It been a constant battle between the

It seems as if there has always been an intense debate as to whether technology in the classroom did more harm than it did good in regard to the student population. Technology, specifically cellular devices, has always been a constant battle between the instructor and the student. It has created a distraction in which many students are affected. Laptops are also a concern given that they give students easy access to online games and other interruptions during class. While technology comes with its limited disadvantages, it also brings about a variety of perks; many education theorists have investigated these benefits throughout their career. For example, Seymour Papert, a man know for his imaginative ideas regarding education, was one of the first people to introduce the idea of technology within the classroom. While involved with MIT and its connections, Papert was able to use his inventive imagination as a guide to his discoveries regarding the benefits of computers for those students who face the struggles of impoverishment. Throughout his career, Papert collaborated with a variety of people including Jean Piaget and Nicholas Negroponte. Papert and Negroponte worked to develop the One Laptop per Child. This program is “a well-know initiative intended to provide rugged, low-cost, low-power, and connected laptops to disadvantaged students around the world” (Livingston). With this program, the idea was to narrow the gap between countries that are developed and those that are developing.  Since the research of Papert began, dating back the early 1960s, technological education has been part of a revolutionary era. The use of technology, such as laptops, iPads, and tablets, in modern society classrooms has become increasingly beneficial to students from both lower income families in the United States. Interestingly, this is also true for developing countries such as Kenya and Nigeria.Before continuing to discuss the benefits of technology within the classroom for students facing financial shortcomings and destitute situations, an understanding of the day-to day endeavors of underprivileged students is necessary. The amount of children battling poverty is startling: In 1998, more than 13 million children (19 percent of all children) under age eighteen lived in families with incomes below the official poverty threshold. Although children age eighteen and under represent 26 percent of the United States population, they comprise nearly 40 percent of the poverty population. Despite a steady decrease from 1993 (23%) to 1999 (17%) in the rate of children in poverty, the United States still ranks highest in childhood poverty among all industrialized nations. (Smith).Throughout this article, the severe disadvantages those from lower-income environments face everyday as they enter a classroom is discusses. It shows that the inconveniences are not only based on a lack of a reliable Internet source, but also within the home environment regarding mental health, neighborhood conditions, and reliable home conditions. The article writes, “Parents who are poor or who have a history of welfare receipt are more likely to have worse emotional and physical health than those who are no poor.” (Smith). Given that stress accumulates over time as debt and loss increase, it is no surprise that parents may suffer from from depressive episodes and mental illnesses. The insufficient mental state of parents can easily negatively impact the way a student performs in the classroom. Poverty-stricken environments can also affect the way a student behaves in the classroom.  Coming from a home that is both unstable and unpredictable to a school that is slightly more secure can be reasonably understood as to why the the development of cognition may be deprived. Along with students in U.S. cities, children in African villages are also facing issues that interfere with their education. Many believe that children is Africa has it far worse than those in the United States, although there are a few exceptions. The most common encounter that African children face is a lack of basic needs such as food, water and shelter. Diseases, malaria and AIDS specifically, are among the most prominent killing machines in Africa. Children in many African countries are also fearing the “recruitment” into intimidating rebel groups. According an article written by Anne-Lynn Dudenhoefer, “Roméo Dallaire, who encountered child soldiers in the Rwandan genocide, states that more than 50% of the population in many African conflict or post-conflict zones consists of children younger than 18 years old.” Children are known to be more vulnerable and obedient which is why they are viewed as valuable to rebel groups in need of soldiers. This article also mentions that  “The Ugandan Lord’s Resistance Army (LRA) has abducted about 25,000 children since the 1980s.” (Dudenhoefer). Given that many children are either forcibly or voluntarily recruited into rebel groups, many of them are certainly not able to attend school, let alone have access to the technology provided. It is no secret that many students face financial hassles on a daily basis. These conflicts make it that much harder for those students to perform to the best of their ability in the classroom. As time progresses, it has become more and more common for teachers to assign homework that involves the use of the Internet. Resources, such as, Khan Academy, and Google Classroom, have provided easy tools for teachers that enable students to learn in a variety of ways. The majority of students who come from middle-class families have some sort of technological device, as well as reliable Internet, at home. Because of this, those students have been granted an advantage of those who have no technology or Internet other than at school. This is