Introduction to Management and Organizations True/False Questions A MANAGER’S DILEMMA 1. Today’s managers are just as likely to be women as they are men. (True; moderate; p. 4) 2. Management affects employee morale but not a company’s financial performance. (False; easy; p. 4) WHO ARE MANAGERS? 3. In order to be considered a manager, an individual must coordinate the work of others. (True; moderate; p. 5) 4. Supervisors and foremen may both be considered first-line managers. (True; moderate; p. 6) WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? 5. Effectiveness refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs. False; moderate; p. 8) 6. Effectiveness is concerned with the means of getting things done, while efficiency is concerned with the attainment of organizational goals. (False; moderate; p. 8) 7. A goal of efficiency is to minimize resource costs. (True; moderate; p. 8) 8. Efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right. ” (True; moderate; p. 8) 9. Managers who are effective at meeting organizational goals always act efficiently. (False; difficult; p. 8) WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? 10. The four contemporary functions of management are planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. (True; easy; p. 9) 11.
Determining who reports to whom is part of the controlling function of management. (False; easy; p. 9) 12. Directing and motivating are part of the controlling function of management. (False; moderate; p. 9) 13. Fayol’s management functions are basically equivalent to Mintzberg’s management roles. (False; moderate; p. 10) 14. The roles of figurehead, leader, and liaison are all interpersonal roles. (True; difficult; p. 10) 15. Disturbance handler is one of Mintzberg’s interpersonal roles. (False; difficult; p. 10) 16. Mintzberg’s informational management role involves receiving, collecting, and disseminating information. (True; moderate; p. 0) 17. Mintzberg’s resource allocation role is similar to Fayol’s planning function because it involves the coordination of employee’s activities. (True; difficult; p. 11) 18. Resource allocation and disturbance handling are both considered decisional roles. (True; moderate; p. 11) 19. A finance manager who reads the Wall Street Journal on a regular basis would be performing the figurehead role. (False; moderate; p. 11) 20. Katz found that managers needed three essential skills: technical, human, and informational. (False; difficult; p. 12) 21. Technical skills become less important as a manager moves into higher levels of management. True; moderate; p. 12) 22. Conceptual skills become less important as a manager moves into top management. (False; easy; p. 12) 23. Interpersonal skills involve a manager’s ability to think about abstract situations. (False; moderate; p. 12) 24. Coaching and budgeting are skills closely related to the management function of leading. (False; difficult; p. 14) 25. Budgeting is a skill that is related to both planning and controlling. (True; moderate; p. 14) 26. In today’s world, organizational managers at all levels and in all areas need to encourage their employees to be on the look-out for new ideas and new approaches. True; moderate; p. 16) 27. Only first-line managers and employees need to be concerned with being customer-responsive. (False; moderate; p. 16) 28. Innovation is only important in high-tech firms. (False; moderate; p. 16) WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION? 29. A distinct purpose is important in defining an organization. (True; easy; p. 18) 30. A nontaxable organization, such as the United Way, cannot be considered an organization. (False; moderate; p. 18) Multiple-Choice Questions For each of the following choose the answer that most completely answers the question. A Manager’s Dilemma 31.
Which of the following statements regarding managers in today’s world is accurate? a. Their age range is limited to between 30 and 65. b. They are found only in large corporations. c. They can be found exclusively in for-profit organizations. d. The single most important variable in employee productivity and loyalty is the quality of the relationship between employees and their direct supervisors. (d; easy; p. 4) 32. According to data collected by Catalyst, a nonprofit research group, _________ percent of corporate officers in Fortune 500 companies are women. a. 55. 3 b. 15. 7 c. 39. 7 d. 21. 9 (b; moderate; p. 4) Who Are Managers? 3. Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals is ___________. a. an assembly line worker b. a laborer c. a manager d. a salesperson (c; easy; p. 5) 34. In the past, nonmanagerial employees were viewed as employees who ___________. a. reported to top executives b. reported to middle managers c. supervised others d. had no others reporting to them (d; easy; p. 4) 35. Which of the following types of managers is responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization? . first-line managers b. top managers c. production managers d. research managers (b; easy; p. 7) 36. All levels of management between the supervisory level and the top level of the organization are termed _____________. a. middle managers b. first-line managers c. supervisors d. foremen (a; easy; p. 6) 37. Which of the following levels of management is associated with positions such as executive vice president, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, and chairman of the board? a. team leaders b. middle managers c. first-line managers d. top managers (d; easy; p. 7) 38.
