Quantum a key hypothesis in physical science

Quantum mechanics and bonding theories.Quantum mechanics and holding hypotheses. Quantum mechanics is bolstered on numerous specialists called hypothesizes. These hypothesizes are assumptive , not demonstrated. Every one of these announcements depend on suspicions, since experts in light of these presumptions prompts the articulation about particles and atoms that run for with our perceptions. Quantum workman is a few times hard at first impression, mostly in light of the fact that some new idea and some better approaches for mentation about issue are locked in. Our proximate objective is to have a hypothesis that task how matter carries on, and that expect occasions that concurs with perception; that is, to have a hypothesis and experimentation concurs. Something else, an alternate idea is important to comprehend the examination. The primary thoughts are: l The action of electrons, at this point known to have wavy assets, can be spoken to by a scientific angle called a wave work. The wave work contains inside everything conceivable that can be thought about a framework. l Wave capacities are not imprudent numerical part, but rather should satisfy certain straightforward conditions. For instance they should be relentless. l The most basic state is that the wave work must meet the time-subordinate Schrodinger condition. With the unequivocal assume, time can be isolated from the wave work, and what dirt is a period autonomous Schrodinger condition. Be that as it may, we will just concentrate on time-autonomous Schrodinger condition. l In the utilization of these conditions to genuine frameworks, wave capacities are discovered that do in reality continues data that concurs with information based perceptions of these frameworks: quantum mechanics predict values that concur with tentatively found estimations. Quantum mechanics likewise popular as quantum material science or quantum hypothesis, see quantum field hypothesis, is a key hypothesis in physical science which representative nature at the littlest standard of quality levels of molecules and substance particles. Quantum mechanics a tiny bit at a time emerged from the need of isolated vitality esteems in Max Planck’s answer and Albert Einstein’s 1905 paper which throw a quantum-based hypothesis to tell the photoelectric impact. Early quantum hypothesis was profoundly re-considered in the mid-1920s by Erwin Schrödinger, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and others. The present hypothesis is created in different uncommonly shaped numerical formalisms.In one of them, a logical train work, the wave work, gives data around the shot plentifulness of position, energy, and other physical properties of a molecule. Basic utilizations of quantum hypothesis think about quantum science, superconducting magnets, light-producing diodes, and the laser, the transistor and semiconductors like the chip, therapeutic and request imaging, for example, attractive reverberation imaging and electron microscopy Connection with other logical hypotheses The guidelines of quantum mechanics are key.They demand that the country space of a framework is a Hilbert space and that clear of that framework are Hermitian administrators action on vectors in that space—despite the fact that they don’t disclose to us which Hilbert space or which administrators. These can be chosen suitably to have the capacity to win a quantitative sort of a quantum framework. A urgent guide for making these select is the similarity standard, which expresses that the stating of quantum mechanics lessen to those of established mechanics when a framework movement to higher energies or, equally, bigger quantum numbers, i.e. while a solitary molecule show a level of inconsistency, in frameworks consolidated a huge number of particles averaging assumes control and, at the high vitality confine, the measurable possibility of irregular activity coming zero. Fundamentally, traditional mechanics is just a quantum mechanics of huge frameworks. This “high vitality” restrict is known as the established or correspondence limit.One can even begin from an embedded traditional model of a specific framework, at that point endeavor to see the hidden sum demonstrate that would offer ascent to the traditional model in the commensurable extent.When quantum mechanics was initially created, it was connected to models whose similarity confine was non-relativistic established mechanics.For case, the outstanding model of the quantum consonant oscillator utilizes an unequivocally non-relativistic articulation for the dynamic vitality of the oscillator, and is accordingly a quantum adaptation of the established symphonious oscillator.Early endeavors to merge quantum mechanics with special relativity involved the supplanting of the Schrödinger condition with a covariant condition, for example, the Klein– Gordon equation or the Dirac condition. While these speculations were fruitful in clarifying numerous trial comes about, they had certain unsuitable qualities originating from their disregard of the relativistic creation and obliteration of particles. A completely relativistic quantum hypothesis required the improvement of quantum field hypothesis, which applies quantization to a field (instead of a settled arrangement of particles). The primary finish quantum field theory, quantum electrodynamics, gives a completely quantum depiction of the electromagnetic cooperation. The full contraption of quantum field hypothesis is regularly pointless for depicting electrodynamic frameworks. A less difficult approach, one that has been utilized since the initiation of quantum mechanics, is to treat charged particles as quantum mechanical items being followed up on by a classical electromagnetic field. For instance, the basic quantum model of the hydrogen atom describes the electric field of the hydrogen molecule utilizing a classical Coulomb potential. This “semi-established” approach comes up short if quantum variances in the electromagnetic field assume a critical part, for example, in the emanation of photons by charged particles.

Kathleen salvation from a more sophisticated group.

