In much faster rate. The result from

this study, we see how the food sources; tomato leaves or artificial food would
have the greatest effect on the hornworms
consumption, assimilation, production, and trophic efficiency. To predict
whether or not the type of foods diet plays
a significant role in the growth rate of
the hornworm similar to as the transformation of matter and energy in hornworm.
I hypothesized that the hornworm would consume
more of tomato leaves than artificial food because tomato leaves hold lesser nutrition,
therefore, the hornworm wants to get more
biomass of tomato leaves to reach it need of nutrient. This mean, artificial
have a higher protein level should expect a decrease
in the rate of consumption (Kingsolver and Woods, 1998). Also, it possible that
hornworm would prefer tomato leaves because
it might have a particular mineral that
the hornworm prefer. Therefore, the hornworm with tomato leaves would increase
in body mass at a much faster rate.

result from the lab is supported my hypothesized because is have shown the hornworm has a consumption efficiency in tomato leaves of 68%. which is a higher amount than the artificial food of 54%. This makes sense,
because the consumer not consumed all of
the net primary production. The rest 32% and 46% is entered detritus. The tomato provided a higher consumption efficiency because
it directly got most of the solar energy being converted and transferred to
hornworm. While the artificial food being
made, most of the available energy is got lost more than the tomato leaves,
therefore the amount of energy is unavailable for the higher trophic levels
(hornworm). In addition, artificial food might have a greater content of water
loss, because the dry surface reduced the presence of pathogens (Mihsfeldt and Parra 1999). Insects, frequently
favor plants that contain nitrogen, in which, is tomato leaves obtained sugar
and amino acid. And, if there are low nitrogen
levels, and in responded to that hornworm consumed more biomass food
reported by (Lavoie et al. 2004).

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are hard to digest, however, herbivorous have mutualistic symbionts that aid with
digested cellulose and this gives herbivorous higher assimilation
efficiencies  (Cain 2011). Similar to our
study of the tomato leaves also had a higher value for assimilation
efficiency of 48% and the artificial food
is 20%.  Also, because the hornworm consumed
more biomass in tomato leaves, led to more assimilated
of the leaves than the artificial food.The other 52% and 80% energy is lost
as feces and respiration.

greater amount hornworm assimilated their food the greater the production efficiency
they going to encounter, in this case, is
tomato leaves have 62% and artificial
food just has 55%. This concludes that
the hornworm exhibiting the most growth would be the one undergoing the tomato leaves.
The hornworm with artificial food has
lower production efficiency because most
of it assimilated energy is respired away more than tomato leaves. The hornworm
passes the other rest 38% and 45% as feces or uses it for cellular respiration.
The energy in the feces will be taken in
by detritivores and the energy used for respiration is lost as heat. As the
energy come from the solar radiation and release as respiratory heat loss, this
is an example of energy flow.

production efficiency from the caterpillar diagram (Campbell et al. 2008) is
33% of assimilation energy is used for respiration, and less than 17% of the
total energy is actually converted to caterpillar biomass that contributed for
secondary production. Compare to our study, the production efficiency of the
hornworm assimilated energy is used for respiration is 38% and 45%, which is
quite similar to the caterpillar. However, the hornworm has a higher assimilation efficiency, because it might due to the
temperature that affects the hornworm to assimilate more than a caterpillar. A study had shown
the increase of temperature effect on the rates of consumption, frass production, and growth of the hornworm. The
interaction between of the increase of
temperature and diet quality has mostly increased
the rate of both consumption and
growth (Kingsolver and Woods, 1998). Therefore, the environmental
for hornworm might a higher temperature condition at the time from our study
compare to the caterpillar diagram. 

trophic efficiency had a higher percentage of
artificial food than the tomato leaves, however,
they are quite closed value to each other. As it showed, the trophic efficiency
tomato leaves had 18% and artificial food had 24%. This means, in tomato leaves
is converted 18% of energy into the next trophic pyramids (hornworm). This
showcase the second law of thermodynamics,
because only 18% and 24% is had been converted to the next trophic and the rest
of 76%-82% is respired energy by the consumer. Because
energy conversions cannot be totally efficient, most of the energy always lost as heat. Compared to the ecosystem trophic
efficiency mostly 10 %, our result has higher values of trophic efficiency, because energy
not only lost from respiration and supplies in feces. Also the energy in
organic matters in a hornworm that is not take in by the next trophic.    

An interesting study that could be
done would be to determine the optimal amount of water content from the food
that could have evaporated or transpiration in leaves
might disturb the growth rate. If there is a water loss from the leaves, our
results would affect on the consumption efficiency, because the decrease in water content increases the nutrient concentration, the
hornworm time spent feeding would decrease
but maintain their consumption nutrients (Timmins et al.). Therefore, either
great or little in water content would direct
to increased costs and lower efficiency. A design would improve the methods to
account for this factor is to water the plants as needed to provide the plants
with moisture. This method would minimize the water content loss in the food.