Introduction:

What is civilization

actually? Everything surrounding us is a part of civilization, to be accurate.

The idea of civilization has been developed gradually by the passage of time.

Until the 1860 humans history developed in basically three distinct epochs:

ancient, medieval and modern. However after the evolve of Islam after the

prophet Muhammad(pbuh) has significantly changed the way of civilization in

many parts of the world and it has significant effect to the contribution of

Islamic civilization to European science and technology. The Quran itself

encouraged the believers to accumulate knowledge. Let us have a look at the

following verses in Surah Al-‘Alaq. “Read in the name of your Lord Who

created. He created man from a clot. Read and your Lord is the Most

Honorable. Who taught by the pen. Taught man what he knew not.” (Qur’an 96:1-5).

Islam makes seeking knowledge as a religious duty upon the Muslims. If someone

gives time to seek knowledge with a good intention of benifiting oneself and

the people, it will be like one kind of Ibadah for him which is like perfroming

additional prayers or fasting. The Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said: “Seeking

Knowledge is an obligation on every Muslim.” (Ahmed) .

After Muslims conquering Spain the civilization took tremendous

turn as the practice of science and technology in these area were developed as

high which started a new era in the history of science, technology and civilization.

It was said during that time that the whole Europe was in dark while Spain was

lighting like the only hope of civilization in that particular period of time.

The established Islamic Empire across the Middle East, Central

Asia, and North Africa. Some part of India and Europe from the 8th

century and onwards generated significant contributions towards the field of

mathematics. They were able to collect and combined the mathematical

development of both India and Greece, which was likely to make a new era on the

field of science and technology. It is said that the Golden Age of Islamic

science and mathematics flourished throughout the medival period from the 9th

to 15th century. The Muslims were lucky enough to have some of the

greatest mathematicians of all time like Al-Khwarizmi, Al-Kindi, Al-Karaji, Al-

Battani and Al-Biruni.

Different sectors in the field of science were developed like

mathematics, medicine, astronomy, weaponry, philosophy,

musical instruments, architectural development and many other part of science

and technology. We are going to have some brief observation in the field of

math, which has been developed by many Muslim mathematician all over the world

for a long period of time and still now we are having the fruit of their

inventions and discoveries. Their knowledge still has a great influence over

our current civilization in many aspects.

Some Muslim mathematicians and their

contribution:

Since the discovery of mathematics and

numbers and to this day appeared many scientists, who contributed in this field

of science, and the history of mathematics throughout history, many changes,

which occurred in most of the concepts in it, where Arab and Muslim

mathematicians contributed significantly to the development of the number

system, and mathematical theories, which made Western scientists rely on their

theories in the study of mathematics, and here are some of them:

Al-Khwarizmi:

Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmi (Abu Jaafar) lived in

the period between (781 and about 845) was one of the first Muslim

mathematicians, where his work played a major role in the progress of

mathematics in his time. His family moved from the city of Khorazm in Khorasan

to Baghdad in Iraq and there Khwarizmi founded most of his research between 813

and 833 in Dar al-Hikmah founded by the Abbasid Caliph Al-Ma’mun and published

his works in Arabic, which was the language Science in that era.

Al-Khwarizmi invented the concept of algorithm in mathematics and

computer science (which gave him the title of father of computer science for

some people) So that the word algorithm in many languages derived from his

name, in addition to this, the major contributions to the fields of algebra and

trigonometry, astronomy, geography, and cartography. His methodological and

logical work in solving second-order equations led to the emergence of algebra

so that the science took its name from his book Algebra and the interview,

published in 830, and the word moved to many languages.

Al-Biruni:

Abu al-Rayhan Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Biruni was born in Birun, the

capital of Khorazm (Turkistan) About 326 AH, 973 AD and died in 440 AH, 1048 AD

and was called by orientalists The name of Ptolemy Arabs, He was a

mathematician and physicist and had interests in pharmacy, encyclopedias,

astronomy, and history .

