Research on the Influence of Informatization Essay

Running head: RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 1 Research on The Influence of Informatization On The Accounting Theories and Practices and Real-time Control in China Yang Lu Fairleigh Dickinson University RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 2 Abstract The 21st century is an information age of rapid development and the computer is more and more widely used in every country. As a development country, China is effecting by the increasing improvement of modern science technology in every field.

In the accounting field, with the appearance of computerization, accounting information processing has a qualitative leap and its pattern is changing from the traditional accounting mode to network accounting. With rapidly development of the global information network, computer network will become the new trend of financial development which will give accounting fields bring a lot of influence. In this paper, the influence of informatization on accounting field such as practice and theory of accounting and the real-time control about accounting are preliminary discussed about China.

Keywords: China, accounting informatization, real-time control, practice and theory RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 3 Research on The Influence of Informatization On The Accounting Theories and Practices and Real-time Control in China In China, with the rapid development of modern science technology, informatization is gradually playing a most important role in numerous fields such as business administration, finance and hospitality management. Accounting as an indispensable field in the modern society, is also influenced by the development of informatization.

Therefore, researching on this topic is very necessary and this paper will choose the following two important sections to analysis this impact. Accounting information (Giunta, & Biscani, 2012) refers to changing the accounting pattern from traditional one to the modern accounting mode again based on the existing information technology. Then reasonable using the accounting information resources to establish a open accounting information system (AIS) in order to increase the rate of utilization of accounting information resources. Therefore, accounting informatization is a development process in this field.

In the section of theory of accounting, the accounting informatization has a great influence on the four aspects such as accounting objective, basic assumptions of accounting, accounting information quality and accounting measurement. First of all, accounting objective is the accounting work in the enterprise should reach the certain requirement and standard in a fixed social condition (Ausloos, 2012). Accounting objective is to make accounting function more specific. However, according to the variable external environment, accounting objective has a great change and accounting measurement will

RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 4 be rapidly develop. Under the support of modern technology, accounting information processing will look forward to automation, webified and systematization. At the same time, taking advantage of intellectual technology make the decision-making much more accurate. Secondly, basic assumptions of accounting that mainly include the following parts: subject hypothesis influence, going-concern assumption influence and periodicity assumption influence.

Among these, the periodicity assumption has the most impact from accounting informatization. The accounting period is that the enterprises divide the all activities into several short periods combining with accounting accounts and financial statements to provide the accurate financial position and operation result to the decision maker. However, for periodicity assumption, it is the supplement of the going-concern assumption. In the information age, accounting period shorten the spatial distance between the enterprise and he entity. At the same time, network technology provides the possibility of the financial management to understand financial position and business performance. Therefore, in this circumstance, accounting period is a week or a month, however, it could not be shorter because the business of some enterprises have periodicity and continuity. If the division of accounting cycle is too small, it is difficult to reflect the various business position and evaluate the business of enterprise and the development in the future.

Quality of accounting information includes reliability, relativity, timeliness and some other features, and it directly connect with the decision-making and operating result. Impact from accounting informatization, accounting information system (AIS) belongs to the management control layer and presents the accounting principle. At the same time, it will make for the improving of accounting information quality. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 5 Last of these aspects is accounting measurement that generally utilizes the historical cost to measure.

However, due to accounting informatization, the measurement is gradually developing a new mode of cost-based and combination with market value. Under this situation, accounting information not only can reflect cost, but also the current value. For the practice of accounting, accounting analysis method is the core of the entire accounting practice (Chulwoo &Youngmin, 2012). Accounting analysis is not only the component of each enterprise economic activity, but also the one-more development of accounting.

Accounting information is the rational basis of accounting analysis, combined with the business accounting, statistical accounting and other related material. The use of reasonable method will have all the economic indexes to analysis and contrast so as to find out the various economic activities of enterprise, financial revenues and expenditures as soon as possible, and the reason of the correct evaluation of the budget that make sure what have done with the performance. In addition, the existing gap should be found out and constantly sum up experience and lessons, and make a more rational and scientific measures.

Continuously improving business management method is to greatly improve the economic benefit of enterprise. By the influence of network technology, the enterprise accounting information system collects the information and make the processing and settling an make the use of the accounting information which stored in a database, combined with the corresponding format and content provide accounting analysis. Also the system can combine the user’s actual demand that will make database processing into a more personalization accounting information.

RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 6 Besides accounting analysis, accounting method also impacts for accounting informatization. According to the complicity of traditional accounting method, many enterprises just focus on the simpleness of method after deciding the accounting method, but regardless of the scinetificalness and reasonability. Furthermore, it will waste a lot of human resource when copying the data of account books vouchers and statements.

However, after appearance of accounting computerization, accountants can have the aid of computer to solve some problems that cannot be figured out by hand. Then it will make the work accounting measurement better and sufficiently bring into play the management function. In the section of the real-time control, the definition of it is that under the environment of network, accountants utilize modern technology and three quantity information to compare and analysis about the process of enterprise operational activities (Kicsiny ;amp; Varga, 2012).

Then with the guidance, adjustment, constraint, accountants will promote the business activities in order to improve the enterprise management efficiency and benefit that is the ultimate goal of value enhancing. The accounting information impact it mainly presents two aspects, one is related theoretical support of the real-time control, the other is accounting control mode conversion (Kicsiny ;amp; Varga, 2012). The same as any other theory, accounting control theory continuously become more and more perfect, enrich and developmental with the experience of the Times and the environment changes.

Presently, with the rapid development of the information technology, the free-market economy is gradually improving. Under this circumstance, it exactly meets the requirement of enterprise management. Nowadays, not only the enterprise survival environment, RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 7 but also the enterprise management concept, mode or method, have had the massive changes on the basis of the development of information technology.

For instance, the application of ERP, CRM, SCM, XBRL (Yuting, 2010) and other enterprise management software, not only achieve the fund flow of the enterprises and the integration of logistics and information flow, but also provide an advantage to conduct the real-time control more roundly. On the other hand, the impact of accounting informatization on the real-time control is accounting control mode conversion. Nowadays, the achievement of information sharing among the internal of enterprise and the entire supply chain ascribes the efficient and wide application of information technology.

Specifically, it is a process of building a new accounting control mode based on the traditional control mode. It means that the enterprise of pattern of accounting control has transferred from Just-In-Time (JIT) to the real-time control and accounting control has gradually changed from afterwards to matter. In conclusion, the application of accounting informatization brings the great influence on the accounting field. It makes not only the massive change in the drivers of information and data processing tools, but also the accounting method and theory. The data storage form and data processor also have the change.

Especially, network applying into the financial software will generate a profound impact on accounting information system (AIS). At the same time, accounting control must establish accounting real-time control to strengthen the effectiveness and controlling force. RESEARCH ON THE INFLUENCE OF INFORMATIZATION 8 References Duhigg, C. (October 04, 2008) Pressured to Take More Risks, Fannie Reached Tipping Point. The New York Times. Poster, M. (August 07,1999). National identities and communications technologies.

The Information Society. 15(4), 235-240. Yuting, L. (June 16, 2010). Application and dissemination XBRL, Promote accounting Informatization construction. Accounting Research. 24(11), 3–9 Giunta, G. , ;amp; Biscani, F. (January 20, 2012). Free Vibration Analysis of Composite Beams via Refined Theories. Science Direct. Retrieved from;lt;http://www. sciencedirect. com. libaccess. fdu. edu/ science/article/pii/S1359836812002028;gt; Chulwoo, H. , ;amp; Youngmin, J. (August 09, 2012). Effects of Debt Collection Practices on Loss Given default.