Kathleen DuVal’s The
Native Ground focuses on the relationships between Native American
Indians and Europeans in the Arkansas River Valley.  By shifting our perceptions from a European
based view to a Native American Indians centered view, history as we know in
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries is dramatically altered.  Her work shifts geographic focus from
European coastal outposts to “the heart of the continent.”  The Arkansas Valley was already an
established center of Native American Indian trade in North America.  The importance of the region for its Native American
Indian and European players was the distinct opportunity for natural
progression because of the existing diverse
communities and tribal relationships.  Modern history reflects the settlement of colonial North
America from the European viewpoint or another. 
However, she shows that the simplistic, mainstream version of American
history is riddled with historical biases.  Recognizing the Arkansas Valley as the center
of colonial North America is a more truthful representation of the evolvement
of the nation. 

DuVal points out that the
Arkansas Valley was a place where Native American Indians and Europeans from
the East and West met, providing a link between the two.  Due to the proximity of the eastern Arkansas
Valley to the Mississippi River Valley, the area was a natural trade route for
Native Americans Indians.  By proxy, it would
eventually be the same for Indian and European explorers, traders, and ultimately,
immigrants.  Not some European empire’s mission,
it was, indeed, “the heart of the continent.”  

It’s important to understand that
when European scouting expeditions first came to the continent, no one
representing any European empires had any control over the Arkansas Valley.  Despite popular misconception, the Native
American Indians in the mid-continent were not untamed, wild savages waiting
for salvation from a more sophisticated group. 
They had established communities with forms of government, trade
agreements in place with other communities, and advanced agricultural and hunting
techniques, unique to their groups.  Because
of their ability to adapt to the conditions of the land, the initial survival
of European explorers was contingent, largely in part, on them.  The failure of sixteenth-century Spanish
explorers in the area to thrive was based largely on their unwillingness to
recognize the incorporations and hierarchies of those groups. 

KENAMPAKAN di dataran tinggi sangat cocok untuk


Kenampakan alam merupakan segala sesuatu yang berada di
permukaan bumi baik di darat maupun di laut 
yang terbentuk atas peristiwa alam. kenampakan alam disebut juga bentang
alam yang terbentuk karena peristiwa alam contohnya gunung, bukit, dataran
tinggi, dataran rendah, pantai, sungai dan danau. Disetiap daerah pasti
mempunyai kenampakan alam yang berbeda sehingga akan memberikan dampak bagi
kehidupan manusia seperti adat istiadat, kebiasaan, sosial dan ekonomi. Orang
yang tinggal di daerah pegunungan akan memakai pakaian yang tebal untuk
melindungi dari udara yang dingin, namun sebaliknya dengan orang yang berada di
dataran rendah seperti di pesisir pantai mereka akan memakai  pakaian yang tipis dan menyerap keringat.

Indonesia merupakan negara kepulauan, yang terdiri dari
daratan dan perairan. Negara dengan luas perairan dua pertiga bagian, dan
sisanya satu pertiga wilayah daratan yang dapat dihuni oleh manusia, hewan dan
tumbuhan. Berikut 3 kenampakan alam yang ada di Indonesia :

Dataran rendah

Wilayah dataran
rendah memiliki ketinggian sampai 500 m di atas permukaan laut. Wilayah dataran
rendah paling banyak dihuni oleh masyarakat karena wilayah ini merupakan pusat
kehidupan manusia. Dimana berbagai kegiatan sehari-hari dilakukan, contohnya di
daerah Banyubiru kab. Semarang bermata pencaharian sebagai nelayan rawa dan
juga pengrajin enceng gondok.

Daerah Purwodadi
masyarakat bermata pencaharian sebagai petani semangka, dan juga bawang merah.
Dataran rendah banyak dijadikan sebagai pusat industri berbagai makanan,
pakaian, sepatu, tas dan berbagai macam kerajinan. Di daerah dataran rendah
juga menguntungkan untuk dijadikan sebagai sarana transportasi, rute  jalannya yang mudah dijangkau, tidak
berliku-liku, tidak curam dan tidak begitu menanjak. Tidak heran jika
transportasi di daerah dataran rendah lebih murah dan mudah didapat.



Dataran tinggi

Dataran tinggi
mempunyai ketinggian kurang lebih  600 m
di atas permukaan laut. Suhu udara yang sejuk di dataran tinggi sangat cocok
untuk digunakan sebagai daerah wisata, rekreasi, dan lokasi perkebunan. Contohnya
di dataran tinggi Dieng  penduduk bermata
pencaharian sebagai petani, seperti petani kentang, wortel, dan sayur kubis. Di
dataran tinggi Dieng penduduk bermata pencaharian sebagai pemetik teh, udara
yang dingin dan tanah yang gembur menjadikan teh tumbuh dengan subur.

