Huczynski (2006) Organisation Behaviour. (3rd Edition) Berkshire:


A.A, Buchanan D.A. (2013) Organizational
Behaviour. (8TH Edition) Harlow: Pearson

Davis, A .(2015) Individual Difference Lecture notes distributed in BH1187
Introduction to Organisation Behaviour 13th October 2015 Aston

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now

Davis, A  (2015) Organisational
Change and Stress Lecture notes distributed in BH1187 Introduction to
Organisation Behaviour 20th
October 2015 Aston University

Butler M, & Rose E. (2011) Introduction to Organisation Behaviour.
(1st Edition) London: Chartered of Institute of Personnel and

Butler M & Rose E, (2011) Organisational Behaviour. (1ST
Edition) United Kingdom: Jaico Publishing House

M, Broeck H.V.D, Vanderheyden K, Kreitner R & Kinicki A. (2006) Organisation Behaviour. (3rd
Edition) Berkshire: McGraw- Hill Education

Reference List:



participated in this workshop, has helped me to establish what sort of
personalities I can get best on with. As well as this, it has taught me the
fundamentals of teamwork and that you have got to be willing to work with
anyone in order to achieve a common goal. Last but not least, it has allowed me
to gain a good insight of a particular way a leader within a team can act
towards members and I feel that knowing all of these things will help in the

Towards the
ending of the workshop, Map presented a scenario of a business meeting
gathering ideas. It was obviously shown that the leader of the team possessed a
Narcissism personality of them being arrogant and at the centre of attention
(O’Boyle el al, 2011). For example, whenever members of the team had ideas to
share, the leader did not only keep on interrupting them in the middle of their
sentences, but failed to show any keen interests and eye contact towards the
members. It was clear that the team leader only cared about himself and what he
wanted to share to the team only.

MAP switched us from getting to know each other to forming a game that
consisted of two people working parallel to each other. This game was a story
telling game in which the other half had to complete the rest of the story
without having an indication of where the story was leading to. As well as
showing my initiatives I realised that the story telling game required both of
us to work as a team ”interactively and co-operatively in order to
successfully complete the task” (Stewart and Barrick, 2000). This result led
to us achieving the bigger picture of constructing a finished story.

As soon as I
got into the room immediately ‘My Aston Portal (Map)’ partnered me up with a
person that I hardly knew which made me feel slightly uncomfortable because I
didn’t want them to get the wrong impression of me being an introvert.
Unfortunately, I did show signs of this trait and it made my partner to feel
discontent in getting to know me. Luckily, I got the chance to move onto
another person who possessed an extrovert personality trait from the ‘Big Five’
which ”are assumed largely to human personality” (Buelens, 2005. pg. 54).
This person made me feel comfortable in speaking to them which led to a good
turnout in getting to know that person very well. We changed partners once
again for the last time and I ended up with another extroversive person and we
also got on very well with each other too.

In partaking
the Cross Culture workshop I had to communicate with people who came from
different background cultures which I thought was very interesting.
Communicating with people in this workshop helped me to identify things that I
lacked which enabled me to have a better understanding of myself and also have
a wider knowledge of individuals within a team and how team leaders’ best


Task 4 – Dealing with stress
Starting university can be stressful. Using the
material in the lecture on organisational change and stress, identify two
changes you have experienced recently that you found potentially
stressful.  Using your understanding
of stress, describe what could be done to reduce the stress experienced as
a result of these challenges.


Potentially stressful experience

Theory-informed solution

One particular stressful experience I have encountered for
the past weeks and months is living by myself for the first time. This
included having to wash my own clothes for the first time and having to learn
to cook. Having to wash my own clothes has been very difficult for me as my
mum use to take care of this responsibility. In addition, cooking has been a
major setback as I use to eat a lot through the provision of my mother. This
is because I have never had to take so much accountability for my own living
standards. As a result, I have failed to cook my own food consistently which
has lead me to spend money at ‘Aunty Sally’s’ takeaway shop located in
corporation street.

I have decided to adopt ”control” and ”challenge” from
the ‘Personality characteristics’ of Hardiness (Hardiness Kobassa 1979, Maddi
1999). I believe that following this characteristics will give me confidence
to take control of these stressful experiences and taking it as an
opportunity rather than a threat to me. For example, I feel by doing this I
will be able to adapt to my situations more frequently even if it takes a
long while for me.
 Another strategy
that I have implemented is the ‘Social support’ as it is stated that  ”talking to a friend or getting together
with ‘mates’ can be comforting during times of fear, stress or loneliness”
(Buelens, 2006, p.g 265). This will allow me to handle my stressful experience
much better through advice from friends. 
Also, by being able to express how I feel even if the recipient hasn’t
actually sincerely taken in what I have said, it will still make me feel at
ease during my circumstances.

The transition from a vocational-education to doing examination
has given me some anxiety. This is due to the fact that I have not completed formal
examinations since I last done my GSSE’s in year 11, which has been over two
years ago.

In regards to my recent circumstance I have chosen to
relieve this type of stressful experience by resulting to the ‘Individual
Emotion-focused Strategies’ and accept ”exercise and fitness programmes”.
(Huczynski & Buchanan, 2013, pg. 200). This will help me to take out the
anxieties that I am suffering from through physical activities such as
jogging and heading to my local gym which will put me in a better state of
mind to be more positive of taking examinations. Getting feedback and
comments from academics, could also help me to release stress as they would
give me some pointers on how to prepare for exams and how to cope with exam

Having looked at one of each content
and process theories from above, it is clearly evident that money is seen as a
hygiene factor. If it is not present regardless of the amounts of the money it
will not increase motivation if it is not recognised and Vroom’s (1964) Expectancy
Theory states that money will only be a motivator if it has personal values
behind it to the individual. As well as this, it can also motivate individuals
on other personal values which does not have to revolve around money as well.