Journal of Banking ;amp; Finance. Retrieved from;lt;http://www. sciencedirect. com. libaccess. fdu. edu/ science/article/pii/S0378426612002312;gt; Ed. Judith S. Baughman, Victor, B. , Richard, L. , Tandy M. C. , ;amp;Vincent, T. (2001). Gale Virtual Reference Library. 91-92. Kicsiny, R. , ;amp; Varga Z (September 17, 2012). Real-time nonlinear global state observer design for solar heating systems. Nonlinear Analysis: Real World Application. Retrieved from;lt;http://www. sciencedirect. com. libaccess. fdu. edu/ science/article/pii/S1468121812002143;gt;

Gestalt in Practice Essay

This report will conceptualise a hypothetical client, using the application of Gestalt methods whilst relating to Gestalt theory to analyse the client’s issues. C athy is a 45-year-old woman who’s been referred for counselling by her GP; she has been referred because of her 20 year bouts of depression and panic attacks. This assessment will analyse how Cathy makes meaning and contact with her world using the following three methods; support systems, modifications to contact, unfinished business/fixed gestalts.

The process of contact and withdrawal from contact defines the self (Lobb, and Litchenberg, 2005). The self is a phenomenological concept which exists alongside its environment, and neither can exist independently (Parlett, 1997). My understanding of Phenomenology is it refers to a person’s unique experiences, past and futures experiences are simultaneously parts of the field. However, past field experiences are not a concern as they do not present in the here and now. The environment changes on a moment by moment basis along with people within the field and their perceptions.

According to Clarkson (1989) “conceptually, the sequence of moments in the shift between figure and ground constitutes the gestalt formation and destruction cycle” (p6). Using this cycle will assist a counsellor in assessing disruptions to contact. On evaluation of the case study, it appears that Cathy’s figure/ presenting issue is her depression. In today’s society depression is a common symptom of psychological distress (Joyce, and Sills, 2010). Cathy mentions the loss of her mother; this historical ground and the re-experience of loss within her marriages may have formed a constant cycle of loss which has become a fixed gestalt.

This fixed gestalt may be a reason why Cathy and her environment are on different ends of a continuum. She appears to be very self-reliant. However, Cathy does not appear to use her environment to meet her needs. For example she states ‘she finds it difficult to discuss personal issues with her husband; also she takes herself off to bed and doesn’t attend her gym classes. ’ These types of disruptions to contact can be avoidance from pain or difficult feelings (Joyce, and Sills, 2010). The above disruptions are known as modifications to contact.

There are some possible interconnecting modifications, which appear to demonstrate how Cathy makes contact and withdrawal. Un-healthy retroflections are when a body’s energy is turned inwards towards itself, leading to bodily tensions like psychosomatic illnesses, impotency, depression or even self-harm (Joyce, and Sills, 2010, Mann, 2010). Cathy’s initial referal was connected to depression and panic attacks; this could be symptomatic of Cathy’s inability to express her feelings and insufficient environmental support.

Furthermore Cathy’s negative beliefs and fears of not being worthy, may well be related to her father’s negative interjects which Cathy seems to have taken in and kept as an unhealthy self-belief. When an individual’s experiences of their feelings belong outside their body this is an introjection (Mann, 2010). Cathy recalls her father saying “you will never amount to anything”. Unresolved childhood experiences or situations like this can lead to ‘unfinished business’ leading to dysfunction in adulthood (Clarkson, 1989). We could speculate that this belief of “never amounting” has left Cathy with current negative beliefs.

B. Essentially the assessment would allow a counsellor to understand the implications of Cathy’s problems and her suitability to Gestalt therapy. The counsellor’s aim would be to actively involve the client in raising awareness. This would enable her to move from a static historical pattern to a more flexible and responsive pattern (Joyce, and Sills, 2010) . The Gestalt model is a process orientated therapy which uses phenomenological enquiry, in relation to questioning what’s happening in the here and now for the client, empowering them to become aware of awareness (Yontef, 1993).

So how would the counsellor work with Cathy to develop awareness? Theoretically the counsellor would develop the client’s awareness using various strategies, one being the phenomenological method of enquiry; this is as much an attitude as a technique to stay with the here and now (Joyce, and Sills, 2010, Jacobs, 1989). This method would be used in order to investigate how Cathy perceives herself in her world, and it is important for the counsellor not to speculate or presume or reconfigure what’s going on for the client (Mann, 2010).

However, a part of this enquiry is not only noticing what emerges moment by moment but it is seeing the patterns and interruptions that underline the client’s issues (Joyce, and Sills, 2010). A possible emerging figure in the case study was Cathy’s insufficient use of her environmental support, i. e. difficulty talking to her husband. The Gestalt way of working would be to increase Cathy’s self-awareness; this may be done through suggesting an experiment which would give Cathy a safe environment to break her habitual way of contact.

The counsellor would ensure that Cathy was happy to try the experiment; an intervention example might be ‘I am wondering what it would be like to talk to your husband about a personal issue. Could you imagine him in this room with us now sitting in this chair? ” Subsequently, it would be incorrect to advise the client to go away and talk to her husband, as this would go against the paradoxical theory of change. This is a fundamental concept that connotes that the client needs to give up trying to change in order for change to happen (Beisser, 1970).

If the client is to develop a change in her awareness, the counsellor would need to enter into a dialogical relationship with the client . Creating a dialogical relationship requires the counsellor to accept a commitment to dialogue and work offering four key components; presence, confirmation, inclusion and willingness to communication. If a counsellor offers these components they are said to be offering ‘I-Thou’ (Jacobs, 1989, Joyce, and Sills, 2010, Woldt, and Toman, 2005). I –Thou is being fully present in the relationship without goals, meaning the counsellor has no desire to change a patient just meet them (Jacobs, 1989).

However, during this relationship it would be the counsellor’s duty to recognise any disruptions from the entire field, including psychological and physical factors. In the assessment unhealthy retroflections were a possible disruption; the counsellor may ask Cathy ‘is it possible that your depression is a way of expressing something you don’t know how to face? ’ This intervention may help Cathy to look at more fundamental issues, allowing Cathy to be more curious around her issues and will allow her to be reflective (Joyce, and Sills, 2010).

Another useful intervention which could be a possibility is for Cathy to keep a diary of her panic attacks with the intention of raising awareness of what’s happening in her zones of awareness, what feelings and emotions are coming from her inner zone, how her outer zone perceives the world and how her memories are cognitively processing within the middle zone (Joyce, and Sills, 2010). C. There is real controversy around the word diagnosis in Gestalt therapy, as it conflicts with the fundamental beliefs and principles of many Gestaltists (Clarkson, 1989 and Joyce, and Sills, 2010).

For example depression, this is a medical label which puts Cathy in a category and as a counsellor we would not want to objectify or depersonalise Cathy. Many Gestaltists believe that any label depersonalises and oppresses clients taking away the uniqueness of the client and his or her experiences (Clarkson, 1989, Joyce, and Sills, 2010 and Mann, 2010). I believe diagnosis is goal orientated fitting into that I-It concept, which could turn into I-Thou moment providing the assessment and dialogic relationship was effectively co-created.

However, whilst diagnosis goes against the fundamental principles of Gestalt, it is important to carry out initial and on-going assessments. Joyce and Sills (2010) state “what is more, it is professionally and ethically necessary to do so” (p53). Due to Cathy’s referral being for depression it would be unprofessional and un-ethical not to complete a risk assessment as Cathy could be at risk, as the risk of suicide in depressed clients is great (Joyce, and Sills, 2010). D. Theoretically the Gestalt and person centred models have many similarities yet notable differences.

Both models are process orientated; however, Gestalt is more directive and led by phenomenological enquiry using experimentation (Joyce, and Sills, 2010), whereas person centred is not about techniques it is a way of being using reflective processes. Whilst discussing hypothetical interventions an experiment was mentioned using the empty chair technique; I feel this shows Gestalt therapy is distinct because it moves active awareness. However, with the person centred approach the client will have been reflectively engaged.

Taking this into consideration it appears Gestalt therapy shows effective releases for repressed emotional stress, which Cathy seems to be presenting with. After looking at the similarities and differences of these two models, I have come to the conclusion that the benefits of both models would be suitable for Cathy based on the limited information. The Gestalt techniques and methods seem to hold adequate weight in terms of direction and effectiveness; likewise I can see the benefits of the reflective processes and the Person Centre approach

References Beisser, A R. (1970) The paradoxical theory of change, the Gestalt journal press. pp89-92 Clarkson, P. (1989) Gestalt counselling in action. London: Sage Jacobs, L, (1989) Dialogue in Gestalt Theory and Therapy, the Gestalt Journal. V12,1, Joyce, P. and Sills, C. (2010). Skills in gestalt counselling and psychotherapy. London: Sage Lobb, M S. And Litchenberg, P. (2005) Classical gestalt therapy theory. In Woldt, Ansel L. and Toman, Sarah M. (2005) Gestalt therapy, history, theory and practice.