Agency head or plant manager is most likely associated with which of the following? a. team leaders b. middle managers c. first-line managers d. top managers (b; moderate; p. 6) 39. The lowest level of management is ______________. a. a nonmanagerial employee b. a department of research manager c. a vice president d. a first-line manager (d; easy; p. 6) 40. Supervisor is another name for which of the following? a. team leader b. middle manager c. first-line manager d. top manager (c; moderate; p. 6) 41. Managers with titles such as regional manager, project leader, or plant manager are _______________. a. first-line managers . top managers c. production managers d. middle managers (d; moderate; p. 6) 42. Which of the following best reflects the management structure of a traditional organization? a. pyramid b. circle c. hub with spokes d. infinite line (a; easy; p. 6) 43. Division manager is associated with which of the following levels of management? a. team leaders b. middle managers c. first-line managers d. top managers (b; moderate; p. 6) What Is Management? 44. _____________ is the process of getting activities completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. a. Leading b. Management c. Supervision d. Controlling b; easy; p. 7) 45. The distinction between a managerial position and a nonmanagerial position is _______________. a. planning the work of others b. coordinating the work of others c. controlling the work of others d. organizing the work of others (b; moderate; p. 7) 46. Which of the following is an example of an efficient manufacturing technique? a. cutting inventory levels b. increasing the amount of time to manufacture products c. increasing product reject rates d. decreasing product output (a; moderate; p. 8) 47. Wasting resources is considered to be an example of managerial _____________. a. efficiency b. effectiveness . inefficiency d. ineffectiveness (c; moderate; p. 8) 48. An automobile manufacturer that increased the total number of cars produced at the same cost, but with many defects, would be _____________. a. efficient and effective b. increasing efficiency c. increasing effectiveness d. concerned with inputs (b; difficult; p. 8) 49. Effectiveness is synonymous with _____________. a. cost minimization b. resource control c. goal attainment d. efficiency (c; difficult; p. 8) 50. Efficiency refers to _____________. a. the relationship between inputs and outputs b. the additive relationship between costs and benefits c. he exponential nature of costs and outputs d. increasing outputs regardless of cost (a; moderate; p. 8) 51. In successful organizations, ______________. a. low efficiency and high effectiveness go hand in hand b. high efficiency and low effectiveness go hand in hand c. high efficiency and high effectiveness go hand in hand d. high efficiency and high equity go hand in hand (c; moderate; p. 8) 52. Whereas _____________ is concerned with the means of getting things done, _____________ is concerned with the ends, or attainment of organizational goals. a. effectiveness; efficiency b. efficiency; effectiveness . effectiveness; goal attainment d. goal attainment; efficiency (b; difficult; p. 8) WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? Management Functions 53. How many management functions were originally proposed in the early part of the twentieth century? a. three b. four c. five d. nine (c; difficult; p. 9) 54. _____________ was a French industrialist who first identified the basic management functions. a. Weber b. Taylor c. Herzberg d. Fayol (d; moderate; p. 9) 55. Today, the basic management functions are considered to be ______________. a. planning, coordinating, staffing, and directing b. planning, organizing, leading, and directing c. ommanding, organizing, leading, and staffing d. planning, organizing, leading, and controlling (d; moderate; p. 9) 56. Which of the following management functions from the mid-1950s is no longer included in the basic functions of management? a. commanding b. staffing c. leading d. controlling (b; moderate; p. 9) 57. Writing an organizational strategic plan is an example of the ______________ management function. a. leading b. coordinating c. planning d. organizing (c; difficult; p. 9) 58. Organizing includes _____________. a. defining organizational goals b. hiring organizational members c. motivating organizational members . determining who does what tasks (d; difficult; p. 9) 59. A manager resolving conflict among organizational members is performing what function? a. controlling b. commanding c. directing d. leading (d; moderate; p. 9) 60. The process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting is called _____________. a. controlling b. coordinating c. leading d. organizing (a; moderate; p. 9) Management Roles 61. __________ developed a categorization scheme for defining what managers do, consisting of 10 different but highly interrelated roles. a. Henri Fayol b. Henry Ford c. Henry Mintzberg d. Henry Morris (c; moderate; p. 10) 62.