Dan dataran
tinggi Dieng juga terkenal akan hasil carica, buah semacam  pepaya diolah menjadi manisan,  buah ini  hanya 
bisa tumbuh didataran tinggi Dieng dan menjadi andalan sebagai oleh oleh
khas Dieng. Dataran tinggi Dieng banyak menawarkan wisata alam mulai dari candi
arjuna, telaga warna, dan kawah sikidang, masih banyak panorama alam yang dapat
ditemui di daerah dataran tinggi Dieng karna keindahan alamnya.

ketinggian lebih dari 1000 m di atas permukaan laut. Daerah pegunungan
merupakan rangkaian gunung yang sambung- menyambung dan mempunyai ketinggian
lebih dari 600 meter di atas permukaan air laut. Salah satu pegunungan di jawa
tengah yang sangat terkenal adalah pegunungan Dieng. Secara administratif Dieng
masuk dalam dua kabupaten, Kabupaten Wonosobo dan Kabupaten Banjarnegara. Selain
keindahan alam, Dieng juga terkenal akan hasil pertanian berupa kentang,
purwaceng dan carica. Purwaceng sendiri berupa semak yang dijadikan sebagai
obat penambah stamina dan daya tahan tubuh. Carica sendiri adalah buah semacam
pepaya yang diolah menjadi manisan atau campuran minuman, dapat diolah menjadi
dodol dan keripik.

Pegunungan Dieng
kaya akan keindahan alam, seperti Kompleks candi arjuna, karna di candi
tersebut terdapat candi arjuna, candi semar, candi srikandi, candi sembrada dan
candi puntadewa sehingga candi tersebut di beri nama kompleks candi arjuna. Selain
candi Pegunungan Dieng juga terdapat wisata alam berupa telaga warna dan telaga
pengilon, telaga warna terletak pada ketinggian 2000 mdpl, telaga warna
terkenal akan keunikan warna airnya yang bisa berubah ubah tergantung dengan
paparan sinar matahari, karna telaga warna mengandung sulfur yang sangat
tinggi, warna airnya akan berubah menjadi warna merah, biru, lembayung dan
putih. Dan di telaga pengilon yang letaknya berdampingan dengan telaga warna
warna airnya sangat berbeda, di telaga pengilon warna airnya sangat jernih
tidak seperti telaga warna yng airnya dapat berubah.











Pantai merupakan daerah perbatasan antara
daratan dan lautan. Pada umumnya penduduk dikawasan pantai bermata pencaharian
sebagai nelayan dan pengawet ikan. Contohnya di pantai cahaya atau sering
disebut sendang sikucing yang terletak di Rowosari, Kendal Jawa Tengah. Desa Gempolsewu
Kecamatan Rowosari masyarakat bekerja sebagai nelayan, setiap hari masyarakat
mencari ikan dan hasil tersebut akan dijual ke tempat pelelangan ikan (TPI) di
desa masing masing.

Selain hasil perikanan di sendang sikucing
cukup banyak, pantai sikucing atau cahaya ini dijadikan sebagai tempat wisata
keluarga. Karna omabak yang bersahabat dan batu karang yang sedikit menjadikan
pantai sikucing ini aman untuk bermain air.


Rawa adalah genangan air yang sangat luas
yang terjadi secara ilmiah secara terus menerus akibat drainase (pembuangan
massa air secara alami dan buatan seperti menguras atau sebagai irigasi sawah )
yang terhambat. Contohnya di Ambarawa Kab. Semarang terdapat rawa pening,
masyarakat di daerah tersebut bermata pencaharian sebagai petani padi dan
jagung, sebagai nelayan dan pengrajin enceng gondok. Di rawa pening sendiri
dijadikan sebagai wisata alam dengan keindahan alam yang tersedia dan keasrian
wilayahnya sangat cocok untuk dijadikan wisata bersama keluarga. Rawa pening
juga dijadikan sebagai irigasi persawan dan keramba ikan air tawar. Enceng gondok
yang sangat melimpah karena pertumbuhan sangat cepat  menjadikan rawa pening hampir tertutup oleh
tumbuhan tersebut mengakibatkan pendangkalan dan masyarakat menjadikan enceng
gondok sebagai kerajinan seperti tas dan anyaman lainnya.

Berbagai kenampakan alam seperti dataran
tinggi, dataran rendah pantai dan rawa berpengaruh penting pada kehidupan
masyarakat dari aspek sosial, ekonomi, budaya dan bahasa. Semua kenampakan alam
juga memberikan kelebihan dan juga kekurangan tergantung bagaimana kita menjaga
dan melestarikan ciptaan Tuhan YME.

But, the economy is recouping, yet lamentably

But, with regards to the quantity of Americans who go hungry, it’s relatively similar to the recuperation never happened. In 2014, after President Obama marked a Farm Bill that would extract billions of dollars from SNAP, Cuomo revamped New York’s financial plan to keep any cuts from occurring in the state.

Since the retreat, sustenance foundations over the United States have been detailing generally remarkable levels of interest for their administrations. Over the previous year, Wisconsin began requiring that some nourishment stamp candidates submit to a medical test, Missouri forced a run constraining the span of occupants’ enlistment in the program to no longer than four years, and Maine’s representative, Paul LePage, debilitated to quit managing SNAP completely.

“I don’t think I’ve seen my SNAP group more joyful about whatever other news that we’ve imparted to them ever, on the grounds that we’ve seen such a large number of families that are in that spot on hold, who realize that on the off chance that they were allowed to apply, they would be qualified,” said Purvis.

As more individuals have gone hungry, the socioeconomics of the sustenance bank’s customers has changed. New York’s qualification development was the brainchild of the state’s Anti-Hunger Task Force, a warning gathering of philanthropy heads and nourishment security specialists that Cuomo assembled in 2013. The U.S. Bureau of Agriculture characterizes sustenance security as “access by all individuals constantly to enough nourishment for a dynamic, solid life,” and in 2006, the year prior to the lodging market faltered, the USDA assessed that less than 10.9 percent of American family units were sustenance unreliable.