London: Sage Mann, D. (2010). Gestalt therapy: 100 key points and techniques. London:Routledge. Yontef, Gary M. (1979) Gestalt therapy: clinical phenomenology, gestalt journal. 2(1), pp 27-45. Yontef, Gary M, (1993) Awareness, dialogue and process. USA: The gestalt journal press Woldt, Ansel L. and Toman, Sarah M. (2005) Gestalt therapy, history, theory and practice. London: Sage Bibliography BACP (2010) Ethical principles of counselling and psychotherapy [Online] available at:http://www. bacp. o. uk/ethical_framework/ETHICAL%20FRAMEWORK%20(BSL%20VERSION)/index. php (accessed 27 November 2012) Beisser, A R. (1970) The paradoxical theory of change, the Gestalt journal press. pp89-92 Bond, T. ((2000). Standards and ethics for counselling in action (2nd Ed. )). London : Sage Clarkson, P. (1989) Gestalt counselling in action. London: Sage Gilbert, P. (1992) Psychotherapy and counselling for depressions (3rd Ed. ). London: Sage Jacobs, L, (1989) Dialogue in Gestalt Theory and Therapy, The

The Old Testament Kings of Israel Dates after each signify the date of death, all BC Essay

The Old Testament Kings of Israel

Dates after each signify the date of death, all BC

1. Saul, 1007 (united kingdom): Military pressure on Israel forced the people to demand a king to defend them. The prophet Samuel consolidated worship, and a king was necessary to oversee this new centralization, finalized by Solomon. Commerce increased. Pride in his own military prowess brought about his suicide.

2. David, 993 (united kingdom): Supported by Samuel against Saul. Made king after the latter’s suicide. Sought to unify the tribes of Israel. Continued to centralize worship. Took advantage of increasing commerce. Kingdom grew into an empire.

3. Solomon, 938 (united kingdom): Son of David, dynastic succession introduced. Israel became worldly. Stamped out opposition and eliminated the tribal system. Huge building projects created need for forced labor. Introduced some pagan practices. Substantial trading empire developed. Empire based on “flimsy foundations of commerce” (Myers, 1966).

Kings of Israel: 993-722 BC.

1 Ishbaal, 993. Only surviving son of Saul. Made king by Abner, one of Saul’s generals, and hence he was the pick of the military forces. Short reign of two years. (1 Sam c 2)

2. Jeroboam, 910  Developed pagan traditions of Solomon. 1 Kings shows his condemnation by the prophets for this activity, specifically, of reintroducing the worship of the golden calf.  Solomon had attempted to murder him at one point as a threat to his power, though he escaped to the protection of the Egyptians (1 Kings 11). Major military builder.

3. Nadab, 909, Son of Jeroboam, another military leader who suffered through a revolt of his army. (1 Kings 14)

4. Baasah, 886, another military figure, reported in 1 Kings 15 to have been the leader of the military revolt against Nadab and was proclaimed king by the Military, Roman style.

5. Elah, 885, Very short reign, again, like Nadab, was murdered through a military conspiracy as shown 1n 1 Kings 16. He was the son of Baasah

6. Zimri, 885 Only a rule of several days. Leader of the military conspiracy that killed Elah, and in the process, murdered the entire family of Baasah so as to eliminate their potent power base as recorded in 1 Kings 16. Himself murdered in yet another conspiracy that elected Omri.

7. Omri, 874 Inherited a deeply divided kingdom. He knew Israel needed unity and stability after the quick succession of kings noted above. 1 Kings 16 tells of his great success, where he defeated the Moab people, something explained in many extra-biblical sources as well. He made a clear alliance with the wealthy trading cities of Phonecia, considered dangerous due to their hardened pagan practices. (1 Kings 16)

8. Ahab, 853, son of Omri, married to a Phoenician princess, the infamous Jezebel. Another long reign of over 20 years, which helped to stabilize Israel. Condemned by Elijah for his paganism and bloodthirstiness as recorded in 1 Kings 22)

9. Ahaziah, 852, the son of Ahab and Jezebel as recorded in 1 Kings 22. He was a military failure, and the empire built up by his predecessors was slowly dismantled, including the Moabites. Scripture records that he worshiped the price of Demons Baalzebub (2 Kings 1).

10. Jehoram, 841Another son of Ahab, brother of Ahaziah. Attempted to reconquer Moab.

11. Jehu, 813, murdered Jehoram, eliminated members of Ahab’s family. Ahab had converted to Phoenician paganism, and hence these killings were justified. His killings were mandated by Elisha who anointed him king so as to cleanse Israel of pagan worship.  He also killed the priests of Baal (2 Kings 9 and 10).

12. Jehoahaz, 797 Son of Jehu, undid the religious reforms of his father, though his own personal religious life wavered. Popular superstition retained the worship of both Assyrian and Phoenician gods. Punished by major victories by the armies of Syria. (2 Kings 13)

13. Jeoash, 782 Son of Jehoahaz, (2 Kings 13), undid the losses of his father, and threw back the Syrian forces. Sinned by warring with Judah and looting the temple at Jerusalem.

14. Jeroboam II, 747 Condemned by the prophet Amos for the growing class disparities of his reign (though these had been growing for some time). Very long reign, though little in terms of detail is related in 2 Kings 15.

15. Zechariah, 747 Extremely short reign. Murdered by Shallum.

16. Shallum, 747 Another very short reign. Murdered after a few weeks by Menahem.

17. Menahem, 742 A clear pagan, sought to pay off enemies rather than fight them, which led to the results that Israel’s enemies saw the instability on the throne as an invitation. Slowly, Israel became the property of the pagan empires,. 10 Year reign as mentioned in 2 Kings 15.

18. Pekahiah, 740 Another pagan, murdered by his successor Pekah.

19. Pekah, 731A major military figure that saw military victory as guaranteed by the continuation of pagan worship. He saw the increasing dependence of of Israel on Assyria as an embarrassment and hence, the murder of Pekahiah in 740.  Murderd by the last king of Israel, Hoshea as related in 2 Kings 15.

20. Hoshea, 722 Military leader defeated by the Assyrian king of fame, Shalamanser. Israel largely destroyed after this including population transfers and wholesale massacres. Israel had creased to exist. (Cf. 2 Kings 15-17)

After this, Samaria fell to the Assyrians (722 BC). End of the Israelite Line

Kings of Judah 993-587 BC

1. David, 993 mentioned above. Included here because he made Jerusalem the capital of Israel, which became, after the separation the capital of Judah.

2. Rehoboam, 914 Followed in the footsteps of his father, Solomon. Continued forced labor and huge building projects. Assaulted by the Egyptians (according to the prophets, for converting to paganism) and Jerusalem, the capital of Judah, overthrown, and the temple desecrated. (1 Kings 12)

3. Abijah, 912 Defeated Israel and its pagan king, Jeroboam, mentioned above (1 Kings 15).

4. Asa, 871Son of Abijah, strong Israelite traditionalist and rejected paganism, possible out of the example of his father’s defeat of Jeroboam. Important period of peace: Judah’s economy recovered from the wars, and fortifications were built. Defeated Israel yet again, but was attacked by the true Israelites for using the Syrian armies as help. (2 Chronicles 14)

5. Jehoshaphat, 848 Son of Asa. Very long reign where he continued to destroy the pagan shrines throughout the land. Created temporary alliance with Ahab of Israel to fight Syria (which was more to the prophetic teaching). Considered one of the saints of the monarchist period in Israel (2 Chronicles 17ff).

6. Jehoram, 841 Departed from the religious policy of his father, in that he reintroduced paganism into Judah, likely as a part of his marriage to the daughter of Ahab of Israel. As a result of this, the Philistines attacked and defeated the kingdom and desecrated the temple as related in 2 Kings 8.