According to Mintzberg’s management roles, the _____________ roles are those that involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. a. informational b. interpersonal c. technical d. decisional (b; easy; p. 10) 63. The roles of disseminator, figurehead, negotiator, liaison, and spokesperson are more important at the __________ levels of the organization. a. lower b. middle c. higher d. supervisory (c; moderate; p. 12; AACSB: Communication) 64. Which of the following is not an example of a decisional role according to Mintzberg? a. spokesperson b. entrepreneur c. disturbance handler d. resource allocator a; moderate; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 65. A human resource manager attending a local Society for Human Resource Management meeting would be functioning in which role? a. informational b. leader c. liaison d. disseminator (c; moderate; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 66. A finance manager who reads the Wall Street Journal on a regular basis would be performing which role? a. figurehead b. monitor c. disseminator d. interpersonal (b; moderate; p. 11) 67. The _____________ role is more important for lower-level managers than it is for either middle- or top-level managers. a. leader b. entrepreneur c. spokesperson d. disseminator a; difficult; p. 12) 68. The emphasis that managers give to various roles seems to be based on their _____________. a. organizational level b. tenure with the organization c. experience in their field d. personality (a; easy; p. 12) 69. Which of the following is not an example of an interpersonal role according to Mintzberg? a. figurehead b. leader c. liaison d. spokesperson (d; difficult; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 70. According to Mintzberg’s management roles, the ______________ roles involve receiving, collecting, and disseminating information. a. interpersonal b. informational c. technical d. decisional (b; difficult; p. 1) 71. All of the following are examples of informational roles according to Mintzberg except ____________. a. liaison b. monitor c. disseminator d. spokesperson (a; difficult; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 72. Which of the following is not an example of a decisional role according to Mintzberg? a. spokesperson b. entrepreneur c. disturbance handler d. resource allocator (a; moderate; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 73. All of the following are managerial roles that are more important at the higher levels of the organization except ________________. a. leader b. disseminator c. figurehead d. negotiator (a; difficult; p. 12) 74.
Which of the following represents the most useful way of describing the manager’s job? a. roles b. functions c. skills d. organizational level (b; moderate; p. 12) 75. Many of Mintzberg’s roles align with the basic functions of management. For example, the _____________ role is a part of planning. a. figurehead b. leader c. liaison d. resource allocation (d; moderate; p. 12) 76. All three of Mintzberg’s interpersonal roles are part of the _____________ function. a. organizing b. planning c. leading d. controlling (c; moderate; p. 12) Management Skills 77. Which of the following identified the three essential managerial skills? a.
Katz b. Lewisberg c. Raines d. Chambers (a; easy; p. 12) 78. The three essential managerial skills include _____________. a. technical, human, and empirical b. human, empirical, and conceptual c. technical, interpersonal, and controlling d. technical, human, and conceptual (d; moderate; p. 12) 79. Understanding building codes would be considered a _____________ skill for a building contractor. a. human b. technical c. conceptual d. empirical (b; easy; p. 12) 80. Which of the following is true concerning technical and managerial skills? a. Human skills and technical skills remain equally important as managers move to higher levels. . Technical-skill needs remain necessary and human skills decrease as managers move to higher levels. c. Human skills remain necessary and technical-skill needs decrease as managers move to higher levels. d. Both human-skill and technical-skill needs decrease as managers move to higher levels. (c; difficult; p. 12) 81. Managers with good __________ are able to get the best out of their people. a. human skills b. conceptual skills c. technical skills d. visual skills (a; easy; p. 12) 82. Technical skills include _______________. a. leadership and efficiency in a certain specialized field b. nowledge of and proficiency in a certain specialized field c. familiarity with and interest in a general field of endeavor d. skill and interest in a general field of endeavor (b; difficult; p. 12) 83. The ability to work well with other people, both individually and in a group, requires ________________. a. technical skills b. assessment skills c. planning skills d. human skills (d; moderate; p. 12) 84. Which of the following types of skills are described with terms such as abstract situations and visualization? a. interpersonal b. human c. technical d. conceptual (d; moderate; p. 12) 85.