Named A volcanic crater on the moon in his name, along with 300

brightly colored names that were selected to designate the volcanic nozzles The

Moon, including Al-Khwarizmi, Aristotle and Ibn Sina 1. He was born in

Khawarzim, currently under the jurisdiction of Uzbekistan (970-1036), Ibn Sina

(980-1037) and Ibn Muskawiyah (932-1030), a Philosopher from the city of

irrigation in the province of Tehran. Learn Greek and Sanskrit during his

travels and books in Arabic and Persian. Al-Biruni is a language of al-Kharazm

that means foreign or coming from outside the town,

Al-Biruni wrote many works in scientific, historical and

astronomical matters and has contributions to the trigonometry, circle and

lines the length and width, the rotation of the earth and the difference

between the speed of light and the speed of sound, in addition to what he wrote

in the history of India. Also, famous for his writings on pharmacy and medicine

wrote at the end of his life a book called “Pharmacy in Medicine”

Medications and their names.

Omar

al-Khayyam:

It is Abu

al-Fath Omar ibn Ibrahim al-Khayyam al-Nistaburi lived between (440 -525 Hijri)

and (1048-1131). He worked in his youth in the manufacture and sale of tents

and so Kenny (Khayyam which is an Arabic word means the man who makes tents), more

than the movement to seek knowledge from childhood to settle in Baghdad in 466

AH.

He has excelled in many knowledge arts such as mathematics, astronomy,

language, jurisprudence, history, and literature

His works: –

Al-Khayyam paid

special attention to the forced destiny, and he studied algebra. Euclid had

solved only the two-edged algebraic scale to the force of two axes, and he

invented the binomial theorem raised to the sum of any positive integer.

Solve many

second-order equations that are in the form of aX + bX = C.

He also studied algebra and studied algebraic equations of the first,

second and third degrees. The equations of Cubism dealt

with a systematic method, which was rare of its kind throughout the ages. The

roots were used to any degree. he was interested in classifying the equations

of the third degree according to their degrees and by the number of their

borders. This created a great creativity and also introduced the science of

algebra and trigonometry. In trigonometry using third and fourth-degree

algebraic equations.

Khayyam’s work

on cubic equations was a synthesis of Greek geometry, Babylonian and Hindu

arithmetic, and Islamic algebra which is like x3 + 3×2 –

2x + 5 = 0.

Wrote the book Hisab

al-jabr w’al-muqabala which can be translated as, “The calculation of

reduction and restoration.”

Al-Tusi:

Abu Jaafar Muhammad ibn al-Hassan Nasr al-Din al-Tusi lived and

died in Baghdad during the days of the last successors of the sons of Abbas

al-Mutasim, between (597 672 Hijri) corresponding to (12011274 AD).

He was a good

scholar of mathematics and astronomy. Among his friends and relatives, he was

known as a (the scholar). He was fluent in Latin, Farsi, and Turkish, giving

him the ability to control various knowledge.

His works:

–

Nasr al-Din received his knowledge of the great world (Kamal al-Din ibn

Younis al-Musli), where he instilled in him the love of books and was created

in mathematics in all branches.

He had great merit in the definition of Deaf numbers. He

was famous for his geometry of trigonometry. He wrote the first book in the

book, which was circulated all over the globe, and the name of this book (the

form of sectors), which contains the only trigonometry. Euclid’s book was translated into

Arabic and a research focused on Euclid’s subjects was published by him. The first concern was the superstructure or

the Euclidean geometry, which was built on the foundations of Euclid’s

antithesis, which he felt was not subject to change and criticism through the

ages. Nasr al-Din Tusi had more than 145 books in different fields, including

trigonometry, algebra, geography, nature, and logic.

Trigonometry

The term “trigonometry” was derived from Greek ???????? (trig?non),

“triangle” and ?????? (metron), “measure”. The

trigonometry is the connecting link between mathematics and astronomy, between

the way calendars are calculated, the Gnomon, and the sundial. In the Islamic

world, the calculation of the spherical triangles was necessary to carry out

the ritual custom. The qibla, the direction to Mecca, was indicated next

to the hour lines on all public sundials.