7. Ahaziah, 841Created alliances with the kings of Israel against the Syrians. Wavered in his religious policy. He was murdered in the plots against the kin of Ahab as mentioned above as he was Ahab’s grandson. (2 Chronicles 22, in part)

8. Athaliah, 835 The only Queen of Israel or Judah, though she had a bloody path to power. She was a pagan. She had killed all the sons and grandsons of Ahaziah, but a grandson was preserved and eventually proclaimed rightful king of Judah. She was murdered in the resulting attempt to stop this seizure of power as related in 2 Kings 8.

9. Joash, 796 He is the sole surviving grandson of Ahaziah. Most of the time, he was a supporter fo the traditional Israelite religion, though he wavered near the end of his life. In 2 Chronicles it is reported that he attempted, without success, to buy off the king of Syria to save his own skin. For this, he was murdered.

10. Amaziah, 767 Son of Joash, and when he took power, he used his office to take revenge on those who had harmed his father. Furthermore, he raised a large army to fight the Edomites. This army was disbanded since it was made up of pagans from Israel. He was rewarded for this obedience by a huge victory over Edom, but it seems he reverted to paganism soon after as related in 2 Chronicles 25.

11. Uzziah, 739 He was apparently elected by the people to rule, as he was son of Amaziah. The bible records this as an extremely long and prosperous reign where Judah developed the attributes of a commercial empire and a country that was advanced in technology and other elements of prosperity. Unfortunately, in 2 Chronicles, it is reported that he sought to take over the (albeit traditional) religious worship for himself (similar to Saul) and he was struck down as a result.

12. Jotham, 734 became regent for his father after he was stuck by leprosy as a result of his arrogance of censing the temple himself. According to 2 Chronicles 27, he basically followed the policy of his father, and continued the “state-building” projects he inherited. He, given the size of his army and the cash he had at his disposal, defeated the Amonites and became powerful due to his religious orthodoxy.

13. Ahaz, 728 Son of Jotham, developed the pagan religion of Judah and, according to 2 Chronicles 28, also sacrificed his own children to Baal, as was the pagan custom at the time. The reign of Ahaz was identical to the time of Pekah in Israel, and the latter lost a large number of troops and citizens to the Israelites. Ahaz was convinced that the pagan worship of Syria was the source of their strength, and thus became more and more fanatically devoted to the Baals and gods of the Syrian peoples. His reign is considered a disaster and an undoing of all the victories of Uzziah and Jotham. Judah was unraveling.

14. Hezekiah, 699 Given the above, this king sought to return to the orthodoxy of Uzziah. In 2 Kings it is reported that this reign saw a reformation of worship to bring it back to orthodoxy and for it to be centralized under the king, as had been the case in Israel. This was the time of the fall of Israelite kingdom, and, as the bible writes, there were many from this kingdom who were settled in the (relatively) safe Israelite haven of Judah. Sought to play Egypt off against Assyria, in an alliance which in Old Testament times never works out well. Alliances at the time assumed that the contracting parties would adopt some fo the religious practices of another, and hence, alliances as such with pagan powers were doomed from the start. In a brilliant move, just prior to an invasion of Assyria, he built a tunnel that would connect Jerusalem with its water supply independent of its public aqueducts. This meant that the city could hold out for longer than normal, as reported in 2 Kings 18ff. Such a policy forced the Assyrians to make a truce, which created a huge boost in prestige for Hezekiah.

15. Manasseh, 643 Restored pagan worship. 2 Kings says that he began a reign of terror over the supporters of his father. His reign was for almost 55 years, but in it, he sought to rebuild the Baalian temples, including within the Jerusalem temple itself. Really, according to 2 Chronicles 33, there was not a pagan practice he did not engage in, including child sacrifice similar to that of Ahaz. The Assyrians, sensing unrest in Judah, launched a successful invasion. After this, he restored the ancient rites of the temple and died in honor.

16. Amon, 640 Ignored his father’s reformation near his death, and continued to worship Baal. Eventually murdered, and his 8 year old son took over.

17. Josiah, 609 One of the most famed of the Judahite kings, and a great religious reformer. It was a reign of peace given the primary enemies of Israel/Judah were in a process of mutual disintegration and unrest (Noth, 1960). He destroyed the temples, and the lucrative prostitution rings they controlled, and destroyed their priests and shrines. He sought major reforms and repairs to the temple, and increased taxes to this end. In 2 Kings 23, there is recorded an attempt to retake Israel and reunite the two kingdoms, long separated. Under the energetic Pharaoh Necho II, the Egyptians launched a major invasion of the entire Levantine Coast. The Egyptians, it seems, were desirous of knocking Babylonia out of great power politics once and for all, and, as a result, Josiah fought with (but did not make an alliance with) the Assyrians in an attempt to have all three major powers–Babylonia, Assyria and Egypt, fight themselves to exhaustion. Josiah was killed at the famed Battle of Meggido as related in 2 Kings 23.

18. Jehoahaz, 609 After the defeat of Josiah, Egypt called the shots in Judah. Jehoahaz was the son of Josiah, but only reigned for a few weeks, and was removed by the Egyptians as related in 2 Chronicles 36.

19. Jehoiakim, 597 Installed by the Egyptians, who had an interest in keeping Judah weak and unstable. BY this time, Judah was little more than a battleground between an resurgent Babylonia and Egypt. This is another short reign ended by the Babylonian answer to Necho II, the famed Nebuchadnezzar, who threw the Egyptians out of Judah and massacred the court of the hapless Jehoiakim.

20. Zedekiah, 587 Another son of Josiah and contemporary with the prophet Jeremiah, this king was appointed by the Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar and was never accepted because of this. Jeremiah was convinced that Judah was doomed, and counseled the king to keep loyal to the Babylonians who were, at the time, basically invincible. He was ignored and an abortative rebellion broke out, which ended in disaster. The temple was destroyed and the family of Zedekiah was murdered. The Babylonians, after the rebellion, simply absorbed the small region and thus ended the Judahite line.

Fall of Judah to the Babylonians (587 BC) end of the Judahite line.


Old Testament used almost exclusively, especially Kings and Chronicles, Douay-Rheims Version.

A few secondary sources used to check facts:

Noth, Martin. The History of Israel. Harper and Row, 1960.

Hermann, Sigfried, The History of Israel in Old Testament Times. Fortress, 1981.

Meyers, Jacob. Invitation to the Old Testament. Doubleday, 1966.

One Internet Source: “Kings of Judah and Israel.” Clarion Call.  2005 (


Six Paragraph on the Pearl by John Steinbeck Essay

What price would one be willing to pay to achieve all of their wildest dreams? 1,000 pesos? 50,000 pesos? What about the respect of their community? Even worse, the life of their child. While Kino did not intend to lose any of these attributes in his quest for a better life, his stubbornness guided him to murder and ultimate heartbreak. It leaves the reader questioning, what price should be paid to attain the luxuries one wants from life? John Steinbeck’s novella, The Pearl, follows a poor Indian/Mexican pearl diver as the best find of his life slowly morphs into the greatest misfortune he had ever known.

Blinded by opportunity, Kino discovers too late that his treasure is a magnet for destruction. Through Kino’s adversity, the reader understands what Chaucer once conveyed, greed is the root of all evil. Moreover, it is made apparent that family is the greatest pearl of all . Set in La Paz, Mexico, Kino is content with his small family and house made of brush. However, when his only son Coyotito is stung by a scorpion, Kino sets out to find a pearl grand enough to pay the doctor who has refused to help. In an ancient clam, Kino stumbles upon the largest pearl anyone in La Paz had ever seen.

Dubbed “the Pearl of the World” everyone suddenly became interested in Kino and his family. When his brother, Juan Tomas, asks what the future holds, Kino sees images of Coyotito in school and a real marriage for Juana and himself reflected in the pearl’s surface. Even Coyotito’s wound seemed to be healing. However, joy and opportunity dragged paranoia and thievery along for the journey. Kino began to distrust everyone and everything. His new personality resembled an impenetrable shell through which no one could break, not even Juana.

