Introduction: a religious duty upon the Muslims.

   

Introduction:

 What is civilization
actually? Everything surrounding us is a part of civilization, to be accurate.
The idea of civilization has been developed gradually by the passage of time.
Until the 1860 humans history developed in basically three distinct epochs:
ancient, medieval and modern. However after the evolve of Islam after the
prophet Muhammad(pbuh) has significantly changed the way of civilization in
many parts of the world and it has significant effect to the contribution of
Islamic civilization to European science and technology. The Quran itself
encouraged the believers to accumulate knowledge. Let us have a look at the
following verses in Surah Al-‘Alaq. “Read in the name of your Lord Who
created.  He created man from a clot. Read and your Lord is the Most
Honorable. Who taught by the pen. Taught man what he knew not.” (Qur’an 96:1-5).
Islam makes seeking knowledge as a religious duty upon the Muslims. If someone
gives time to seek knowledge with a good intention of benifiting oneself and
the people, it will be like one kind of Ibadah for him which is like perfroming
additional prayers or fasting. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Seeking
Knowledge is an obligation on every Muslim.” (Ahmed) .

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After Muslims conquering Spain the civilization took tremendous
turn as the practice of science and technology in these area were developed as
high which started a new era in the history of science, technology and civilization.
It was said during that time that the whole Europe was in dark while Spain was
lighting like the only hope of civilization in that particular period of time.

The established Islamic Empire across the Middle East, Central
Asia, and North Africa. Some part of India and Europe from the 8th
century and onwards generated significant contributions towards the field of
mathematics. They were able to collect and combined the mathematical
development of both India and Greece, which was likely to make a new era on the
field of science and technology. It is said that the Golden Age of Islamic
science and mathematics flourished throughout the medival period from the 9th
to 15th century. The Mu­slims were lucky enough to have some of the
greatest mathematicians of all time like Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Kindi, Al-Karaji, Al-
Battani and Al-Biruni.

Different sectors in the field of science were developed like
mathematics, medicine, astronomy, weaponry, philosophy,
musical instruments, architectural development and many other part of science
and technology. We are going to have some brief observation in the field of
math, which has been developed by many Muslim mathematician all over the world
for a long period of time and still now we are having the fruit of their
inventions and discoveries. Their knowledge still has a great influence over
our current civilization in many aspects.­

 

Some Muslim mathematicians and their
contribution:

Since the discovery of mathematics and
numbers and to this day appeared many scientists, who contributed in this field
of science, and the history of mathematics throughout history, many changes,
which occurred in most of the concepts in it, where Arab and Muslim
mathematicians contributed significantly to the development of the number
system, and mathematical theories, which made Western scientists rely on their
theories in the study of mathematics, and here are some of them:

Al-Khwarizmi:

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (Abu Jaafar) lived in
the period between (781 and about 845) was one of the first Muslim
mathematicians, where his work played a major role in the progress of
mathematics in his time. His family moved from the city of Khorazm in Khorasan
to Baghdad in Iraq and there Khwarizmi founded most of his research between 813
and 833 in Dar al-Hikmah founded by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma’mun and published
his works in Arabic, which was the language Science in that era.

Al-Khwarizmi invented the concept of algorithm in mathematics and
computer science (which gave him the title of father of computer science for
some people) So that the word algorithm in many languages derived from his
name, in addition to this, the major contributions to the fields of algebra and
trigonometry, astronomy, geography, and cartography. His methodological and
logical work in solving second-order equations led to the emergence of algebra
so that the science took its name from his book Algebra and the interview,
published in 830, and the word moved to many languages.

 

Al-Biruni:

Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was born in Birun, the
capital of Khorazm (Turkistan) About 326 AH, 973 AD and died in 440 AH, 1048 AD
and was called by orientalists The name of Ptolemy Arabs, He was a
mathematician and physicist and had interests in pharmacy, encyclopedias,
astronomy, and history .