Muslim mathematicians have been contributed in this trigonometry

fields. For a long time, the chord was used along with the sine. The theory of

the magnitude is found in the work of al-Battani (ca. 858-929). In his

astronomical work Islah al-Majisti (The Perfection of the Almagest), he

systematically employed the trigonometric function sine and versed sine with

arguments between 0? and 180?. Since the cosine is defined as the sine of the

complement of the angle and since no negative numbers are used, the versed sine

is defined in the second quadrant as a sum of two quantities.

The elements of trigonometry are set forth in an even more

systematic way in the Kitab al-Kamil (Perfect Book) of Abu I-Wafa

(940-997/998). He defined several trigonometric functions in the circle with

radius 1. The trigonometric tangent function is defined as a line on a tangent

to the circle.

The proof of the general spherical sine theorem was given by Abu

I-Wafa in his al-Majisti (Almagest), by his pupil Abu Nasr ibn Iraq (d.

1036) in Risala fi ma’rifa al-qisi al-falakiyya (Treatise on the

Determination of Celestial Arcs), and by al-Khujandi, in the Kitab Maqalid

‘ilm al-hay’a (Book on the Keys of Astronomy).

The use of trigonometry was expended through al-Biruni (973-1048).

He is the author of the Mas ‘udic Canon, which is a summary of the

results from the works of many predecessors and of personal observations and

calculations. It comprises 11 books. Book 3 is dedicated to trigonometry.

Another important scholar in the area of trigonometry was Nasir

al-Din al-Tusi (1201-1274). His principal work was Kitab al-shakl al-qatta’ (Book

of the secant figure, also known as Treatise on the Complete Quadrilateral). It

was written in Persian and translated by the author into Arabic in 1260

possibly for the needs of the observatory of Maragha. In five books, it

contains a full system of trigonometric formulas for plane and spherical

triangles. This work played an important role in the development of mathematics

in Europe.

Algebra:

The word “Algebra”

is derived from the Arabic language ?????

(Al-Jabr) which means the completion or “reunion of broken

parts” and throve during the Islamic golden age (especially in the year

830). Algebra comes from the treatise by the medieval Persian mathematician,

Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-khwarizmi, who wrote a book with Arabic title, Kit?b

al-mu?ta?ar f? ?is?b al-?abr wa-l-muq?bala, which can be translated as “The

Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing”. The treatise

provided for the systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations.

According to one history, it is not certain just what the terms al-jabr

and muqabalah mean, but the usual interpretation is similar to that

implied in the previous translation. The word ‘al-jabr’ presumably meant

something like ‘restoration’ or ‘completion’ and seems to refer to the

transposition of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation. The word

‘muqabalah’ is said to refer to ‘reduction’ or ‘balancing’ that is the

cancellation of like terms on opposite sides of the equation. The term is used

by al-Khwarizmi to describe the operations that he introduced,

“reduction” and “balancing”, referring to the transposition

of subtracted terms to the other side of an equation, that is, the cancellation

of like terms on opposite sides of the equation.

The origin of Algebra can be traced back to ancient Babylon which

developed a fairly complicated mathematical system, in which case they were

able to calculate in a similar way to algebra today. Using this system, they

are able to apply formulas and compute solutions for unknown values ??for

problem classes that are usually solved by using Linear equations, Quadratic

equations and Indefinite Linear Equations. In contrast, the Egyptians and most

of the Indian, Greek, and Chinese peoples in the first millennium, they are

usually still using geometrical methods to solve such equations, such as those

mentioned in “the Rhind Mathematical Papyrus”, “Sulba

Sutras”, “Eucilid’s Elements “And” The Nine Chapters on the

Mathematical Art “. The result of the Greeks in Geometry has been written

in the book of elements, provides a framework for generalising the formula of

mathematics beyond the specific solution of a particular problem into the more

general system of expressing and solving equations, i.e. the framework of the

deduction logic of thought.

