In 1882, German Microbiologist Robert Koch identified Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacterium which causes tuberculosis(TB). This bacterium founded in both humans and animals. It causes lesions in the lungs which is known as tubercles (Aldridge, 2016). TB is contiguous disease. However, it can be cured, prevent and treated.
TB affects one-third of the world’s population. It is the most preeminent cause of death and second leading cause of death from communicable disease worldwide. In 2013, 9 million new cases of TB were reported. The case detection rate was around 64% because around 3.3 million people who affected from TB was not reported or not diagnosed. At the same time, 1.1 million people were estimated to have tuberculosis- human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-infection (Dheda, Barry & Maartens, 2016). TB is particularly found in Africa and Asia. As a result of, 86% of TB cases reported in these areas (Kakchapati, Gyawali, Jha , 2012). the burden of TB is Multidrug-resistance TB(MDR-TB) which is the result of inadequate treatment or irregular medications. Resistance to both isoniazid and rifampicin is known as MDR-TB. Morbidity and mortality rate of MDR-TB is higher (Kakchapati et al., 2012).
Types of TB
90% people infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria remains asymptomatic and they can not spread an infection to others known as latent infection (Zumla, Raviglione, Hafner & Reyn, 2013). Approximately 10% of latent infection can progress to active infection if not treated properly on time. Active infection has symptoms. It can transmit the infection to others. There are another two types of tuberculosis, pulmonary and extra pulmonary TB which is categorized on the basis of human organs. In pulmonary TB the lungs is affected. TB which affects others parts such as, skin, female reproductive organs, meninges, the abdominal cavity is known as extra pulmonary TB. Pulmonary TB is about 85% of diagnosed cases where as extra pulmonary Tb is 15%.