Named A volcanic crater on the moon in his name, along with 300
brightly colored names that were selected to designate the volcanic nozzles The
Moon, including Al-Khwarizmi, Aristotle and Ibn Sina 1. He was born in
Khawarzim, currently under the jurisdiction of Uzbekistan (970-1036), Ibn Sina
(980-1037) and Ibn Muskawiyah (932-1030), a Philosopher from the city of
irrigation in the province of Tehran. Learn Greek and Sanskrit during his
travels and books in Arabic and Persian. Al-Biruni is a language of al-Kharazm
that means foreign or coming from outside the town,

Al-Biruni wrote many works in scientific, historical and
astronomical matters and has contributions to the trigonometry, circle and
lines the length and width, the rotation of the earth and the difference
between the speed of light and the speed of sound, in addition to what he wrote
in the history of India. Also, famous for his writings on pharmacy and medicine
wrote at the end of his life a book called “Pharmacy in Medicine”
Medications and their names.

 

 

 

 

Omar
al-Khayyam:

It is Abu
al-Fath Omar ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam al-Nistaburi lived between (440 -525 Hijri)
and (1048-1131). He worked in his youth in the manufacture and sale of tents
and so Kenny (Khayyam which is an Arabic word means the man who makes tents), more
than the movement to seek knowledge from childhood to settle in Baghdad in 466
AH.                                                                                                                                              
He has excelled in many knowledge arts such as mathematics, astronomy,
language, jurisprudence, history, and literature

His works: –

Al-Khayyam paid
special attention to the forced destiny, and he studied algebra. Euclid had
solved only the two-edged algebraic scale to the force of two axes, and he
invented the binomial theorem raised to the sum of any positive integer.

Solve many
second-order equations that are in the form of aX + bX = C.                                                           
He also studied algebra and studied algebraic equations of the first,
second and third degrees.                         The equations of Cubism dealt
with a systematic method, which was rare of its kind throughout the ages. The
roots were used to any degree. he was interested in classifying the equations
of the third degree according to their degrees and by the number of their
borders. This created a great creativity and also introduced the science of
algebra and trigonometry. In trigonometry using third and fourth-degree
algebraic equations.

Khayyam’s work
on cubic equations was a synthesis of Greek geometry, Babylonian and Hindu
arithmetic, and Islamic algebra which is like x3 + 3×2 –
2x + 5 = 0. 

Wrote the book Hisab
al-jabr w’al-muqabala which can be translated as, “The calculation of
reduction and restoration.”

Al-Tusi:

Abu Jaafar Muhammad ibn al-Hassan Nasr al-Din al-Tusi lived and
died in Baghdad during the days of the last successors of the sons of Abbas
al-Mutasim, between (597 672 Hijri) corresponding to (12011274 AD).

He was a good
scholar of mathematics and astronomy. Among his friends and relatives, he was
known as a (the scholar). He was fluent in Latin, Farsi, and Turkish, giving
him the ability to control various knowledge.                                         

His works:
–                                                                                                                 
Nasr al-Din received his knowledge of the great world (Kamal al-Din ibn
Younis al-Musli), where he instilled in him the love of books and was created
in mathematics in all branches.                                                                                                                  
He had great merit in the definition of Deaf numbers.                                                                                            He
was famous for his geometry of trigonometry. He wrote the first book in the
book, which was circulated all over the globe, and the name of this book (the
form of sectors), which contains the only trigonometry.        Euclid’s book was translated into
Arabic and a research focused on Euclid’s subjects was published by him.    The first concern was the superstructure or
the Euclidean geometry, which was built on the foundations of Euclid’s
antithesis, which he felt was not subject to change and criticism through the
ages. Nasr al-Din Tusi had more than 145 books in different fields, including
trigonometry, algebra, geography, nature, and logic.

