History: FOP’s earliest documented case was in the 1700’s from a doctor in London. The patient was a teenager who had one of the most common symptoms which was tumors on his neck and shoulders. During this time, medicine was not very advanced so no one truly understood what was happening to this poor child. Many doctors were stumped and had not seen anything like it before. About 200 years later a man named Jules Rosenstein stated, “‘One does not wonder that a disease, so baffling in its course from the first causes to its ultimate state, should invite the speculative as well as the patiently investigating observer to lift the obscuring veil and solve this embarrassing puzzle,'”(NCBI). Basically he is saying that the disease was so confusing that no one could truly comprehend what it was. Only recently did we finally discover the truth about what Fibrodysplasia Osificans Progresiva was.Symptoms: The most common symptom patients with FOP have is a deformed thumb or toe. You may also notice large tumors on many parts of your body. These tumors are caused by numerous things. “FOP form painful fibrous nodules, or tumor-like swellings, over the neck, back and shoulders. These nodules often develop after a child experiences some sort of trauma to the body…”(UCSF). When there are these traumas the tumors form because of the FOP. It can be very difficult for children especially. For example, children fall, and scrape their knees all the time. Based on this if a child were to have a small accident like bumping a knee a tumor will most likely form. Eventually the tumor will turn into bone. “…the nodules transform into bone during a process known as heterotopic ossification,”(UCSF). “Tissue swelling, joint stiffness and serious discomfort can occur,”(UCSF). These are other very common symptoms for patients with FOP. Patients who have FOP have to be extremely careful around sharp object and children with FOP have to be very careful when playing around.Causes: FOP is when muscles turn into bones. It is caused by the ACVR1 gene mutation. “Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder,”(Rare Diseases). What this is saying is that every cell needs to have this mutation for the disease to happen. If it is not in each cell the disease will not occur. The gene mutation can be inherited from a parent but in most cases the gene mutation is new(Rare Diseases).Prevention: There is currently no known method of prevention for fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP). But there is ways to prevent new tumors from occuring. In children, it is recommended for them to be careful when playing. No sports and anything that can physically harm the child. Activities like puzzles, board games, and reading are the best activities for a child with FOP. For adults similar things are recommended but there is more leniency. As adults you can try and control certain things like bumping and falling. There will always be accidents but not as many unpredictable accidents as children. These bumps can cause tumors(UCSF). Treatments: “A brief course of high-dose corticosteroids, such as Prednisone, started within the first 24 hours of a flare-up, may help reduce the intense inflammation and tissue swelling seen in the early stages of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva,”(Emedicine 2017). There are many other medications that can reduce the flare-ups and prevent new ones from occuring. “Muscle relaxants, mast cell inhibitors, and aminobisphosphonates, if appropriate, should be closely monitored by a physician,”(Emedicine 2017). There are also surgeries that can remove certain tumors but these surgeries can be extremly dangerous and have many potential complications. Some of these include new and even more painful bone formations. These treatments can only reduce the pain and possibly prevent more flare-ups for FOP patients.Demographics: FOP can happen to anyone. There are no specific demographics. It is not more likely to happen for one specific race or gender(NCBI). FOP affects approximately “1 in every 2 million people,”(IFOPA). It affects adults as well as many children around the globe.Reflection: Hearing about this condition truly makes you think about how it affects children especially. I hate to imagine having to sit out in gym class as well as other fun activities such as tag and play wrestling. Even a small bump could cause an exteremly painful tumor. Even with these new medical advances in science, scientists still haven’t found a cure for this disease. It affects a large amount of people if you take in consideration of the world’s population. I feel we should put in more money, research, and time into finding a cure for this extremely painful disease. It truly amazes me that it was only recently that we discovered what FOP was. Just imagine the amount of people who were in extreme pain since the 1700’s with a disease that baffled many scientists and doctors.