At the pearl market, Kino was told that his prize was a monstrosity only worth 1,000 pesos. Knowing that he could get much more, Kino decided to make the trek to the capital for a fair bid to be made. Throughout the story, at least three attempts to steal the pearl were made. Juana knew the pearl was evil and begged Kino to get rid of it. He refused and assured her that with the pearl sold, the family will flourish. When Kino slashes the throat of a thief the family is forced to leave La Paz instantly.

Hunted by trackers and a rifle man, Juana and Kino hide in a cave to escape capture. When the search posse thinks they hear a coyote, the unthinkable takes place. Having lost everything, a defeated Kino returns to La Paz and sends his pearl back to the sea. Through this parable, one can learn two very important themes. One theme of the novella is greed is the root of all evil. Every terrible event that happened was caused by the greed of man. It started with the doctor refusing help to Coyotito based on Kino and Juana’s wealth, or lack thereof.

Giving Kino reason to discover the great pearl, which entranced pretty much everyone in town with its size, beauty, and price tag attached to a pearl of that size. Kino’s boat, house, and child were destroyed in order to protect the pearl and yet he insists on keeping it. Greed made Kino suspect everyone of intent to steal his prize. This may have been the reason he resorted to murder instead of just disabling his attacker. While taking to his brother, Juan Tomas, Kino says, “I might have given it as a gift, but now it is my misfortune and my life and I will keep it. The fact that Kino called the pearl his misfortune and his life in the same sentence shows how far he would be willing to go to achieve wealth. Moreover, fear that when they were caught, the pearl would be lost, partly prompted Kino to kill the search posse. Another theme that can be taken away from this story is that family is the greatest pearl of all. Without a doubt, Kino would have thrown the pearl back to the sea upon its discovery had he known that the price he would have to pay was Coyotito’s life. For example, Steinbeck writes, “He looked into its surface and it was gray and ulcerous.

Evil faces peered from it into his eyes, and he saw the light of burning. And in the surface of the pearl he saw the frantic eyes of the man in the pool. And in the surface of the pearl he saw Coyotito lying in the little cave with the top of his head shot away. And the pearl was ugly; it was gray, like a malignant growth . ” Also the pearl tore the family apart and led Kino to hurt Juana for trying to send the pearl back. These examples illustrate aptly why the themes “greed is the root of all evil” and “family is the greatest pearl of all” fit perfectly within this story.

It is no wonder why this book is considered a classic. With an original plot and setting, Steinbeck engages the reader from the first sentence. Unlike many authors, Steinbeck does not spend copious amounts of time describing each blade of grass on the valley floor. The most important scenes and people are explained thoroughly without quoting the entire dictionary. To describe Kino, Steinbeck wrote , “Kino was young and strong and his black hair hung over his brown forehead. His eyes were warm and fierce and bright and his mustache was thin and coarse . It is an admirable feat, to remain brief yet concise, and the very reason why interest is not lost even in the dull passages. The novella itself was gripping. The reader knows that a tragic event is going to take place from the very beginning, “And, as with all retold tales that are in people’s hearts, there are only good and bad things and black and white things and good and evil things and no in-between anywhere . ” However, it is never made obvious what disaster is to come. Each scene of suspense was dripping with the unknown.

A shining example of this is just before Coyotito is stung by the scorpion, “ K ino stood perfectly still. He could hear Juana whispering the old magic again, and he could hear the evil music of the enemy. He could not move until the scorpion moved, and it felt for the source of the death that was coming to it. Kino’s hand went forward very slowly, very smoothly. The thorned tail jerked upright. And at that moment the laughing Coyotito shook the rope and the scorpion fell . ” What is going to happen next and what will become of each character is a humble mystery.

Though it is highly unlikely that those who read The Pearl are going to be Mexican/Indian pearl divers, the characters are surprisingly easy to relate to. One can understand why keeping the pearl would be advantageous to the family in the long run as Kino does. On the other hand, it is also apparent why destroying the pearl to protect the family is a feasible thought as Juana tried desperately to convey. In comparison to Of Mice and Men, this book is the lesser of two magnificent trophies; that being said, The Pearl is an apt showcase of Steinbeck’s exceptional style.

Albeit, at first it is difficult to determine what connection The Pearl has to everyday life . After spending time to consider the possibilities, one may concur that it is not uncommon at all to want a better life for oneself and their family. At the end of the day, all Kino wanted was a more substantial life for Juana and Coyotito. He wanted to send his only son to school so Coyotito could learn to read and write then pass his knowledge on to his parents who had not been as lucky in their youth. For example, when Kino is talking to the priest and is told that in the bible a character amed Kino in the bible tamed the desert. It is written, “Kino looked quickly down at Coyotito’s head, where he hung on Juana’s hip. Someday, his mind said, that boy would know what things were in the books and what things were not . ” He wanted a real marriage for Juana and himself to make a respectable woman of her. He wanted to be able to afford nicer clothing so it would not be so obvious that they were the outcasts of society . He dreamed of a rifle to hunt with so the family would remain prosperous even after the money from pearl of the world had been used up.

Finding the pearl is synonymous to winning the lottery. Before the winner obtains the jackpot, they are complacent with the life they’ve been living. Then, after one stroke of luck, their world is turned upside down. According to the New York Post, in 2002 a cowboy name Jack Whittaker won $315 million in December from the Powerball. In a strip club eight months later, someone robbed $545,000 from Whittaker. Later his granddaughter and his daughter both died from overdoses of drugs bought with his winnings. Five years after winning big, thieves had emptied Whittaker’s bank accounts.

He was quoted by police saying, “I wish I’d torn that ticket up. ” Just like Kino, Whittaker’s intentions were noble at first; he planned to give 10% of his winnings to charities since he was already well-off . All the same, financial problems stopped him from doing so. Juana and Kino’s tale ended in misery as did Whittaker’s. There are undoubtedly many more cases of prizes that turn out to be the polar opposite and ruin lives . Finally, it is glaringly obvious that greed really is the root of all evil and family is to be treasured more than riches. The Pearl makes a bold point of these themes.

A beautifully written tragedy that deserves a place among the greatest American classics, Steinbeck’s novella is to be read and absorbed thoroughly by those who choose to do so. Heed this cautionary tale, remember each character and what they lost in order to receive wealth. Everyone should read this book at least once in their life, if not to take away forethought on the dangers of greed, then to bask in the glory of Steinbeck’s written word. This book has heartwarmingly wormed its way deep into my brain and I will never forget Kino’s misfortune. Cherish everyone and be wary of catastrophes disguised as quick, easy, opportunity.

The fields generally require less communication than

The role communication in computer science and software development is one of great importance. During an interview, the individual might need to explain how to solve a problem that requires interaction with other scientists and engineers. Important communication skills used for computer science issues include listening, verbal (and non-verbal) communication, as well as flexibility and a willingness to understand the thought process of other individuals. You will likely be working closely with other scientists and engineers to develop new technologies and applications. Computer science professionals need to communicate their ideas clearly and persuasively in both spoken and written formats.I believe that communication in computer science in unique to other fields in the sense that it is both mathematical and collaborative. Mathematical fields generally require less communication than others. However, software development requires the creation of applications that are used by consumers, so you will need to understand the audience that is consuming the product as well. These are all important aspects that make communication in the realm of computer science unique.As for ways that communication might be used to further my success in computer science, there are many. It is important to network and gain connections in the industry; whether that be with peers, professors, or otherwise. Communication also plays a crucial role when you are being interviewed. Without proper communication skills, the chances of getting the job are somewhat decreased, no matter the educational background or portfolio.Finally, there are a multitude of ‘hidden’ uses of communication in computer science. It is definitely important in researching artificial intelligence with natural language processing and speech recognition. There are definitely subsets of computer science where a communications background is essential. Although there is still work to be done; one aspect of communication that I consider a strength is interpersonal communication. An area that absolutely needs to be worked on is public speaking and presenting. With time and practice these skills will continue to be refined; whether that be at school or at an occupation.