“Some portion of it is because of the way that the economy is recouping, yet lamentably another huge piece of it is happening in the states that reinstituted that three-month time restricts for ABAWDs,” said Davis, utilizing an acronym for “physically fit grown-up without wards.”

The Farm Bill and its aftermath encapsulate post-retreat hunger strategy. In a lot of states, benevolent disregard is the most that eager Americans can anticipate from their legislature. Despite far-reaching appetite and government spending cuts, a few states attempt to moderate the emergency with whatever approach levers are accessible. Until further notice, at any rate, state-level nourishment stamp strategies run from deficient to deplorable.

“We’re seeing more seniors, we’re seeing more families with little youngsters, and we’re seeing a greater amount of the working poor,” said Purvis.

“That was a huge arrangement,” said Purvis of Cuomo’s choice to square SNAP cuts.


Some state governments haven’t been happy with just reimposing work necessities. Michigan, Wisconsin, New Jersey, and New Hampshire all lost SNAP benefits. Yearning stays determined on the grounds that a huge number of Americans are as yet battling monetarily because of the crash. Accordingly, in one of the wealthiest nations that have ever existed, around 15 percent of the populace faces down uncovered pantries and purge coolers on a standard premise. By 2009, that figure had spiked to 14.7 percent. That reality alone meets any sensible meaning of “emergency,” yet it is once in a while treated like one.

What’s more, at this point? Starting at 2014, the latest year on record, 14 percent of every single American family is not nourishment secure. At the point when state governments withdraw from the fight against hunger, it puts more weight on crisis administrations, for example, sustenance washrooms and soup kitchens. Prior this month, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo declared that his organization had raised the gross-wage edge for SNAP qualification from 130 percent of the destitution line to 150 percent. Prior to that move, around 30 percent of the nourishment stamp slices across the country were required to leave New Yorkers’ advantages. Through the span of a solitary month in the main portion of 2016, more than a fourth of a million people dropped out of the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, the official name for the nourishment stamps framework.

Different states may take after, and that would not be the first run through lately that New York has set a point of reference with regards to nourishment stamp arrangement. As of late as the primary quarter of this current year, the USDA, which administers nourishment stamp programs, had conceded full waivers to 29 states, in addition to the District of Columbia, Guam, and the Virgin Islands. That is around 17.4 million homes across the United States, populated with more than 48 million hungry individuals.

Margarette Purvis, the president and CEO of the Food Bank for New York City, the biggest nourishment bank in the United States, says that her association has put in a previous couple of years attempting to stay aware of a blast sought after. (Illinois likewise raised its pay edge recently.) She has as often as possibly alluded to the level of need looked by her sustenance bank as a condition of ceaseless crisis. Different states-including Connecticut, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, and Oregon-soon took after. What they get rather is typically more terrible: new limitations on nourishment stamp qualification, as a reimposition of work necessities, required medication testing, et cetera. The representative will report more hostile to hunger activities in September, Purvis said. Be that as it may, within months, the quantity of states selecting into full waivers had dived to eight.

Firstly, ecological adaptation that the cichlid fish

Firstly, what
is Adaptive radiation? When discussing evolutionary biology, Schutler defined adaptive
radiation as “the differentiation of a single ancestor into and array of species
that inhabit a variety of environments and that differ in traits used to
exploit those environments”. An example of adaptive radiation would be the
Cichlid fish. Cichlids are a family of fish found in the lakes of the East
African Rift., mainly Lakes Malawi, Tanganyika and Victoria with radiations
producing 250 and 500 species per lake (Brawand et al, 2014) and other smaller African
lakes contain small numbers of endemic cichlids (Table 1). They all differ in their
body forms and sizes, pigmentation patterns and social behaviors. Even though
the lakes haven’t been thoroughly sampled the main species are haplochromines,
molecular phylogenic studies have shown that cichlids have evolved more lately than
the origin of the lake.

fish have a large species richness. When investigating specific lakes e.g. Lake
Malawi which encompasses the largest radiation. Its Comprised of different species
such as several species that feed on eggs and larvae carried by mouth brooding
female cichlids, species that clear parasites from skins of fish another that
feeds on pieces of their skin. Additionally, there are various species that are
scale eaters, fin biters, rock scrapers, sediment shifters and zooplankton
feeders. There are numerous streamline silver offshore shoaling fish and their sharp
toothed predators. There are crab and snail eaters and one particular species
that feeds mainly on flies that rest on rocks just above the surface of the
water, another flips over sediment to look for hidden larvae from insects.

