty Jews especially those who lived in the ghettos (Kamp, 2008).
B. Acquisition of Jewish Businesses by the Government
1. Reasons used to justify taking over ownership
From 1849, the Jews were restricted economically and were not allowed to participate in the economy. During the 19th century, the problems of the Jews increased since the anti-Jewish established laws to restrict the Jews from participating in commerce by 80%. The Jews were also restricted from participating economically by 95% leading to many of the Jews losing their sources of income (Weiner, 2008). This was brought about by the acquisitions that the people had on the Jews. Many people discriminated on the Jews because they believed that they were the Christ killer and therefore did not want to be associated with them. Due to the discriminations and driving away of the Jews, governments therefore acquired the businesses of the Jews due to the stereotypes that they had on the Jews (Kamp, 2008; Berenbaum, 2005, p. 1).
2. The perpetuation of the acquisitions
The perpetuations of the acquisitions of the governments of the Jews were based on the stereotypes that were faced by the Jews. Many governments hated the Jews just because they were Jews and due to reasons that they believed that the Jews were the Christ killer and children murders. The perpetuations of the acquisitions were also based on how the Jews were driven out of the various countries that they resided in (Kamp, 2008).
III. The publics’ opinion of the Jews in the U.S. and aboard
A. The racist acts committed against them
The Jews were faced with lots of racism in many of the countries that they resided in. The Jews were not allowed to enter resorts and clubs in the 1880s. The Jews also experienced negative stereotypes from the Americans and other countries that were greedy, clannish, vulgar, physically inferior and parasitic. The Jews were also discriminated in finding health care, jobs and access to homes (Kamp, 2008). The Jews were also not allowed to attend churches and intermarrying with the Christians. The Jews could also not work on Sundays and during Christian holidays (Weiner, 2008)
B. The openly racist remarks by government officials
Some of the open remarks from the officials were done by the Charles E. Coughlin who was a priest of the Roman Catholic. He claimed that the Jews were communist and therefore the attacks by the Nazis to the Jew were justified. He also claimed that the Jews who were living New York were responsible for bad economic times that were faced in the country (Kamp, 2008). Adolf Hitler was also responsible for making of open remarks about the Jews. He claimed that Jews were subhuman and a cancer to the German nation which therefore made him believe that by killing all the Jews, he can be a position to win the war (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 6).
IV. Avenues the Jewish Community took to overcome the overwhelming odds against
A. How they supported their cause when faced with the likelihood of being blacklisted
Since the Jewish were faced by many odds in the other countries, there was need of strategies that the Jewish community would use to overcome the odds. One of the ways the Jewish communities fought for their right as partisans in the fight of the Nazis (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 1). The other avenue that the Jews did to save the future of the Jewish was to speak different languages such as Yiddish and joining other religions such as orthodox (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 2).
Some of the Jews that were actively involved in the protection of the Jews were known as Norman Salsitz since he used to hide the Jews when there were missions for the killings of the Jews. He did this by changing his name and pretending to be a catholic and joining the Armia Krajowa (AK) to save the lives of the Jews. He also spoke in the Yiddish language to help in saving the Jewish people (Berenbaum, 2005, p. 5).
Some of the books that informed the public about the state of the Jews include novels by Ernest Hemingway, F. Scott Fitzgerald, and Thomas Wolf. There are also poems by authors such as Eliot T.S. and Pound Ezra. This novels and poems were written to emphasize the stereotypes that were used of the Jews (Kamp, 2008). The other book that has been written to show the state of the Jews is the Anti-Semitism: Its History and Causes, 1894 by Bernard Lazare (Lazare, 1894). An article that has been written to state the state of the Jews is shown in the Appendix 1. (Lazare, 1894)
V. The role of Non-Profits during these trying times
A. Jewish non-profits were in places years before the Holocaust
The non-profits of the Jewish were used by the Jewish to help in the support of the Jewish who were suffering from discrimination. This is because many of the Jews were discriminated leading to the loss of their business. The Jewish that were living in America had developed societies that could aid in the provision of jobs for the other Jewish that were faced in discrimination in the other countries. The aid societies were also used in the provision of relief funds for helping the other discriminated Jews. The European Jews were also helped by the other Jews by the provision of societies that could be used for providing finds to school, libraries and hospitals (Kamp, 2008). The Jewish also formed partisans to help in fighting for the rights of the Jews (Berenbaum, 2005, p.1).