Scientific published in journals, but some of

Scientific literature is the main element
of all researches, as it is the only medium for stating the results of
scientific research. The basic purpose of scientific knowledge is to discover
something new or to build a new research on the basis of previous research. The
record of scientific research is available in printed or non-printed form in a
certain field i.e. Book or Journal.The scientific literature
is categorized in to two basic categories; “Primary Literature” and the “Secondary
Literature”.  Primary literature describes the “original research”; without any notes
or in other terms it refers to account of research which is carried out by an
individual or by a group of researchers which is published in a Peer-reviewed scientific journal. These
types of descriptions or reports commonly called “Research Papers/ Journal Papers” which are written in the
specific format and then submitted for publication.Other than this, Primary
literature also includes Articles,
Dissertations, Thesis, Conference Proceeding papers, Video recording, Review
papers/reports, Manuscript, Extending abstracts and Patents.Mostly the primary literature
is published in journals, but some of the researches are published as
dissertations or thesis, conference papers and reports. Let’s start to discuss
from Article first, what is actually
an article is? An article is
basically to explain the methods and results of original research performed by
the researcher, it can be surveys, experiments, interviews etc. but in all
situations the raw data have been gathered, analyzed by the researcher and then
propose conclusion which is standardized. Now move on to dissertation, it is comprehensive and detailed form of research
where the researcher describes the whole scenario in depth. Whereas, thesis is
similar to dissertation. Another important paper which is going to discussed
that is conference proceeding paper, it is presented in the international
conferences, national conferences and workshops are considered as primary
literature to obtain feedback from the audience. The video recording also use
by the researchers for recording the experiments accurately and verify their
observations correctly. Moreover the review paper/report highlights the
practical aspects and also it examines the progress in a certain topic, in
short it summarizes the recent knowledge of a topic and creates understanding
and develop interest for the reader. As far as manuscript is concerned it is
unpublished version of a research, and also it is handwritten or the original
text by the researcher. An extending abstract declares the abstract which is an
extract of research means the summary of any paper, mostly readers takes the
whole idea after reading it .Last but not the least, patents are very important
for the researcher because it is an authority or license from the government
for the limited time period.

Scientific LiteraturePrimary scientific
literature has several characteristics:1. “Materials and Methods”
section and “Results”
section.2. Use “We” or “I” to describe what was done.3. Very
specific: mention particular places, organisms, etc.4.
Papers generally start with an introduction; an overview to set the stage for
the research. Secondary literature consists on those publications which are based
on primary sources for collecting information. The purpose of this publication
is to summarizing and gathering knowledge in a specific area for other
researchers, so that they can utilize the information accordingly.It includes textbooks, Internet, reviews, handbooks, Magazines,
Newspapers, Newsletters and manuals. The textbook provides the detailed introduction, identification of research
objectives, research questions, guidelines of research path, collecting
relevant information, interpreting data, analyzes data and develop
understanding with the context of research. The internet is widely use across the world as it is a big source of
gathering data and information, the secondary literature generally comes from
the past researches where the internet plays an important role for acquiring
previous papers. About the reviews,
it does not show an original research, only focuses on précising the
literature. The handbooks tell the
deep overview of research methods and combines both theories and methodologies
of qualitative and quantitative. The magazines
are also considered as secondary literature because the knowledge is taken from
different channels and combined at one place. Appearance wise it looks attractive
and may contains pictures and graphical presentations, general audience is
commonly use to read. Another important kind which possess secondary literature
that is newspapers, broadly use
around the world, mostly people choose to study newspaper and get information
from it, as it is supposed a good source of knowledge. Now turn to describe newsletters, it is basically in printed
form which covers the news of business activities and send through email to all
employees, customers and people who are interested in knowing. The last thing
which is also reflects the secondary literature is manuals, it is almost the
same of textbook, provides the relevant information to the researcher, it is
not only useful for the researchers also the common people can read and take
essential literature from it. As we studied from every
aspect that the secondary literature gets from the previous papers which
contains large amount of information that can be very helpful for the newly
research papers. From the researcher’s point of view secondary literature is
the chief constituent in terms of, it highlights the purpose or aim of conducting
research, research objectives, research methodology, which type of analysis
tool will be used for testifying the results and verification of observations. Although
the secondary publications are not very much systematized as compare to primary
publications, however it is a mandatory requirement for the paper. Therefore, the
main objective of secondary literature is to gaining knowledge for the specific
area of interest.

It is
concluded that, for the research paper; literature plays a backbone, as it is
considered a main source of information which helps to researcher for getting
past knowledge and build a new research in the specific are of interest.

IMPORTANCE wide physical structure, it allows a


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Great Expectations and Pip S Heart Essay

Great Expectations In the 18th century novel, Great Expectations, by Charles Dickens, women play an important role in shaping Pip’s (the main character) life. But not all of the roles women play in the novel are good ones. Pip has been physically and emotionally wounded by women in his life in some form or another. Miss Havisham raises Estella to be cruel, Estella breaks Pip’s heart, and Mrs. Joe dies. Pip is emotionally hurt by Miss Havisham when she tells Estella to “Break their hearts, my pride and hope, break their hearts and have no mercy! ” (Dickens 94).

This reinforces Miss Havisham’s want for all men to feel hurt and ashamed, not just Pip. Readers think that she may even get pleasure from seeking out men to hurt, as she has experienced the anguish of heartbreak herself. She is using Estella as a bullet to blast men’s hearts to smithereens. When Herbert and Pip are talking about Miss Havisham and Estella in chapter 22, Herbert says “That girl’s hard and haughty and capricious to the last degree, and she has been brought up by Miss Havisham to wreak revenge on all the male sex” (Dickens 175) about Estella.

It is not necessarily Estella’s fault, however. She had been raised to despise men and be cold hearted to them, and does not know any other way to treat men. Some people may even argue that Miss Havisham brought Estella up for that sole purpose. Another reason for Pip’s suffering is when Estella toys with his emotions and discourages his love for her. One of many examples is when Pip and Estella are waiting for a coach to take Estella to Richmond, and they were talking about how Pip could possibly live pleasantly at The Pocket’s house.

Pip says he could live “as pleasantly as I could anywhere, away from you. ” Estella decides to play the nonchalant ignorance card and says, “You silly boy, how can you talk such nonsense? ”(Dickens 267). That sentence would break anyone’s heart, but it is especially brutal for Pip because he has been pursuing Estella for years and only wishes for her petty recognition, only to have it slapped back in his face in the form of the words “you silly boy”. She’s basically implying that he is not man enough for her, and she just keeps him around for laughs.

Not only that, but in chapter 44 she states that she is betrothed to Drummle, One of Pip’s competitors for Estella’s heart. Her exact words were “Why not tell you the truth? I am going to be married to him (Drummle) (Dickens 363). This declaration completely and totally derails Pip and he pleads she repent the marriage. She goes along with the marriage anyways, much to Pip’s despair. Another thing that causes Pip misery is when his sister dies in chapter 34. He gets a letter about her death, and then writes to Joe to say he will attend the funeral.

When he gets back to Joe and Biddy’s house, Biddy recalls the unfortunate demise of Mrs. Joe. She says “She had been in one of her bad states- though they had got better of late, rather than worse- for four days. When she came out of it in the evening, just at tea time, and said quite plainly ‘Joe’. ” (284). Biddy then says that Mrs. Joe said the words Joe, pardon, and Pip before dying. Pip is shocked because he thought he was abhorred by his sister, and she said to pardon Pip.

At that point he become overrun with emotions and takes some time to think. Earlier he said “The figure of my sister in her chair by the kitchen fire haunted me night and day. That the place could possibly be without her was something my mind was unable to compass…” (Dickens 279). He is saying that he feels as though his sister is still living and he expects her to just be where he left her. Most people deal with grief this way, just expecting their lost one to be there, like nothing happened.

But sadly, dying is a part of life. And Pip has to face the harsh reality of death. In conclusion, The 18th century novel Great Expectations by Charles Dickens consists of important roles that women play. Most of the roles are sad, and cause Pip to be unhappy in life. Miss Havisham raises Estella to be cold hearted and cruel, Estella breaks Pip’s heart, and Mrs. Joe dies. Those three events end up tearing Pip apart with sadness. Works Cited Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. New York City: Signet Classics, 2009. Print.