These are
all behavioral and ecological adaptation that the cichlid fish have taken which
associate with morphological changes to the body shape and size, head shape,
jaw size, shape, orientation and shape and number of cusps of the teeth. For example,
body shape evolution is strongly affected by feeding habits. Piscivorous fish have
a much larger head and benthivorous fish tend to have a slender body. Thus,
body shape is not independent from tropic morphology. The body shapes are
generally associated with swimming modes in fish, suggesting that the divergent
body shapes of the Cichlids also relate to other ecological factors, such as
the efficiency of escaping from predators. Some species

Have evolved
lateral line canals to detect movements of prey hidden in the mud and huge eyes
to enable them to see in the dim light at depths of over 100 meters.


phylogenic studies have shown that cichlid adaptive radiation have the tendency
for similar adaptations to appear in different lakes this is a demonstration of
parallel evolution.

cichlids have failed to develop some forms. The restrictions on cichlid
adaptive evolution allows insight on the reasons of variation and sheds light
on the considerable diversification among cichlids ancestries in their affinity
to undergo adaptive radiation. E.g. the genera Pseudocrenilabrus and Tilapia
are widely distributed in Africa, yet have shown no adaptive radiation in
Malwai, Tanganyika or Victoria, the main 3 African lakes. Even though in the 3
largest African lakes, cichlids have filled the niches of small fast-moving
plankton, eel shaped species and truly nocturnal forms, there are no predatory cichlids.
Even the larges cichlid predators only weigh 3-3.5 kg, compared to other fish
e.g. 60-200kg for the largest catfish that lives in the same waters


fishes exhibit complex physiological behavior, this makes them a suitable vertebrate
model for the study of reproductive strategies. They demonstrate high levels of
parental care, even after their offspring has been hatched. This is uncommon
among fishes as cichlids continue to guard the larvae and then the independent offspring.

Females have
to be small enough to fit inside empty snail shells and rear their young.
Dominant males are large enough to pick up the shells and their reproductive success
is related to the size of their shell collection. Smaller males show
alternative strategies, either hunting for food and mates in packs or even mimicking
females to sneak into the snail shells.

is not uncommon in fishes, but maternal care is, yet cichlids seems to have evolved
maternal mouth brooding on different occasions. In Lake Victoria and Malwai,
adaptive radiation in ecomorphology have been accompanied by radiations in
social behavior- haplochromiens are maternal mouth brooders.

a change in the evolution of cichlid fish could be down to the consequences of the
aggressive behavior of male’s cichlids driving the differentiation of species.
Individuals of other species then try to avoid this behavior or strive to
compete for critical resources that both of these species use. Thus, the
increase in frequency in the population helps to drive sympatric speciation.


of a role of allopatric speciation is geography. Over time in the larger lakes,
water levels have fluctuated which led to isolation and reconnection of different
species around the main lake, sub-basins and patches of habitat within a continuous
water body. Even though molecular studies have shown that speciation takes
place within surrounding lakes, there have been theories of the creation of
hybrids from multiple colonisations of a lake. The hybrids contain greater
adaptive genetic variation that any other individual original species, allowing
larger genetic combinations., evidence for this is found in molecular phylogenic
studies and the potential of fertile offspring from hybrids are formed.


In conclusion,
there is no precise explanation as to why cichlids undergo rapid speciation and
diversification in African Lakes. However, the sequencing of a cichlids genome can
help provide information in to the evolutionary studies of adaptive radiation
on cichlids.


Flatbed ScannersDue to immense advancement in technology

Flatbed Input DevicesFlatbed devices use a surface as an input surface. You just need to place the document on a surface to scan.Scanners can be of two types:Flatbed Scanner Hand-Held ScannersFlatbed ScannerFlatbed scanners use a lid and a glass surface below which the sensor lies. Sensor may or may not have moving parts. There can be two types of sensorsCCDCISWorking:A flatbed scanner sees images and converts them into electronic codes. The scanning unit moves over the image.Reads the image as series of dots and digitizes it.This is then sent to the computer and stored as a file.Advantages:The noise level is low.It is highly reliable.It is very easy to scan.Doesn’t require any previous knowledge to  be able to use it.Light distortion is less.You do not require to move the document.Doesn’t damage the document.DisadvantagesIf it uses a LED lamp then the noise levels are very high.It is bulky and thus isn’t very commercial.Handheld ScannerThese are handheld scanners which require you to move the sensor over the document to be able to scan it. This the biggest disadvantage of using a handheld scanner. This is why has a very few applications. Most of the handheld scanners are used to scan barcodes.Advantages:It is portable which adds to the usability of it.The noise level is low.It is highly reliable.It is very easy to scan.Doesn’t require any previous knowledge to  be able to use it.Light distortion is less.DisadvantagesYou require to move your hand over the document.You need to have a stable hand.If it uses a LED lamp then the noise levels are very high.It is bulky and thus isn’t very commercial.Smartphone ScannersDue to immense advancement in technology in the last decade smartphones have evolved and now provide with several features making several technologies absolute. Scanner is also going that route, with digitalization number of people owning a smartphone has gradually increased.Smartphones these days have a pretty good camera. This camera other than taking pictures and videos can serve several other purposes. Scanning on smartphone has never been easy, you just require to take a picture and application converts it to a scanned document. A lot of applications have been built around this technology. You can also get OCR(Optical Character Recognition) at the palm of your hand, it extracts the text from the scanned document.Examples: CamScanner, Pic Scanner.