VI. The role of Jewish Banks and Film maker in the U.S.
The Jewish have always had a massive authority in Hollywood. By 1930s there was domination by the Jews in the movie business since most of the major corporations of manufacturing were controlled by the Eastern European Jews. The corporations comprise of Columbia (Jack and Harry Cohn), Goldwyn (Samuel Goldwyn—born Samuel Goldfish, 1882), Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer (Louis B. Mayer along with Marcus Loew), Paramount (Jesse Lasky, Adolph Zukor, as well as Barney Balaban), Twentieth Century-Fox (Sol Brill plus William Fox), United performers (Al Lichtman), worldwide (Carl Laemmle), as well as Warner Brothers (Sam, Jack, Albert, also Harry Warner)(Kamp,2008) .
Most of the young people are denied chances in the social service work especially in the film industries. Most of them think that it is due to the heavy groups that are defensive to creative designs. The young people who attend the association and get a chance to work ion those organizations get unfocused. Once they volunteer, they work for no-profit and do not get any promotions (Zaslow, 2004).
VII. The solutions the Non-Profits provided to the banks and film makers
Since the Jewish banks and film makers had the problems of establishing their businesses due to the discrimination that they were facing in many of the countries that they were residing in. The non-profits that were established by the by the Jewish were used for providing help to the people and the Jewish banks and film makers. The non-profits of the Jewish were used by the Jewish to help in the support of the Jewish who were suffering from discrimination such as the film makers and the banks due to the problems affecting their businesses. The Jewish that were living in America had developed societies that could aid in the provision of jobs for the other Jewish that were faced in discrimination in the other countries such as the film makers. The aid societies were also used in the provision of relief funds for helping the other discriminated Jews. The European Jews were also helped by the other Jews by the provision of societies that could be used for providing finds to school, libraries, hospitals and also the Jewish banks (Kamp, 2008).
In conclusion, from the analysis of the information available on the Jewish history, it is evidence that the Jews had so many problems of discrimination from various countries. Various countries had several negative stereotypes to the Jews of which some include the Christ killer and children murders. The Christians were also involved in the discrimination of the Jews due to the fact that the Jews called themselves God’s chosen people. Christians restricted the Jews from doing business on Sunday and on Christian holidays. The Jews were also restricted by the Christians from intermarrying with the Christians. The Jews tried to fight the discriminations by forming partisans fro fighting the Nazis. Some of the Jews were also doing a lot of sacrifices in order to save the future of the Jewish faith by pretending to be Christians and going to the churches. Due to the discrimination and violence that was placed to the Jewish people, many of the Jews were forced to flee and immigrate to various countries (Kamp, 2008; Berenbaum, 2005).
Berenbaum, M. (2005). Study Guide: Antisemitism in the Partisans. Jewish Partisan Educational Foundation. Retrieved December 8, 2008, http://jewishheroes.net/pdfs/AntiSem_study%20guide14.pdf?JPEF_USER_DATA=eee51875857564d22b636b87e8091163.
Birnbaum, E. (2006). Jewish History: Beyond Time and Place. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.jewishhistory.com/history.html
Cohen, S. M. (1990). Jews in the US: The Next Generation. The Public Perspective on Religion in America. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from https://www.policyarchive.org/bitstream/handle/10207/9722/Jews%20in%20the%20US%20-%20the%20Next%20Generation.pdf?sequence=1.
Kamp, J. (2008). Jewish Americans. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.everyculture.com/multi/Ha-La/Jewish-Americans.html
Lazare, B. (1894). Antisemitism: Its History and Causes. Jewish History Sourcebook. Paris: Chailley.
Lazin, F. A. (2004). The Struggle for Soviet Jewry in American Politics: Israel Versus the American Jewish Establishment. American Jewish History 92 (3), 377-379.
Petigny, A. (2007). Black-Jewish relations and the decline of modern liberalism. Reviews in American History 35(4), 556-564. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from Project MUSE database. http://muse.jhu.edu/login?uri=/journals/reviews_in_american_history/v035/35.4petigny.html
Porges. (2008). Jewish history of the Czech Republic. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.porges.net/JewishHistoryOfCzechRepub.html
Weiner, R. (2008). The Virtual Jewish History Tour: Hungary. The American-Israeli Corporation Enterprise. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/vjw/Hungary.html
Zaslow, J. (2004). Making Compassion Cool: Nonprofits Struggle to Bring in the Next Generation. Retrieved December 8, 2008, from http://www.jewishleaders.net/c/document_library/get_file?folderId=3&name=DLFE-22.pdf.
“Rearticulations of French Jewish Identities after the Dreyfus Affair”, Jewish Social Studies Volume 2, Number 3 [online at http://www.indiana.edu/~iupress/journals/jss-art.html ] written by Aron Rodrigue.