Which one of the following phrases is best associated with managerial conceptual skills? a. decision making b. communicating with customers c. using information to solve business problems d. product knowledge (c; moderate; 12; AACSB: Communication) 86. Which of the following skills are more important at lower levels of management, as these managers are dealing directly with employees doing the organization’s work? a. human b. technical c. conceptual d. empirical (b; easy; p. 12) 87. Budgeting is associated with the management functions of planning and _____________. a. directing b. organizing c. leading d. controlling (c; easy; p. 14) 8. Mentoring is primarily associated with the management function of _____________. a. planning b. organizing c. leading d. controlling (c; easy; p. 14) What Is an Organization? 89. An organization is ______________. a. the physical location where people work b. a collection of individuals working for the same company c. a deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose d. a group of individuals focused on profit making for their shareholders (c; moderate; p. 18) 90. One of the common characteristics of all organizations is ____________, which is typically expressed in terms of the organization’s goals. . its people b. its goals c. its systematic structure d. its purpose (d; moderate; p. 18) 91. One of the common characteristics of all organizations is _____________, which clarifies members’ work relationships. a. its people b. its goals c. its deliberate structure d. its purpose (c; moderate; p. 18) 92. A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose is _____________. a. a structure. b. a process. c. an organization. d. an assembly operation (c; difficult; p. 18) 93. A difference between traditional organizations and new organizations is that the new organizations tend to be more _____________. a. stable . command oriented c. rule oriented d. dynamic (d; moderate; p. 17) WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT? 94. Which of the following best describes the concept that management is needed in all types and sizes of organizations, no matter the country in which they’re located? a. the partiality of management b. the segmentation of management c. the universality of management d. the cultures of management (c; moderate; p. 19) 95. Universality of management means that _____________ a. all managers in all organizations perform the four management functions b. all managers in all organizations can perform their job the same way c. ll organizations can hire any manager to perform the management jobs d. any manager can work in any organization and perform any management job (a; difficult; p. 19) 96. As members of the general public, we have a vested interest in improving the way organizations are managed because _________________. a. we stand to benefit personally from an individual organization’s profits b. we interact with organizations every single day of our lives c. if organizations don’t improve, we won’t have a place to work in the future d. organizations supply inputs to other organizations (b; difficult; p. 20) 97.
Organizations that are well managed ____________. a. choose the best suppliers for their products b. compete on an international basis because they have the best products c. always have the lowest-cost products d. develop a loyal customer base, grow, and prosper (d; moderate; p. 20) 98. According to management expert Peter Drucker, management is about ______________. a. profits b. people c. planning d. participation (b; easy; p. 21) 99. Which of the following types of managerial positions is most likely to involve clerical duties? a. shift supervisor b. regional department head c. project manager d. chief executive officer a; moderate; p. 21) 100. A manager’s success is typically _______________. a. dependent on how hard the manager works b. how closely the manager supervises the employees c. based on how skilled the manager is at the technical elements of the job d. dependent on others’ work performance (d; easy; p. 21) 101. A primary responsibility of managers is creating a work environment that _______________. a. is safe and well lit b. is clean and organized c. allows employees to do their work to the best of their ability d. provides excellent customer service (c; moderate; p. 22) 102. Managers often ______________. . are prevented from making business decisions b. change their career paths during their work lives c. have opportunities to think creatively and use their imaginations d. must depend on their employees for guidance in dealing with superiors (c; moderate; p. 22) 103. Which of the following represents a challenge of management? a. enjoy relatively easy work b. work with a variety of people c. have little influence on organizational outcomes d. have to deal with a variety of personalities (d; moderate; p. 21) 104. Each of the following represents a challenge of management except _______________. . must operate with limited resources b. are highly valued by organizations c. must motivate workers in uncertain situations d. success depends on others’ performance (b; moderate; p. 21) Scenarios and Questions For each of the following choose the answer that most completely answers the question. WHO ARE MANAGERS? Managerial Basic Training (Scenario) Imagine that your marketing company has just merged with a manufacturing organization. You have been asked to help provide some “basic” managerial training to the engineers in the research and development unit of the new sister company.