Negara-negara adrenalin agar manusia melalukan segala cara

Negara-negara di benua Afrika
rata-rata masih tergolong sebagai negara yang miskin. Penduduknya juga masih
kesulitan mendapatkan akses air dan makanan. sehingga timbul berbagai masalah
seperti masalah sosial dan masalah  kesehatan.
Bahkan anak-anak yang berusia dibawah lima tahun juga merasakan akibatnya kekurangan
makanan. Dengan adanya program SDGs yang ke-2 untuk menghilangkan kelaparan di
muka bumi ini, diharapkan bisa menghapuskan dampak dari kelaparan dari muka
bumi ini. Berikut dampak dari kelaparan,


Dampak yang paling terlihat ketika seseorang kelaparan
adalah kehilangan berat badan dan terlihat kurus. Pada kondisi tersebut,
manusia rentang terkena penyakit karena sistem kekebalan tubuh menurun.

bukan hanya permasalahan mengisi perut yang kosong dengan makanan saja, tetapi tubuh
juga perlu makanan yang mengandung nutrisi agar tubuh selalu sehat. Tanpa nutrisi
yang cukup, tubuh akan mengalami banyak gangguan dan mudah terserang penyakit. Kebanyakan
penderita malnutrisi adalah anak-anak

Kondisi dimana tubuh tidak mendapatkan gizi
yang cukup disebut malnutrisi. Kondisi malnutrisi bisa menyebabkan malabsorpsi makanan
atau tidak terserapnya gizi yang terdapat pada makanan. Malnutrisi terjadi akibat
kurangnya makanan yang masuk kedalam tubuh atau kurangnya gizi dalam makanan
yang dimakan. Dampak yang timbul akibat malnutrisi sangat banyak, menurut Gibson(2005)
akibat gizi buruk pada anak bisa menyebabkan badan tampak kurus, wajah menua, cengeng
dan rewel, kepala membesar, dan mudah terkena penyakit infeksi. Dampak yang
paling parah dari malnutrisi adalah kematian. Menurut WHO 54% kematian bayi dan
balita paling banyak disebabkan oleh malnutrisi.

Dampak yang terjadi ketika seseorang lapar
sangat mempengaruhi kerja otak. Kondisi yang lapar membuat otak mengkatifkan
produksi enzim adrenalin agar manusia melalukan segala cara untuk mendapatkan
makanan. Meskipun otak hanya terdiri dari 2% volume tubuh tetapi otak
memerlukan energi sebesar 25% dari energi tubuh. Jika tidak mendapatkan asupan
energi, miliaran neuron dalam otak akan menghasilkan cairan yang akan memakan
neuron sendiri. Hal ini akan terjadi jika tubuh dalam kondisi yang sangat


tidak hanya berdampak pada tubuh saja, tetapi berdampak juga terhadap lingkungan
sekitar. Telah dijelaskan bahwa ketika seseorang kelaparan, maka seseorang akan
melakukan hal apapun agar mendapatkan makanan. Hal tersebut bisa menyebabkan
orang melakukan tindakan kriminal seperti mencuri, sehingga angka kriminalitas
bisa naik. Bahkan bisa menyebabkan seseorang tega membunuh untuk mendapatkan
makanan agar bisa hidup.

[MV1] by a team of experts and

 MV1 MV1Style/Clarity. Clarification needed. Ambiguous referent. It’s not clear what “his” refers to.  Here is a helpful link: and here is another:



 MV2Organization. Introduction. Remember, every essay should begin with an introduction that (1) establishes the background and rationale behind the discussion, (2) explains the author’s purpose or position in presenting the discussion (“thesis”), and (3) previews the main points that will be addressed in the body of the discussion. In general, the introduction should orient your reader to the ideas and positions you will be presenting. Here is a helpful link: and here is another:


 MV3Organization. Paragraph development. Topic sentence. Remember, your paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that orients the reader to the specific topic you will address in the rest of the paragraph. The topic should be tightly focused and clearly connected to your thesis and systematically developed or supported in the rest of the paragraph. In this case, your topic sentence is too general to focus and organize the ideas in this paragraph. As a result, your paragraph wanders without clear direction.


In this case, your first sentence seems to promise a discussion about the “drastic changes” signified by the letter, but I don’t see that topic developed in this paragraph.


Here is a helpful link: . And here is another:


 MV4Style/Clarity. Delayed verb. When the main verb comes very late in the sentence, it can be hard for the reader to follow the idea. In such cases, it is often better to restructure the sentence to shorten the subject and move the verb closer to the start. For example, instead of saying “In the following discussion, two unusual cases related to the exploration of old-growth forests in the central parts of North America by a team of experts and conservationists from around the world will be examined…”, you could say something like “The following discussion will examine two unusual cases…”


 MV5Style. Word choice. Wordiness. This can be tightened up with a more precise choice of words. Here is a helpful link:


 MV6Content/Clarity. Questionable phrasing. I’m not sure what this means. Consider clarifying/rephrasing.

 MV7Grammar. Preposition error. This is probably not the preposition you want here. Consider “on”. Here is a helpful link:


 MV8Grammar. Relative pronoun error. Non-restrictive clauses should be preceded by a comma and use the relative pronoun “which”. Restrictive clauses use “that” (and omit the comma). Here is a helpful link:


 MV9Grammar/Style. Questionable phrasing. Here and elsewhere, you need to tighten up your phrasing to avoid grammatical and stylistic problems.

 MV10Organization. Paragraph development. Wrap-up sentence. How does this sentence tie up the topic you presented in this paragraph? Remember, the last sentence should draw the topic to a close and transition to the next paragraph; it shouldn’t be used to introduce a new claim. Here is a helpful link:


 MV11Organization. Paragraph development. As a rule, brief, one-, two- or three-sentence paragraphs can be a sign of organizational troubles – ideas that don’t have a clear home. When you see these kinds of paragraphs, ask yourself how they contribute to the discussion and whether the topic has been sufficiently developed in the body of the paragraph. That will help you find the best place to put your ideas and ensure that they are properly organized and developed. Here is a helpful link:


 MV12Content/Clarity. Questionable phrasing. I’m not sure what this means.

 MV13See my earlier comments for further guidance and links to resources on the need to tighten up your phrasing. My advice would be to use shorter sentences, which you have better control over.


This is a repeated issue, so I will stop commenting on it. But it is something that ought to be addressed here and elsewhere.


 MV14Content. Argumentation. According to whom? Be sure to cite the sources for all your claims or offer evidence of your own to support your assertions.



 MV16Grammar/Style. Questionable conjunction. I’m not sure how this phrase fits (grammatically) with the rest of the sentence.



 MV18Organization. Paragraph development. Topic sentence. The absence of a sufficiently focused topic/controlling idea means this paragraph runs far longer than it should and lacks clear direction. Remember, your paragraph should begin with a topic sentence that orients the reader to the issue you will address in the rest of the paragraph. The topic should be clearly connected to your thesis and systematically developed or supported in the rest of the paragraph. When the paragraph begins to run too long or in too many directions, you should try to narrow the scope of the current topic and address the other issues in separate paragraphs. Here is a helpful link: . And here is another:

 MV19Grammar. Subject-verb agreement. The subject and the verb have to agree in number – a singular subject requires the singular form of the verb; a plural subject requires the plural form of the verb. In this case, the subject is “Church”, which is singular, so it requires the singular form of the verb (“was”). Here is a helpful link: and here is another:


 MV20Grammar/Style. Word form. You probably want to use the gerund (“providing”) here. Here is a helpful link:




Typos appear to be an issue throughout the paper, so I will stop commenting on them.


 MV22Mechanics. Punctuation. Hyphen use. Insert a hyphen when constructing a compound modifier. Here is a helpful link:


 MV23Mechanics. Long quotes (defined as 40 words or more in APA and 4 lines of prose in MLA) need to be started on a new line, indented from the margin throughout, and not put in quotation marks. Here is a helpful link to the APA guide: and here is a link to the MLA guide:


 MV24Mechanics. Punctuation. Comma error. Do not insert a comma at the end of a quote.


 MV25Style/Clarity. Clarification needed. Ambiguous referent. It’s not clear what “he” refers to.