Whereas, for some individuals other
things will be more valuable which is known as greater valance. This could be
time off work for the parent so that they can spend more time looking after
their sick son or daughter who has caught a cold will be a motivator to them.
Therefore, they will need to consider the expectancy and instrumentality
(Butler & Rose, 2011. pg. 93) for when they carry out tasks set by their manager.
A prime example would be a manager asking the employees to work overtime, if
they do it then they will be rewarded with a weeks off work. According to the
Expectancy Theory, if the parent is motivated by the preferred output then they
will put more effort in the task which will lead to an increase in performance,
and will help the parent to earn their desired output of wanting to look after
their children.

In relation to the Expectancy Theory it
has been the least criticised model of motivation theories. This is because
Vroom mentioned that motivation is carried out by what individuals are
expecting to happen from the ‘preferred outcome and strength of the
attractiveness of that outcome to the individual’.  Most individuals will have different values
(valance) so for instance, money may be the prime motivator for them, if they
would like to go on holiday or even buy goods or services that will meet their
needs like making a payment on a brand new car, knowing the preferred outcome
will lead to the individual to increase in expectancy.

According to Hertzberg (1959)
Motivator-Hygiene theory he discovered two crucial factors that influence
employee motivation and satisfaction. These were called ”motivating-factors”
and ”Hygiene factors”. The Motivating-factors which reflected the internal
factors whereas Hygiene factor imitated external factors. All of these factors
besides salary clearly proves that money does not have to be at the sole
purpose for people, it could be other factors resulting to personal desires
which will allow them to continue to be motivated at their job.

Over the years there have been
motivation theories that classify as ‘Content theories’ which analyses the
presence, or absence of certain things that spur people to work. The other
theory is called the  ‘Process theories’  which emphasises the actions taken place will
make a difference for the individual. Some will argue that both theories are
better than the other.  Nevertheless, I
will be studying one of each of the content theories and process theories to
explain why money is not at the heart of people’s motivation to work.


Personal Assessment

Explanation of assessment

Openness to experience


I am low in this dimension because when I am doing a task I give it my
all just like in previous jobs. As a bartender I was moved to the tills and I
wasn’t as open to this new change. This can affect my future career because
if I am not open to new experiences I may struggle to know what I am capable
of until I try. Seeking new opportunities would help me to stand out from the



I pay really close attention when performing
a task/job role as I am diligent and want to get it exactly right. For
instance, when my manager gave me a task to do I made sure I done everything
exactly right for my own personal fulfilment. This will bring positivity in
my future career because, this gives my team the confidence that I will be
effective in every task I am given and I will try my very best to do it
precisely and correctly. However, the detail of the project may slow me down.



This reflects my personality because I prefer to work
independently more than in groups. For example, when my friends invite me for
group study sometimes I refuse because I prefer to work alone. This can
affect my future career in work places, because being able to work within a
team is just as important as working independently and it would also help me
to multitask better.



I would say this is my strongest trait of the “Big Five” model of
personality as it represents my personality the most on a daily basis. I feel
that having this trait would help me progress in my future career, because it
will make people aware through my actions, I value other people’s opinion as
well as my own.



This type of dimension is the most significant which portrays my
personality due to previous experience which I’ve encountered over the years.
I have realised that I tend to break down when people rely on me and when I
don’t deliver I start to panic and downgrade myself which eats me alive. But
what I am doing now to prevent my breakdowns is to have confidence with
everything I do and to stay positive at all times.  This would affect my future career as when
I become under pressure at work I will be able to be more composed and calm.




Facet / characteristic


How does this benefit organisation?

Adopting Weber’s work will mean that organisations
will be able to increase efficiency, which will result in the organisation
achieving their goals. As well as this, the organisation will have the
opportunity to prevent waste and mistakes as individuals will know exactly what
to do and what their job role requires from an individual.

Example or illustration of this effect in practice.

An example of these benefits being put into practise
was when I worked as a Bartender for a music festival, which required an
assembly line process. I had to be precise of the amount of alcohol I added
inside the drinks and passed onto my colleagues who were taking the drinks I
made to the customers. This process kept on happening continuously, which as
a result helped the organisation to receive no complaints from the customers
as everyone in the team was working efficiently in their required roles.

How does this limit or hinder the organisation?

Weber’s bureaucracy can hinder the workforce because
all the workers may find that the task they are doing are boring to them, as
they do not have the opportunity to explore other tasks within the
organisation. In addition, it does not provide the chance for workers to be
creative, innovative or to excel up the career ladder; therefore a high
inconsistency may have a knock-on effect that will hinder the organisations
profits and reputation long-term.

Example or illustration of this effect in practice

For example, when I was preparing the drinks in my
station for a very long time I got bored and tired. This lead to a decrease
in my performance and as a result my manager moved me to a different station.
However, due to being the most specialised worker in my specific area in the
production line, this lead to the organisation having to increase variable
cost by having to train up new employees.  Variables costs are actually seen as the
costs which vary depending on the company’s production volume.