To make sure you are covering the necessary issues, your boss has asked to see an overview of materials that you will be providing the engineers. 105. Now that both companies are merged and are a systematic arrangement of people set to accomplish a specific purpose, they could be described as a(n) _____________. a. business unit b. multinational company c. organization d. holding company (c; easy; p. 18) 106. One of the first things the engineers need to learn is that _____________ are the people who direct the activities of others in an organization. a. directors b. managers c. subordinates . line workers (b; moderate; p. 5) 107. Another fact that engineers need to learn is that supervisors may frequently be referred to as _____________. a. middle managers b. top managers c. project leaders d. first-line managers (d; moderate; p. 6) 108. Many of the engineers in the group are unclear about what managers actually do. Your training materials explain that a manager’s job focuses on _____________. a. the performance of clerical duties b. personal achievement c. helping others accomplish their work goals d. supervising groups rather than individual employees (c; moderate; p. ) The Customer Meeting (Scenario) Kelly, a production supervisor, is responsible for 10 employees who assemble components into a finished product that is sold to distributors. Kelly reports to Ben, a production manager, who in turn reports to Dan, a general manager, who reports to McKenna, a vice president of operations. Recently, McKenna asked Dan to have a meeting with Kelly and Ben regarding some customer concerns in the production area. The focus of the meeting was to judge the validity of the customer concerns, and to develop a specific plan to address these concerns. 109.
What is the commonality among Kelly, Ben, Dan, and McKenna? a. They all produce the same product. b. They all have the same job content. c. They all are managers. d. They all have the same vision. (c; moderate; p. 5) 110. Kelly is considered to be what level of management? a. top manager b. superintendent of assembly c. middle manager d. first-line manager (d; easy; p. 6) 111. Ben and Dan are considered to be what level of management? a. top managers b. middle managers c. superintendents of assembly d. first-line managers (b; moderate; p. 6) 112. McKenna is considered to be what level of management? . top manager b. superintendent of assembly c. middle manager d. first-line manager (a; moderate; p. 7) 113. The structure of the managerial relationships among McKenna, Dan, Ben, and Kelly can best be described as a ____________. a. flexible work group b. traditional pyramid structure c. innovative nuclear structure d. communication hub (b; easy; p. 7) WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? The Perfect Manager (Scenario) Brenda Kraft has proven herself to be an able manager. Her section has a high project completion rate with the highest-quality product and the lowest defects in her division.
In addition, she accomplishes this with fewer full-time people than other managers. Some say that the secret of her success is in her ability to delegate responsibility and her understanding of the basic “management functions. ” 114. Brenda’s ability to complete activities efficiently and effectively with and through other people is known as _____________. a. management b. leadership c. coercion d. delegation (a; easy; p. 8) 115. Brenda’s ability to produce the same amount of product with fewer personnel is a reflection of her ___________. a. effectiveness b. process skills c. leadership d. efficiency (d; moderate; p. 8) 16. The fact that Brenda completes her projects is an indication of her _____________ as a manager. a. leadership b. effectiveness c. efficiency d. attention to detail (b; moderate; p. 8) 117. If Brenda accomplished her projects on time with high-quality results, but she took more time than other managers in the process, you could say that as a manager she was ____________. a. efficient, but not effective b. a leader, but not a top manager c. project oriented, but not effective d. effective, but not efficient (d; moderate; p. 8) 118. The “management functions” exemplified by Brenda include all but which of the following? . planning b. controlling c. organizing d. calibrating (d; moderate; p. 9) WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? Joe the Manager (Scenario) As a production supervisor, Joe decides on Friday afternoon how many units of output his employees will be able to produce and on which days certain products will be run in his department. He also decides which of his employees are going to be responsible for operating which machines within the department next week, as his employees are multi-skilled assemblers. On Monday, he informs his employees of their assignments to specific machines by handing out assignment sheets.