Besides Al-Khwarizmi, many other figures also have been developed

in Algebra theorem. Among others are:

Al-Qalasadi: introduce algebraic symbols. The symbols were

developed in the 14th century by Ibnu al-Banna. Then, in the 15th

century, Al-Qalasadi has been developed this. Al-Qalasadi has introduced the

mathematics symbols which use the characters of Arabic alphabet.

Sharaf al-D?n al-Muzaffar ibn Muhammad ibn al-Muzaffar al-??s?

(1135-1213) is a Mathematician and Islamic Astronomer from Persian. Sharif

al-Din has been taught the various topics such mathematics, astronomy and

related fields like numbers, astronomical tables, and astrology. Al- ??s? has

been written several papers on Algebra. He gave the Ruffini-Horner methods to approach the

roots of cubic equations. Although this method had previously been used

by Arab mathematicians to find almost the nth root of an integer, al- ??s? was the first to apply this method to solve

this general equation. In Al-Mu’adalat (About Equations), al-??s? finds

algebraic and numerical solutions of cubic equations and which first finds a

cubic polynomial derivative, an important result in differential calculus.

Omar Khayyam, a Persian scientist who has been developed the

algebra of geometry and found the general shape of the geometry of the cubic equation.

Impacts & Evolution of Mathematics:

Today, the word

Islam delivers images of fanatical terrorists flying airplanes full of people

into buildings full of even more people, all in the name, they say, of their

god. These kinds of images are very disappointing and obviously not true. But

they are somehow understandable as today the media plays a big role in shaping

a person’s point of view towards something. These evil people who try to degrade

Islam’s reputation as a religion of peace can hijack not only a plane, but an

entire cultural heritage and its associated religion. For people studying

mathematics, meaning mathematicians, scientists, and engineers, the grief is

even greater. Mathematicians, whether Muslim or not, are all children of Islam.

Meanwhile

in reality, there are many positive impacts of Islam in this world. One of the

many positive impacts Islam has in the world can be seen in the encouragement

of Muslims to the pursuit of knowledge. Just as our Prophet Mohammed (P.B.U.H)

said, the best form of worship is the pursuit of knowledge.

“Are those who have knowledge and those who

have no knowledge alike? Only the men of understanding are mindful” (Qur’an

39:9)

Education in all kinds of

field can be said to have a very powerful impact on the world as through

education, countless Muslims became founder of most major accomplishments in

the world which later leads to western and world civilization in medicine,

technology, mathematics, chemistry, physics, urbanization, art, poetry, and

many more.

Tracking back to the history of the Islamic

Mathematics development, early in the ninth century, the Abbasid caliphs

decided to adopt a more careful approach to the intellectual growth of the kingdom.

So, they established the ‘House of Wisdom’, which was a

type of science academy. In this academy, they started to gather together

scholar manuscripts in Greek and Sanskrit. Over the following years, many

important Greek and Indian mathematical books were translated and studied,

leading to a new era of mathematical creativity that lasted up to the 14th

century.

One of the first Greek texts to be translated

was Euclid’s Elements. From then on, the

Arabic mathematicians adopted Greek approach to their mathematics, solving them

with Euclid’s style. Unlike Greek mathematics which was defined more by the

common language in which it was written and carried out, Arabic mathematics was

defined mostly by the common use of Arabic by scholars of many nationalities,

although not all of them are Arab or Muslim.

It was around the tenth century that cathedral

schools started to grow in many parts of Europe. These cathedral schools were

designed to train priests on the trivium (grammar, logic, and

rhetoric) and the quadrivium (arithmetic,

geometry, music, and astronomy). Their creation helped increase interests in

mathematics among its people. Using this good opportunity, scholars turned to

the ancient works preserved by the Islamic culture, many of them in Spain. For

example, Gerbert d’Aurillac (945-1003), visited Spain to learn mathematics,

then returned to France where he reorganized the cathedral school in Rheims. He

then reintroduced the study of arithmetic and geometry, taught students how to

use the counting board, and even used Hindu-Arabic numerals. All his teachings

were based on the inventions of Muslim mathematicians.