Maslow’s them if need be. How, where

Maslow’s Hierarchy of
needs was taught at school but I did not link its application to learning and
achievement up until recently and therein lies the answer to my own personal
learning. I never learnt to apply studied concepts and theory to practice. Most
students from my generation with similar educational back grounds echo this
sentiment. It was and continues to be the biggest drawback of the Indian
education ‘one size fits all’ system. Standardized testing determined
everything, and the aptitude of a student was not recognized outside of this
format. Rote learning unlike retrieval based learning (an effective but
underused practice) is memorization which encouraged cramming and forgetting
rather than lifelong learning.

Based on my own struggles
as a student, I feel  experiential
learning methodologies developed by Ron Fry and popularized by education
theorist David A. Kolb, should replace the learning without understanding
system. As President Jim Yong Kim (World Bank Group) says about this ‘schooling
without learning’ form of education, “This learning crisis is a moral and
economic crisis. When delivered well, education promises young people
employment, better earnings, good health, and a life without poverty. Schooling
without learning is not just a wasted development opportunity, but also a great
injustice to children worldwide.” To bridge this gap between theory and
practice the four key experiential learning elements (Concrete experience,
Reflective observation, Abstract conceptualization, Active experimentation)
play a crucial role.

Students must be
encouraged to participate actively, air their views understand concepts, know
their relevance and application in the real world, and have the confidence to
question them if need be. How, where and when they will/can use the curriculum
being taught should be an integral part of their learning. Supporting active
exploration, creativity and learning should be the goal rather than passivity
of lecture based attendance and textbook reading.

The widely accepted assessment
format, which is dependent solely upon the answering of questions in a
stringently controlled examination format, should be amended to accommodate all
types of learners.


Research indicates that
“academic achievement and student behavior are influenced by the quality of the
teacher and student relationship” (Jones 95). So having a positive
student-teacher relationship (my big motivator) not only facilitates learning,
but impacts and influences a students’ academic and social development greatly.
Although only improving this relationship will not produce academic gains,
however students who have a positive and supportive relationship with their
teachers definitely attain higher levels of achievement than those with a
constrained relationship.

When will come. If you do big

When you start swimming, you would want to start swimming in shallow water, and of course you would always want an adult nearby. When you get better, the adult will trust you more around deeper water. To get better you need to at least swim one or two times a week for more than 30 minutes. The first step you want to learn when you first swim is to hold your breath. So first, you would want to turn to your side and use your left or right arm and extend it so it can almost touch your ear. Second, you would want to twist your head out of the water and take a deep breath with your mouth. Next, twist your head back in the water and slowly start to exhale through your nose. After a while you will start to improve and move up to the next level. When your on the next level, you might want to learn how to kick. Kicking is really important in swimming, because then when you kick, your strokes will be easier to swim and it will make you go faster. The most stroke you want to kick in is freestyle and backstroke. When you kick, you want to make sure to point your toes because when you point your toes it will make you go faster. You want to stretch your feet and toes out and do little and fast kicks, when you do that you will know by if bubbles and white foam will come. If you do big and slow kicks you will not go faster. Another way to kick good is to kick from the hips.Sometimes in swimming you will need equipment. For example sometimes you need to social kick (that means that  you only need to kick and not use your arms) so you will need a kickboard. What a kickboard does is that it holds your arms in front and you can only kick. Another item you can use is flippers/fins. The only reason you want to use fins is because if your feet are tired and you want to go faster, you would want to use them but you can’t use fins in a race because then you would go faster than everyone else and that would be cheating. The last equipment is a snorkel. A snorkel is a long tube that you breath in and it may have a mask or maybe not. On the bottom of the tube, there is something that kinda looks like a mouthguard but you use it differently. For example, you put it in your mouth and it’s supposed to cover your teeth. Then, you put your face underwater and start to breath with your mouth normally. Some of you might get the ones that don’t cover your nose so be careful to try not to breath with your nose.

“Death is most salient in lines 29-34,

 “Death is not
the greatest loss in life. The greatest loss is what dies inside us while we
live” (Norman Cousins). As has been shown on many occasions, this truly is an
element of life which is truly present within both Wilfred Owen’s ‘Disabled’
and Robert Frost’s ‘Out,
Out –’– but which has shown it to a
larger extent? Frost masterfully portrays how the many forms of loss effect one
of a youthful age (most successfully conveying the loss of life), for the most
part, but chooses to stray away from the emotional loss one would sustain in
such a situation. Wilfred Owen, on the other hand, is able to effectively depict
the many forms of loss one sustains in war, and the effects it has out of it
(especially that of the physical loss the protagonist sustains). He, unlike
Frost, covers the entire spectrum of loss, truly fulfilling the prospects stated
in Norman Cousins words.