Trigonometry

The term “trigonometry” was derived from Greek ???????? (trig?non),
“triangle” and ?????? (metron), “measure”. The
trigonometry is the connecting link between mathematics and astronomy, between
the way calendars are calculated, the Gnomon, and the sundial. In the Islamic
world, the calculation of the spherical triangles was necessary to carry out
the ritual custom. The qibla, the direction to Mecca, was indicated next
to the hour lines on all public sundials.

Muslim mathematicians have been contributed in this trigonometry
fields. For a long time, the chord was used along with the sine. The theory of
the magnitude is found in the work of al-Battani (ca. 858-929). In his
astronomical work Islah al-Majisti (The Perfection of the Almagest), he
systematically employed the trigonometric function sine and versed sine with
arguments between 0? and 180?. Since the cosine is defined as the sine of the
complement of the angle and since no negative numbers are used, the versed sine
is defined in the second quadrant as a sum of two quantities.

The elements of trigonometry are set forth in an even more
systematic way in the Kitab al-Kamil (Perfect Book) of Abu I-Wafa
(940-997/998). He defined several trigonometric functions in the circle with
radius 1. The trigonometric tangent function is defined as a line on a tangent
to the circle.

The proof of the general spherical sine theorem was given by Abu
I-Wafa in his al-Majisti (Almagest), by his pupil Abu Nasr ibn Iraq (d.
1036) in Risala fi ma’rifa al-qisi al-falakiyya (Treatise on the
Determination of Celestial Arcs), and by al-Khujandi, in the Kitab Maqalid
‘ilm al-hay’a (Book on the Keys of Astronomy).

The use of trigonometry was expended through al-Biruni (973-1048).
He is the author of the Mas ‘udic Canon, which is a summary of the
results from the works of many predecessors and of personal observations and
calculations. It comprises 11 books. Book 3 is dedicated to trigonometry.

Another important scholar in the area of trigonometry was Nasir
al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274). His principal work was Kitab al-shakl al-qatta’ (Book
of the secant figure, also known as Treatise on the Complete Quadrilateral). It
was written in Persian and translated by the author into Arabic in 1260
possibly for the needs of the observatory of Maragha. In five books, it
contains a full system of trigonometric formulas for plane and spherical
triangles. This work played an important role in the development of mathematics
in Europe.

 

Algebra:

            The word “Algebra”
is derived from the Arabic language ?????
(Al-Jabr) which means the completion or “reunion of broken
parts” and throve during the Islamic golden age (especially in the year
830). Algebra comes from the treatise by the medieval Persian mathematician,
Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-khwarizmi, who wrote a book with Arabic title, Kit?b
al-mu?ta?ar f? ?is?b al-?abr wa-l-muq?bala, which can be translated as “The
Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”. The treatise
provided for the systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations.
According to one history, it is not certain just what the terms al-jabr
and muqabalah mean, but the usual interpretation is similar to that
implied in the previous translation. The word ‘al-jabr’ presumably meant
something like ‘restoration’ or ‘completion’ and seems to refer to the
transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation. The word
‘muqabalah’ is said to refer to ‘reduction’ or ‘balancing’ that is the
cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. The term is used
by al-Khwarizmi to describe the operations that he introduced,
“reduction” and “balancing”, referring to the transposition
of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation
of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.

The origin of Algebra can be traced back to ancient Babylon which
developed a fairly complicated mathematical system, in which case they were
able to calculate in a similar way to algebra today. Using this system, they
are able to apply formulas and compute solutions for unknown values ??for
problem classes that are usually solved by using Linear equations, Quadratic
equations and Indefinite Linear Equations. In contrast, the Egyptians and most
of the Indian, Greek, and Chinese peoples in the first millennium, they are
usually still using geometrical methods to solve such equations, such as those
mentioned in “the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus”, “Sulba
Sutras”, “Eucilid’s Elements “And” The Nine Chapters on the
Mathematical Art “. The result of the Greeks in Geometry has been written
in the book of elements, provides a framework for generalising the formula of
mathematics beyond the specific solution of a particular problem into the more
general system of expressing and solving equations, i.e. the framework of the
deduction logic of thought.