He tells the employees that the schedule is going to be difficult this week due to the increased number of units. He goes on to tell them that he is sure they can fulfill the schedule because they are such good and skilled employees. Each day during the week, Joe checks the amount of output that the employees have completed and the number of units that have been rejected. 119. When Joe decides how many units of output his employees will be able to produce and on which days certain products will be run, he is performing which of the management functions? a. controlling b. leading c. planning d. rganizing (c; moderate; p. 9) 120. When Joe checks the amount of output that the employees have completed and the number of units that have been rejected, he is performing which of the management functions? a. controlling b. leading c. planning d. organizing (a; moderate; p. 9) 121. When Joe tells the employees that he is sure they can fulfill the schedule because they are such good and skilled employees, he is performing which of the management functions? a. controlling b. leading c. planning d. organizing (b; moderate; p. 9) The Busy Day (Scenario) Don Eskew, plant manager at Control Systems, Inc. sighed as he sipped his first cup of coffee at 5 a. m. and read his agenda for the day. He is giving two company tours in the morning: the first to a newspaper reporter who is writing a story on the new plant expansion, and the second to a group of Control Systems managers from the east coast. Don then has a meeting with the unit manager, Phil Johnson, to discuss Phil’s recent drop in performance (a task Don always hates). Next, Don is spending a couple of hours reviewing the trade journals he receives from his high-tech association and writing up a brief synopsis for his presentation next week to the division president.
Finally, in the late afternoon, he will be reviewing the new equipment malfunction and deciding whether to bring in extra people to get the equipment running as soon as possible. Whew! Just another day in the glamorous life of a manager. 122. Together, all of the functions that Don performs during his busy day correspond to the management roles discovered in the late 1960s by which one of the following management researchers? a. Herzberg b. Skinner c. Mintzberg d. Fayol (c; easy; p. 10) 123. When Don conducts the tour for the east coast managers, he will be operating in which of the management roles? a. leader . liaison c. monitor d. figurehead (d; difficult; p. 11) 124. When Don meets with Phil to discuss Phil’s performance issues, Don will be operating in which management role? a. leader b. figurehead c. monitor d. disturbance handler (a; difficult; p. 11) 125. What role will Don be performing when he gives the plant tour to the newspaper reporter? a. monitor b. figurehead c. disseminator d. spokesperson (d; difficult; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 126. When Don reviews the new equipment malfunction, what management role will he play when deciding whether to bring in extra people? a. monitor b. disseminator c. esource allocator d. disturbance handler (c; moderate; p. 11) The General Manager (Scenario) Michael is the general manager of a production facility. In a routine day, Michael might meet with city officials or civic leaders about environmental issues due to the plant’s presence in the community. After these meetings, he will then meet with the plant’s functional managers to discuss the concerns expressed by the city representatives. Other times, Michael might meet with the production manager, Betty, and the human resource manager, Joyce, to discuss a complaint filed by one of the employees in a production department.
Michael might also spend time on the Internet looking for new technologies that can be used in the production processes of his plant. 127. When Michael gains information from city officials or civic leaders to learn how the plant’s operations may be affecting the environment, he is performing which management role? a. leader b. resource allocator c. entrepreneur d. monitor (d; difficult; p. 11) 128. When Michael meets with Betty and Joyce to discuss a complaint filed by one of the employees in a production department, he is performing which management role? a. resource allocator b. isturbance handler c. liaison d. figurehead (b; moderate; p. 11) 129. When Michael meets with the functional managers to share with them the results of the meeting with city officials or civic leaders, he is performing which management role? a. disseminator b. liaison c. disturbance handler d. negotiator (a; moderate; p. 11; AACSB: Communication) 130. When Michael spends time on the Internet looking for new technologies that can be used in the production processes of his plant, he is performing which management role? a. leader b. entrepreneur c. spokesperson d. disturbance handler b; difficult; p. 11; AACSB: Technology) 131. Michael’s search for new technologies that can be used in the production processes of his plant is an example of which type of management role? a. interpersonal b. informational c. decisional d. controlling (c; moderate; p. 11; AACSB: Technology) 132. Michael’s search for new technologies that can be used in the production processes of his plant is an example of which type of management skill? a. conceptual b. communication c. effectiveness d. interpersonal (a; moderate; p. 11; AACSB: Technology) Essay Questions WHO ARE MANAGERS? 133.