where the “educational gap” between poor and wealthy school systems begins. As stated in Low-Income Children Lack Digital Resources, “Overall, 65 percent of all Americans have broadband connections in their homes. Among those Americans who make less than $25,000, 65 percent lack broadband access.” (Celano). Given that assigning online homework is so common, many students are forced to find Internet. How students do that depends on the options available. Some students may attend public schools in which the library is open both before and after school. Others are forced to either find a public facility in which free Wifi is accessible or not the assignment at all. While it might seem cruel, some teachers have given lower grades to students who were not able to complete an online assignment due to a lack an Internet source. As stated in The Homework Gap: The cruelest part of the Digital Divide:According to a recent study from the Hispanic Heritage Foundation, Family Online Safety Institute and My College Options, nearly 50% of students say they have been unable to complete a homework assignment because they didn’t have access to the Internet or a computer. Furthermore, 42% of students say they received a lower grade on an assignment due tol ack of access. (Mclaughlin).There is no justification as to why a student who has no access to an Internet source should be punished for no finishing an assignment. Punishing those students only widens the educational gap, and possibly even discourage the student being docked on their grade. Alvin Dunn Elementary was given the opportunity to be apart of a trial run that “provided the school’s sixth graders with tablets connected via AT&T LTE mobile broadband service.” (Mclaughlin). As a result, “96% of Alvin Dunn students…stated that these LTE enabled devices helped them to become better students, and 78%  stated they ‘worked together with my classmates more often’ as a result of taking a device home.”. (Mclaughlin). Pure motivation to do the assignment given is also an issue. For years, students living in poor communities have been known to either dropout of high school or barely finish. According to a study done by the National Center for Education statistics, “Every year, 1.3 million students drop out of high school in the United States. More than half are students of color, and most are low-income. Low-income students fail to graduate at five times the rate of middle-income families and six times that of higher-income youth.” (Sikhan). Those who have chosen to dropout of school are also more prone to become a low-income citizen themself, therefore continuing the cyclic disadvantage. This graph illustrates the cyclic disadvantage mentioned before. Students who drop out early on are more likely to be apart of the low-income community in the future. In order for this educational gap to reach its halt, schools must make a significant effort. The most favored idea has been to provide all students with a device of their own. Many schools filled with low-income students have come up with the idea of a “flipped classroom”. “Flipped classrooms use technology—online video instruction, laptops, DVDs of lessons—to reverse what students have traditionally done in class and at home to learn.” (Butrymowicz). Many instructors have found success in this method of teaching given that it provides students with more of a one-on-one learning style. It also allows students the opportunity to become more engaged in their learning by providing a hands-on experience. Many schools have also reported an increase in grades such as Clintondale, which “has reduced the percentage of Fs given out from about 40 percent to around 10 percent.” (Butrymowicz). Students from underprivileged communities seem to be prone to fall behind developmentally with respect to their education. The flipped classroom allows these students, who lack basic skills, to work at their own pace and not feel pressured or discouraged. On the other hand, children in other countries, such as Kenya and Nigeria, are also facing an education crisis. Kevin Watkins discusses the education deficit many African students are battling in his article Too Little Access, Not Enough Learning: Africa’s Twin Deficit in Education. Unsurprisingly, he writes “CUE estimates that 61 million African children will reach adolescence lacking even the most basic literacy and numeracy skills…over half of these children will have spent at least four years in the education system.” (Watkins). While faced with a variety of challenges outside the classroom, students are also crammed into a single room with little to no resources available.  The percent of children enrolled in school has increased in recent years although the amount of students that actually complete their secondary schooling is still dramatically low. In order to increase the percent of students finishing their schooling, Watkins writes, there has been an elimination of school fees, increased investment in school infrastructure, and increased teacher recruitment.” (Watkins). While changes are being made, “28 percent of youth are enrolled in secondary school, leaving over 90 million teenagers struggling for employment in low-paid, informal sector jobs.” (Watkins). This table illustrates the percent of children that not reached an adequate level of learning in three different categories. It differs based on each country in Africa (Watkins).After this slight discussion, only the oblivious would not be able to detect the education catastrophe that African students are battling. Technology is not only benefiting those born in the United States, it also benefiting those in developing countries, such as Kenya and Africa. BRCK, “a durably built, brick-sized portable connectivity device intended for use where electricity and internet connections are unreliable”,