This is a repeated issue, so I will stop commenting on it. But it is something that ought to be addressed here and elsewhere.



Here is a helpful link: and here is another:


 MV26Grammar/Style. Pronoun use. When someone or something has already been introduced and is understood by the reader, you should use a pronoun. Here is a helpful link:


 MV27Content/Clarity. Questionable phrasing. I’m not sure what this means. Consider clarifying/rephrasing.


 MV28Style/clarity. Clarification needed. Jargon and technical terms should be unpackaged for the reader.


 MV29Grammar/Style. Questionable conjunction. I’m not sure how this phrase fits into the sentence.


 MV30See my earlier comments for further guidance and links to resources on subject-verb agreement. In this case, the (singular) subject is “translation”. This is a repeated issue, so I will stop commenting on it. But it is something that ought to be addressed here and elsewhere.


 MV31Grammar/Style. Questionable phrasing. Avoid splicing a question onto the end of a declarative sentence. It is better to rephrase the question to make it indirect. For example, instead of saying “Another question I have is how did he do it?”, consider something like “Another question I have is how he did it.”


 MV32Mechanics. Punctuation. Comma use. Use commas to separate non-essential material (like examples, asides, digressions, and elaborations) from the main clause. Be sure to put commas on both sides of the clause or phrase unless it comes at the end of the sentence. Here is a helpful link: And here is another:


 MV33See my earlier comments for further guidance and links to resources on the need to restructure sentences to avoid splicing a question on to the end of a declarative sentence. This is a repeated issue, so I will stop commenting on it. But it is something that ought to be addressed here and elsewhere.


 MV34Mechanics. Punctuation. Comma use. Insert a comma after introductory or transitional phrases. Here is a helpful link:


 MV35Just a final reminder that there are typos throughout this paper that need to be corrected.

 MV36Grammar/Style. Questionable phrasing.


 MV37Grammar/Style. Questionable phrasing.


 MV38Grammar/Style. Pronoun use. Avoid using the generic “you” (or “your”) in formal writing. Here is a helpful link:


 MV39Grammar/Style. “Where is a pronoun of place, which doesn’t seem relevant when referring to “history”.


 MV40Mechanics. APA. Formatting.  APA does not require the use of ellipses (“…”) at the beginning or end of quotes unless they are necessary to avoid confusion. Here is a helpful link:


 MV41Grammar. Missing clause. The use of a conjunction like “with” subordinates the clause, requiring you to add another, independent, clause to complete the expression. Here is a helpful link:


In conclusion, the letter to the Grand Duchess of Tuscany from Galileo was a tribute to the conflict that he faced with the Church in regard to his discoveries and support of Copernicus’ theories and his plea to have her be open-minded to new ideas regarding the scientific forefront.

Although Galileo never attacked the Church as a whole throughout his career, he instead attempted to converse with the Church that its authority that extended over its followers may be disrupted if his theories were proven correct. In retaliation to Galileo’s inference of loss of said authority, they reacted negatively and, as previously mentioned, attempted to defame Galileo’s name. In the letter that Galileo wrote to the Grand Duchess, Galileo is not forcing his ideas as truth onto her but rather imploring her to consider the possibility that his theories may be correct and attempt to be open-minded about the new information that he has gathered in his work. Galileo numerously states that he is a believer in God and in the Bible but finds fault in the interpretation that the Church puts forward. Though the Church outright denied any claims of Galileo’s theories to be true, Galileo didn’t provide an opportunity to allow the Church to observe Galileo’s theories for themselves as he would not allow them access to the technology of his telescope for fear of losing the support of the Medici Family in Florence but also his own intellectual property. This also brought forth another argument in the Church’s favor at that point in time that argued with the technology behind the telescope could be trusted as no one had access to study and understand the technology itself.

If one MV38 reads deeper into the letter, one can see a there is a comparison between Galileo and the early scholars/saints of the church’s history MV39 they were prosecuted for their, what was then considered radical, beliefs in Jesus which went against Jewish and Roman religions. We can see this comparison within the Bible itself in the new testament under Matthew 26:59 which states, “… MV40 now the chief priests and the whole council were seeking false testimony against Jesus that hey might put him to death.” This comparison that is fairly relevant to the Church’s belief system, perhaps Galileo was attempting MV41 to gain favor with religious followers to the extent of even remotely consider his theories as reality.

An extension of this argument goes into how the Bible cannot be interpreted literally. A paper written by Randall Firestone, argues that the Bible cannot be taken literally due misinterpretation of words within the bible because words are essentially symbols that are used by the writer to emit emotions and thoughts, but the reader won’t always experience the same understanding as the writer (Firestone, 2014). Firestone also argues that the translation of the scriptures in the Bible are not exactMV30  and there are numerous versions of the Bible, so which should be taken literally as opposed to the othersMV31  (Firestone, 2014). The oldest version of the Old Testament is in Hebrew and the next is in Greek and so on and each has their own account that differs from the others (Firestone, 2014). Firestone discusses the exception argument regarding that understanding that if all scripture in the Bible were taken literally such the ten commandments, MV32 then what would occur if one was broken in self-defense or in other dire circumstances? MV33 (Firestone, 2014). In essence,MV34  regarding the literal MV35 understanding of the Bible is a tool of the Church’s structural system to push forward where scriptures and passages are used in order to empower a system that has existed for more than 2000 years oldMV36 . By Galileo arguing the distortion of the Bible as a methodology to maintain control at the time has become a common understanding among today’s scholarsMV37 .

WMV18 ithin the letter itself, Galileo argues that the Church, who was against his research and theories, was MV19 focused on defamation of his name rather than to providing MV20 evidence that his theories were incorrect or their possible MV21 relation to the Bible’s already constituted MV22 explanation of the universe. In his letter, Galileo describes how members of the Church blatantly refused to even consider his theories a possibility and stated, “To this end they hurled various charges and published numerous writings filled with vain arguments, and they made the grave mistake of sprinkling these with passages taken from places in the Bible which they had failed to understand properly, and which were ill-suited to their purposesMV23 ,MV24 ” (Halsall, 1997). In relation to the defamation of Galileo’s name, Galileo MV25 accused the Church of distorting biblical scriptures as well as misinterpreting them in order to promote the Church’s MV26 agenda and belief system to a faultMV27 . Galileo draws a comparison between his current situation and the situation that Copernicus experienced with the same “exegetesMV28 ” that rejected Copernicus’ scientific theories without fully comprehending the facts and suggestions behind the theories similar to GalileoMV29 .

BMV11 efore the scientific discoveries and contributions made by Galileo in the astronomy and other fields, there was a general consensus that what was written in the Bible, such as the existence of heaven through the outwards appearance of spheres MV12 and stars, was what was seen in the night sky.MV13  With the telescope, Galileo looked deeper in the astronomy field and had a closer look at prevalent stars, and the sun as well as the moon. Galileo discovered that the sun and moon were not perfect spheres MV14 as well as the future discovery MV15 of Jupiter moons MV16 which raised the possibility MV17 of a geocentric universe (Edgerton, 2006).

The letter written by Galileo to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany in 1615 signified the drastic changesMV3  made in the scientific community as well as how the divide between religious doctrines and scientific doctrines continued to increaseMV4 . At the time of Galileo’s contributions to scientific fields, Europe was a very religious continent that had deep roots within the Catholic faith to the extent that the belief system of Catholicism provided an explanation as to the creation of the world and, to a certain extentMV5 , the understanding of human life and purpose. Academic philosophers similar to Galileo MV6 challenged this system with one based on MV7 scientific foundations which MV8 were met by a heavy force of false accusations, defamation and, retractions forced by the Church to uphold the religious structure MV9 of Europe at the time.MV10 

Galileo Galilei is considered one of the heroes of modern science through his contributions to astronomy, physics and his inventions including the microscope (Machamer, 2017). Galileo’s most notorious claim to fame, though ironic, came from his trials with the Catholic Church and the constant battle between science and religion (Machamer, 2017). The conflict between Galileo and the Church was detailed in a letter that was written by Galileo MV1 to the Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany where he outlined his frustrations and conflict that had befallen him and this work.MV2