In a short essay, explain how the definition of a manager has changed over time. Provide an example that illustrates the current definition. Answer Managers used to be defined as the organizational members who told others what to do and how to do it. In the past, it was easy to differentiate managers from nonmanagerial employees. Nonmanagers were organizational members who worked directly on a job or task and had no one reporting to them. Managers were those who supervised other employees. Today, the changing nature of organizations and work has blurred the distinction between managers and nonmanagerial employees.
Many traditional nonmanagerial jobs now include managerial activities. For example, managerial responsibilities are shared by managers and team members at General Cable Corporation’s facility in Moose Jaw, Saskatchewan, Canada. Most of the employees at Moose Jaw are cross-trained and multi-skilled. Within a single shift, an employee can be a team leader, equipment operator, maintenance technician, quality inspector, or improvement planner. (easy; pp. 4-5) 134. In a short essay, describe the similarities and differences between managerial and nonmanagerial positions in today’s work environment. Answer a.
Similarities—In today’s work force, both managers and nonmanagers may at times have responsibility for certain managerial activities. In addition, like nonmanagerial employees, managers may carry out some duties that do not involve supervising others. b. Differences—A nonmanager’s job tends to be focused on personal achievement. By contrast, a manager’s job is not about personal achievement but rather helping others to do their work. In addition, nonmanagers focus primarily on accomplishing specific tasks. Managers may have their own tasks to accomplish, but they also focus on coordinating the work of others. easy; pp. 4-5) 135. In a short essay, describe and provide examples of first-line, middle, and top managers. Answer a. First-line managers are the lowest level of management and manage the work of nonmanagerial individuals who are directly involved with the production or creation of the organization’s products. First-line managers are often called supervisors, but may also be called line managers, office managers, or even foremen. b. Middle managers include all levels of management between the first-line level and the top level of the organization.
These managers manage the work of first-line managers and may have titles such as department head, project leader, plant manager, or division manager. c. Top managers are responsible for making organization-wide decisions and establishing the plans and goals that affect the entire organization. These individuals typically have titles such as executive vice president, president, managing director, chief operating officer, chief executive officer, or chairman of the board. (easy; pp. 6-7) WHAT IS MANAGEMENT? 136. In a short essay, discuss the difference between efficiency and effectiveness and include a specific example to support each concept.
Answer a. Efficiency refers to getting the most output from the least amount of inputs. Because managers deal with scarce inputs—including resources such as people, money, and equipment—they are concerned with the efficient use of resources. For instance, at the HON Company plant in Cedartown, Georgia, where employees make and assemble steel and wooden office furniture, efficient manufacturing techniques were implemented by doing things such as cutting inventory levels, decreasing the amount of time to manufacture products, and lowering product reject rates.
From this perspective, efficiency is often referred to as “doing things right”—that is, not wasting resources. b. Effectiveness is often described as “doing the right things”—that is, those work activities that will help the organization reach its goals. For instance, at the HON factory, goals included meeting customers’ increasingly stringent needs, executing world-class manufacturing strategies, and making employee jobs easier and safer. Through various work methods and programs, these goals were pursued and achieved.
Whereas efficiency is concerned with the means of getting things done, effectiveness is concerned with the ends, or attainment of organizational goals. (moderate; pp. 7-8) WHAT DO MANAGERS DO? 137. In a short essay, list and explain the four basic functions of management. Answer a. Planning—involves the process of defining goals, establishing strategies for achieving those goals, and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. b. Organizing—involves the process of determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. . Leading—when managers motivate subordinates, influence individuals or teams as they work, select the most effective communication channel, or deal in any way with employee behavior issues, they are leading. d. Controlling—to ensure that work is proceeding as it should, managers must monitor and evaluate performance. The process of monitoring, comparing, and correcting is what is meant by the controlling function. (moderate; pp. 8-9) 138. In a short essay, list and discuss 7 of the 10 managerial roles developed by Mintzberg.
Include specific examples of each role and group each according to interpersonal, informational, and decisional roles. Answer Interpersonal Roles a. Figurehead—symbolic head; obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature. Examples include greeting visitors and signing legal documents. b. Leader—responsible for the motivation and activation of subordinates; responsible for staffing, training, and associated duties. Examples include performing virtually all activities that involve subordinates. c. Liaison—maintains self-developed network of outside contacts and informers who provide favors and information.