The loss of emotion is an aspect of loss which is
quite evident in Owen’s ‘Disabled’, but, for the most part, is not present in
Frost’s ‘Out, Out –’. Instead, there is an absence of emotion by the
protagonist – with the events of the poem elucidating what happens to the boy
physically, opposed to the emotional effects. The absence of emotion on the
boy’s behalf is mirrored by the lack of emotion and callousness of the adults
treating him (with them “turning to their affairs” after the boy’s
death). This is most salient in lines 29-34, with it describing the treatment
of the boy post-injury. Emotional loss is, however, dealt with differently in
Owen’s ‘Disabled’ – with it being shown to a substantial extent. An example of
this is that of how his injuries caused a loss of emotional attachment. This is
most evidently shown when Owen describes how the soldier “will never feel
again how slim girl’s waists are, or how warm their subtle hands”. This
engenders an image of intimacy, displaying both a physical and emotional
relationship between him and women – but, due to his injuries, a feeling which
he is unable to feel; as shown through the “never”. This is displays
a loss of emotion as it is stated that this is something that he once had – as
shown through the entirety of the fourth stanza. The loss of emotion is further
shown in the form of emotional peace ? specifically at the end of the first
stanza. In this, it is described how young boys – like him before joining –
experience “pleasure after day, till gathering sleep had mothered them
from him.” This forms the impression that the soldier harbours a form a
PTSD, with his injuries not only deeming unable to experience “play and
pleasure”, but also them plaguing his thoughts and dreams, with sleep – as
shown when Owen writes “sleep had mothered them from him”. This, in
turn, shows loss of emotional peace as what is often considered to be the most
peaceful state (sleep), is unable to shield him from the horrors he experienced
– leaving him flustered. 


Another discernible attribute present in both poems
is that of physical loss. In Owen’s ‘Disabled’ physical loss is most
prominently shown when describing the injuries the soldier sustained. This is
present from the very first stanza, when Owen describes that the soldier is
“legless, sewn short at the elbow. Through…”. Not only does it
describe his injuries, but also provides a visual representation of this through
the caesura. The caesura shows that his arm is halved, by halving the line –
highlighting the physical loss. Frost also uses caesurae in an analogous way
when he says that the buzz saw “leaped out at the boy’s hand… He must have
given the hand. However, it was…”. The caesurae here is used as a visual
representation of the boy having his hand cut off– with the line also being cut
(like what Owen did in ‘Disabled’). Both are analogous as both poets use
caesurae to provide a visual representation in the poem, to add emphasis to the
injuries undergone by both protagonists – in turn, both highlighting physical
loss that both had endured.  Another
example of Owen emphasising physical loss in ‘Disabled’ is in lines 19-21.
These lines describe the pain of his injuries – focusing on the discomfort they
bring to him – and are written in iambic pentameter. The rhythm of the iambic
pentameter elevates what is being described, which emphasises the gravity of
his physical injuries, and the loss it has brought him. This is due to iambic
pentameter being considered to be the most elevated form of speech. This is
further supported by purple being a protuberant colour in the imagery conveyed
– with purple having connotations royalty, in turn reinforcing the gravity of
the physical loss. This is a technique which is not, however, present in
Frost’s ‘Out, Out –’. Instead, Frost goes into extensive detail the scenery
surrounding the boy, accentuating their many beauties – for example,
“Sweet-scented stuff when the breeze drew across it”.  Frost had emphasized the beauty of the
physical world to show what the boy had lost upon getting injured and, later,
dying. This shows the physical loss as it the boy is losing the ability to
experience the material world and all of its beautiful splendour.   


The loss of life itself is encapsulated by both
poets through many different forms. An example of this is that of Frost’s
depiction of the loss of life in ‘Out, Out –’. In this, he describes the
scenery before the boy’s accident – delineating a “sunset far into Vermont”.
This creates the image of colour (the sun) disappearing before the accident –
with colour having connotations to life – in turn, creating the idea that after
the accident, the boy’s life was lost. This is similar to how Owen uses colour
to portray a loss of life. This is most conspicuously present when the
soldier is depicted as being dressed in a “suit of grey” – also conveying an absence
of colour, and in turn the loss of life. This is further supported when
Owen describes the town and its contents. In this, he delineates how the
“glow-lamps budded in the light-blue trees”, prior to describing how “he threw
away his knees” – with this forming a colourful image before describing the injury
itself; which is similar to what Frost does with the sunset imagery. Owen
further uses colour to describe the consequences of the injuries sustained,
when he describes how a “leap of purple spurted form his thigh”. This forms an
impression of life (shown through purple being a bright, vibrant colour)
“spurting” out of his injury, furthering the notion that both accidents
sustained by each protagonist lead to a loss of life. Both are comparable as
both poets use colourful imagery to portray life (and the absence of it).


Control is a form of loss which is at the forefront in
both Wilfred Owen’s and Robert Frost’s poems. This is evident from the
start of Owen’s ‘Disabled’ and from the very first line of the poem. In this,
the protagonist is portrayed as having no control over his current situation
and his life – as shown when he is described as being “in a wheeled
chair”. It symbolizes the loss of control, as he has to be
pushed everywhere, not being able to lead his life the way he would have, thus
depicting an absence of control. This, in turn, displays the loss of control,
as it is implied that the protagonist was once in control – as demonstrated
through him once being a football player. The absence of control is further
reinforced by the structure of Owen’s ‘Disabled’. The structure of the poem
itself is multi-stanzaic, with it, in turn, having a fragmented and
uncontrolled structure – evinced through the poem being achonological. The
loss of control is also demonstrated through similar means in Frost’s
‘Out, Out –’; with both conveying it through the structure of the poem. In
Frost’s ‘Out, Out–’, the poem is monostanzaic, with the events being told
in chronological order. This shows there to be an overabundance of
control – as, due to an overabundance of control, he was able to obtain the
buzz-saw – leading to his hand being cut off, sequentially causing any
control he had over his life to be handed to the doctors. Despite both
showing control through the structure of the poem, the point
the poets are trying to convey are vastly different – with Owen trying to
show how the injuries he sustained led to the loss of control of his life, and
Frost portraying how an overabundance of control leading to the loss of his