In many centuries that followed, many European

scholars spent time in Spain translating Arabic and Muslim writings on numerous

subjects. Although not many European scholar knew Arabic, the translation was

usually done in two stages: first, with a Jewish scholar translating the Arabic

to a more common language and second, with a visiting scholar translating from

that language into Latin. Using the same method, many ancient Greek texts were

also translated into Latin, where they began to make an impact in the West.

Hence, without

the dedication and commitment to science and mathematics of the Islamic

scholars from the 9th to the 14th century, who not only preserved vital

scientific works, but also expanded the limits of mathematical and scientific

knowledge, it is doubted that the western world would have become the world

leader in science and technology as they are today.

Overall, Muslims would be proud to say that the

achievements, impacts and contribution of Islam to world civilization is the

greatest in the world. Therefore, we will

mention a few Muslims scholars

who have marked the history of universal science by their discoveries and

innovations in the humanities science, mathematics,

medicine and technology.

We hope that, with the great development of

technology in this modern world we live in today, the Muslim world can

contribute many new positive impacts across the globe.

Conclusion:

Preachers were needed to

enlighten the darkness of the Age of

the Jahiliyyah. So after the prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as a prophet and his

teaching of the Quran, the darkness of the Jahiliyyah was eliminated, knowledge

augmented because Quran itself encouraged believers to accumulate knowledge.

Thus back in the golden age of the Muslim civilization, Spain was enlightened

by the teaching of the prophet and the Quran. All the teachings included

science, technology, philosophy and so on. Thus the contribution of Islamic

civilization to science and technology in Europe increased. For instance, In

Mathematical Science like Algebra. ‘Algebra’ derived from the language

‘Al-Jabr’ means reunion of broken parts. The first algebra book was written by

a Muslim mathematician named Muhammad Ibn Musa Al-Khwarizimi where he wrote

about linear and quadratic equation. Though the origin of algebra was in

Babylon where they could use formula and compute solutions, the Egyptians used

geometrical methods which provided a framework that generalized the formula of

Mathematics. Though Geometry came to knowledge of Muslim scientists by

translating the Greek scientist’s works, the Muslim Scientists refuted their

(Greek scientist’s) work as well as collecting them. Muslim scientists corrected

the geometrical equations and introduced a lot of publications on geometric

problems and so on. Muslim scientists applied their geometrical knowledge to

their architecture. The Muslims excelled in geometry and thus played a huge

part developing them. Like geometry Muslim mathematicians contributed in the

field of trigonometry. In the field of trigonometry includes astronomy in which

Muslim mathematicians contributed a lot. Scientists and mathematicians like

Al-khwarizmi, Al-Biruni, Omar al-khayyam, Al-tusi contributed a lot and played

a significant role to develop mathematical theories and mathematics in which

western scientist rely on. In the end we can say that Allah has bestowed

knowledge upon us so that we can build our civilization. The dedication of

Islamic scholars, Muslim scientists and mathematicians helped a lot to build

our modern civilization. The world now knows the developed nations are only in

Europe and America but the truth is the root of all the development came from

the Muslims .It would not be possible for them to develop their science and

technology without the Muslim scholars. The contribution of Islam and the knowledge of

the Quran is the greatest thing in the history of mankind that could have ever

happened to our civilization in which we should be proud of.

Sources:

http://www.muslimheritage.com/article/muslim-founders-mathematics

https://www.modernghana.com/news/478976/achievements-impacts-and-contribution-of-islam-to-world-civ.html

https://www.maa.org/external_archive/devlin/devlin_0708_02.html

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2002/sep/05/research.science2

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trigonometry

https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Algebra