Besides Al-Khwarizmi, many other figures also have been developed
in Algebra theorem. Among others are:

Al-Qalasadi: introduce algebraic symbols. The symbols were
developed in the 14th century by Ibnu al-Banna. Then, in the 15th
century, Al-Qalasadi has been developed this. Al-Qalasadi has introduced the
mathematics symbols which use the characters of Arabic alphabet.

Sharaf al-D?n al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar al-??s?
(1135-1213) is a Mathematician and Islamic Astronomer from Persian. Sharif
al-Din has been taught the various topics such mathematics, astronomy and
related fields like numbers, astronomical tables, and astrology. Al- ??s? has
been written several papers on Algebra. He gave the Ruffini-Horner methods to approach the
roots of cubic equations. Although this method had previously been used
by Arab mathematicians to find almost the nth root of an integer, al- ??s? was the first to apply this method to solve
this general equation. In Al-Mu’adalat (About Equations), al-??s? finds
algebraic and numerical solutions of cubic equations and which first finds a
cubic polynomial derivative, an important result in differential calculus.

Omar Khayyam, a Persian scientist who has been developed the
algebra of geometry and found the general shape of the geometry of the cubic equation.

 

 

Impacts & Evolution of Mathematics:

 

Today, the word
Islam delivers images of fanatical terrorists flying airplanes full of people
into buildings full of even more people, all in the name, they say, of their
god. These kinds of images are very disappointing and obviously not true. But
they are somehow understandable as today the media plays a big role in shaping
a person’s point of view towards something. These evil people who try to degrade
Islam’s reputation as a religion of peace can hijack not only a plane, but an
entire cultural heritage and its associated religion. For people studying
mathematics, meaning mathematicians, scientists, and engineers, the grief is
even greater. Mathematicians, whether Muslim or not, are all children of Islam.

Meanwhile
in reality, there are many positive impacts of Islam in this world. One of the
many positive impacts Islam has in the world can be seen in the encouragement
of Muslims to the pursuit of knowledge. Just as our Prophet Mohammed (P.B.U.H)
said, the best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge.

“Are those who have knowledge and those who
have no knowledge alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful” (Qur’an
39:9)

Education in all kinds of
field can be said to have a very powerful impact on the world as through
education, countless Muslims became founder of most major accomplishments in
the world which later leads to western and world civilization in medicine,
technology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, urbanization, art, poetry, and
many more.

Tracking back to the history of the Islamic
Mathematics development, early in the ninth century, the Abbasid caliphs
decided to adopt a more careful approach to the intellectual growth of the kingdom.
So, they established the ‘House of Wisdom’, which was a
type of science academy. In this academy, they started to gather together
scholar manuscripts in Greek and Sanskrit. Over the following years, many
important Greek and Indian mathematical books were translated and studied,
leading to a new era of mathematical creativity that lasted up to the 14th
century.

One of the first Greek texts to be translated
was Euclid’s Elements. From then on, the
Arabic mathematicians adopted Greek approach to their mathematics, solving them
with Euclid’s style. Unlike Greek mathematics which was defined more by the
common language in which it was written and carried out, Arabic mathematics was
defined mostly by the common use of Arabic by scholars of many nationalities,
although not all of them are Arab or Muslim.

 

It was around the tenth century that cathedral
schools started to grow in many parts of Europe. These cathedral schools were
designed to train priests on the trivium (grammar, logic, and
rhetoric) and the quadrivium (arithmetic,
geometry, music, and astronomy). Their creation helped increase interests in
mathematics among its people. Using this good opportunity, scholars turned to
the ancient works preserved by the Islamic culture, many of them in Spain. For
example, Gerbert d’Aurillac (945-1003), visited Spain to learn mathematics,
then returned to France where he reorganized the cathedral school in Rheims. He
then reintroduced the study of arithmetic and geometry, taught students how to
use the counting board, and even used Hindu-Arabic numerals. All his teachings
were based on the inventions of Muslim mathematicians.