Examples include acknowledging mail, doing external board work, and performing other activities that involve outsiders. Informational Roles a. Monitor—seeks and receives wide variety of internal and external information to develop thorough understanding of organization and environment. Examples include reading periodicals and reports, and maintaining personal contacts. b. Disseminator—transmits information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organization. Examples include holding informational meetings and making phone calls to relay information. c.
Spokesperson—transmits information to outsiders on organization’s plans, policies, actions, results, and so on. Examples include holding board meetings and giving information to the media. Decisional Roles a. Entrepreneur—searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates “improvement projects” to bring about changes. Examples include organizing strategy and review sessions to develop new programs. b. Disturbance handler—responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances. Examples include organizing strategy and review sessions that involve disturbances and crises. c.
Resource allocator—responsible for the allocation of organizational resources of all kinds—making or approving all significant organizational decisions. Examples include scheduling, requesting authorization; performing any activity that involves budgeting and the programming of subordinates’ work. d. Negotiator—responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations. Examples include participating in union contract negotiations. The interpersonal roles are roles that involve people and other duties that are ceremonial and symbolic in nature. The three interpersonal roles include being a figurehead, leader, and liaison.
The informational roles involve receiving, collecting, and disseminating information. The three informational roles include a monitor, disseminator, and spokesperson. Finally, the decisional roles revolve around making choices. The four decisional roles include entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator, and negotiator. (difficult; pp. 10-11; AACSB: Communication) 139. In a short essay, discuss which approach is more useful for describing the job of a manager—functions or roles? Describe the contributions of both approaches. Answer Fayol’s functions approach represents the most useful way of describing the manager’s job.
This is because Fayol’s functions provide “clear and discrete methods” of classifying management activities and techniques. Though less effective than the functions approach, Mintzberg’s roles approach does offer important insights into managers’ work. Many of his roles align well with one or more of the functions. For instance, resource allocation is part of planning, as is the entrepreneurial role, and all three of the interpersonal roles are part of the leading function. (moderate; p. 12) 140. In a short essay, describe the three main types of managerial skills identified by Robert Katz.
Which skills are most important to each level of management, and why? Answer a. Research by Robert L. Katz concluded that managers needed three essential skills. These are technical skills, human skills, and conceptual skills. Technical skills are the job-specific knowledge and techniques needed to perform specific tasks proficiently. Human skills involve the ability to work well with other people both individually and in a group. Conceptual skills are the skills managers use to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations. b. Technical skills tend to be more important for lower-level managers.
This is because lower-level managers typically manage employees who use tools and techniques to produce the organization’s products and services. Human skills are equally important at all levels of management, because all managers must deal directly with people. Conceptual skills are most important at top levels of management. Managers at top levels must use conceptual skills to see the organization as a whole, to understand the relationships among various subunits, and to visualize how the organization fits into its broader environment. (moderate; pp. 12-13) WHY STUDY MANAGEMENT? 141.
In a short essay, discuss the importance of studying management. Next, list at least five rewards and five challenges of being a manager. Answer By studying management, you’ll be able to recognize poor management and work to correct it. In addition, you’ll be able to recognize good management and encourage it, whether it’s in an organization you’re simply interacting with or whether it’s in an organization where you’re employed. Another reason for studying management is the reality that for most students, once they graduate from college and begin their careers, they will either manage or be managed.
A final reason to study management is the rewards and challenges of being a manager. Rewards of Being a Manager a. most important work of an organization is creating a work environment in which organizational members can work to the best of their ability b. have opportunities to think creatively and use imagination c. help others find meaning and fulfillment in work d. get to support, coach, and nurture others e. get to work with a variety of people f. receive recognition and status in organization and community g. lay a role in influencing organizational outcomes h. receive appropriate compensation in the form of salaries, bonuses, and stock options i. good managers are needed by organizations Challenges of Being a Manager a. it’s hard work b. have to deal with a variety of personalities c. often have to make do with limited resources d. motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain situations e. be able to successfully blend knowledge, skills, ambitions, and experiences of a diverse work group (moderate; p. 21; Exhibit 1-11)