“Death is not the greatest loss in life. The
greatest loss is what dies inside us while we live” (Norman Cousins). This is
an element of life which is unequivocally captured in both Wilfred
Owen’s ‘Disabled’ and Robert Frost’s ‘Out, Out –’. It is shown through loss’
many forms (forms such as the loss of control, the loss of life and physical
loss) – with each poem depicting them in contrasting ways. Wilfred Owen’s
‘Disabled’ is about a soldier, once a talented football player, who is crippled
due to the savagery of war. It describes how the injuries he had sustained
crippled in more ways than one – leading to him having to endure the many forms
of loss. Robert Frost’s ‘Out, Out –’ describes a child who,
after losing his hand to a buzz-saw, has his life laid at the mercy of
discourteous adults; resulting in his death. In the poem, the boy experiences
the callous forms of loss.

How is Loss Represented in Wilfred
Owen’s ‘Disabled’ and Robert Frost’s ‘Out, Out –’?


had my perception of loss changed, the way I perceive literature has changed along
with it. It had changed in the way that, upon reading a new a piece of
literature, I look for the deeper meaning, analysing this “meaning”, hoping for
this “meaning” to change my perception of something else, something that
affects me as loss had. Going forth, I aim to apply this mentality to all
pieces of literature. These are few of the many reasons that I have chosen to
study and write about these poems.

is isolation. It is a feeling that makes you feel alone. A feeling that compels
you to dismiss help. A feeling which forces you to become reclusive. This is
the perception of loss that I harboured before reading both Wilfred Owen’s
‘Disabled’ and Robert Frost’s ‘Out, Out –’. The way in which both poets
describe the losses sustained by their respective protagonists made me realise that
loss is not isolation; but that it is an aspect of life that is experienced by
every single person – with it not mattering if you are a casualty of war or a
young boy – teaching me that I am not alone. This is perhaps what I find most
intriguing about each poem; with them, despite being so distinct, portraying
the same message to me, whilst describing events that are completely
dissimilar. Not only had the message personally spoken to me, but it also
conveyed a very relevant message to contemporary reader – with 19.7% of the
United Kingdom’s population age over sixteen years displaying symptoms of
anxiety or depression (as of 2014) – telling that that they are not alone in
what they feel.


Ompok under different conditions of life and

Ompok bimaculatus, (Bloch, 1794) popularly
known as Indian butter catfish or pabda a promising aquaculture silurid of
South-East Asian countries (Day 1981) known for its excellent taste,
nutritional profile, soft bony structure, rich lipo-protein content and high
market value (Debnath et al., 2015; Banik, Goswami, and Malla, 2012). It has an
extensive geographical distribution covering Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar,
Pakistan (Indus plains and adjoining hill areas) and several states of India
including North-eastern States, Odisha, Bihar and West Bengal (Chakrabarti et
al., 2012). It is also considered to be a species which can be diversified
towards both species and culture system diversification (Rawat et al., 2018).
The healthy cultivation of Pabda depends on the nutritional status of the
supplementary feeds. Protein makes up a larger proportion of the fish feed, and
at the same time is also the one of the most important dietary nutrients
influencing growth, reproduction, survival and yield of fish as well as
economics of a farming system by determining the feed cost (Lovell, 1998; Luo
et al. 2004; Siddiqui and Khan, 2009). An ideal dietary protein level should
ensure maximum growth of fish and also maintain good health. Thus, general
haematological analyses could act as a diagnostic tool to assess physiological
or metabolic dysfunctions caused by malnutrition or nutritional deficiency. The
changes in levels of fish blood parameters such as red blood cell, white blood
cell, haemoglobin and hematocrit will considerably provide an insight of fish’s
health status under different conditions of life and environment (Harikrishnan
et al., 2011). Hemoglobin is a protein responsible for transport of O2
and CO2 in fish body, and its attentiveness is closely related to
red blood cell counts (Clark et al., 1979). White blood cells in fish have
immune functional role and can be used to detect certain diseases and injury in
fish body (Qiang et al., 2013). Changes in blood parameters are governed in
part by the nutritional condition of the fish (Kumar et al., 2005; Zhou et al.,
2012). Some researchers have reported that an increased in dietary protein level
could raise haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell counts. (Abdel-Tawwab et
al., 2010; Ahmed and Maqbool, 2017). Similarly, Sakthivel (1988) also reported
that, the haemoglobin concentration, red blood cell count and total white blood
cell of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) at 38% dietary protein level were
significantly higher than those at 14% and 58% dietary protein level.