In many centuries that followed, many European
scholars spent time in Spain translating Arabic and Muslim writings on numerous
subjects. Although not many European scholar knew Arabic, the translation was
usually done in two stages: first, with a Jewish scholar translating the Arabic
to a more common language and second, with a visiting scholar translating from
that language into Latin. Using the same method, many ancient Greek texts were
also translated into Latin, where they began to make an impact in the West.

Hence, without
the dedication and commitment to science and mathematics of the Islamic
scholars from the 9th to the 14th century, who not only preserved vital
scientific works, but also expanded the limits of mathematical and scientific
knowledge, it is doubted that the western world would have become the world
leader in science and technology as they are today.

Overall, Muslims would be proud to say that the
achievements, impacts and contribution of Islam to world civilization is the
greatest in the world. Therefore, we will
mention a few Muslims scholars
who have marked the history of universal science by their discoveries and
innovations in the humanities science, mathematics,
medicine and technology.

We hope that, with the great development of
technology in this modern world we live in today, the Muslim world can
contribute many new positive impacts across the globe.

 

Conclusion:

Preachers were needed to
enlighten the darkness of the Age of
the Jahiliyyah. So after the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as a prophet and his
teaching of the Quran, the darkness of the Jahiliyyah was eliminated, knowledge
augmented because Quran itself encouraged believers to accumulate knowledge.
Thus back in the golden age of the Muslim civilization, Spain was enlightened
by the teaching of the prophet and the Quran. All the teachings included
science, technology, philosophy and so on. Thus the contribution of Islamic
civilization to science and technology in Europe increased. For instance, In
Mathematical Science like Algebra. ‘Algebra’ derived from the language
‘Al-Jabr’ means reunion of broken parts. The first algebra book was written by
a Muslim mathematician named Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizimi where he wrote
about linear and quadratic equation. Though the origin of algebra was in
Babylon where they could use formula and compute solutions, the Egyptians used
geometrical methods which provided a framework that generalized the formula of
Mathematics. Though Geometry came to knowledge of Muslim scientists by
translating the Greek scientist’s works, the Muslim Scientists refuted their
(Greek scientist’s) work as well as collecting them. Muslim scientists corrected
the geometrical equations and introduced a lot of publications on geometric
problems and so on. Muslim scientists applied their geometrical knowledge to
their architecture. The Muslims excelled in geometry and thus played a huge
part developing them. Like geometry Muslim mathematicians contributed in the
field of trigonometry. In the field of trigonometry includes astronomy in which
Muslim mathematicians contributed a lot. Scientists and mathematicians like
Al-khwarizmi, Al-Biruni, Omar al-khayyam, Al-tusi contributed a lot and played
a significant role to develop mathematical theories and mathematics in which
western scientist rely on. In the end we can say that Allah has bestowed
knowledge upon us so that we can build our civilization. The dedication of
Islamic scholars, Muslim scientists and mathematicians helped a lot to build
our modern civilization. The world now knows the developed nations are only in
Europe and America but the truth is the root of all the development came from
the Muslims .It would not be possible for them to develop their science and
technology without the Muslim scholars.  The contribution of Islam and the knowledge of
the Quran is the greatest thing in the history of mankind that could have ever
happened to our civilization in which we should be proud of.

 

 

 

Sources:

http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/muslim-founders-mathematics

https://www.modernghana.com/news/478976/achievements-impacts-and-contribution-of-islam-to-world-civ.html

https://www.maa.org/external_archive/devlin/devlin_0708_02.html

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2002/sep/05/research.science2

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometry

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebra

SEJARAH ALJABAR

Muslim Penemu Trigonometri