“The home so much more ideal than

reason we go to the movies is to have an emotional response,” argues James Ryan
in Screenwriting From the Heart. The
most cherished movies we watch over and over again are the ones that strike a
chord within us, and elicit a sentimental reaction from the audience, or have
characters that are endearing and love-able. As we watch the movie, we almost
seem to bond with these characters, and they become our friends, our family,
our enemies. “Make it something every caveman (and his brother) can get,”
advises Blake Snyder. The success of a movie depends on the timelessness of its
characters, and how closely they represent the human experience.


While trying to come up
with an idea for the screenwriting assignment, I had recently moved in to a student
house, and was struggling to make my room habitable for the average human
being. I was constantly making comparisons to my family home, and apart from
the glaring material disparities, I was fascinated by what made my family home
so much more ideal than the one I was renting. This fascination (and
desperation) led to me hitting upon the idea of writing a screenplay about
someone in search of their dream home. To explore what made a dream home, I
centered the screenplay around this central idea and meditated upon it, coming
up with the initial, simple logline of Margaret
goes on a hunt for her dream home.


The fact that I had come up
with a plot before thinking about creating “the right” characters that “enhanced
the idea”(49) created the problem of plot-driven screenplay. The characters
were just there to “fill the mould” of the plot, and were flat and
uninteresting. In “personalising the character”(124), James Ryan asserts that “most
writers create their best characters when they are based on someone they know”(124),
which convinced me to try reinventing Margaret based off a person I knew


“You need a subject to
embody and dramatize the idea…a character
is who the story is about”(32). I needed to create a protagonist that
resonated with an audience. Margaret’s character is based largely on my
grandaunt May, who is a dementia patient, and can no longer recognise her
family members. May is an optimistic person, and has lived a life of little
regrets. Because of her dementia, she lives more in the past than the present
the older she gets. Hence, I married the idea of house-hunting, with the
knowledge of my grandaunt’s happy life in the screenplay, which now revolved
around the haunting questions of “what makes a house a dream home” and “is it
possible to find a dream home”. The answer to the second question is affirmative
for Margaret in Relocation as she
encounters her “dream house” which in reality currently belongs to her.

The philosophical central
questions my screenplay revolves around have been tailored to suit Ryan’s
belief that they should be “profoundly difficult, if not impossible to answer
with any degree of certainty,” (72) with their requirement for a subjective,
personal answers.


“Motivation for the hero to
succeed must be a basic one…because primal urges get our attention, survival,
sex, protection of loved ones, fear of death grab us” (54). Maternal love and
concern is one of the strongest primal urges of humankind. Margaret was the
prime pick to be the main character of Relocation
as she is relatable to mothers old and young in her search for an ideal
place to bring up her children. Her character is also prime for younger, single
viewers to project upon a maternal figure in their own lives, meeting the
dramatic aim to elicit an emotional response from the audience as “we have a
primal reaction” to characters upon whom we project our loved ones. “A strong
fictional character represents what it is to be human,” the audience
instinctively roots for and sympathises with Margaret.


The genre of Relocation is drama—more specifically,
family drama. I chose this genre as it demands a simple story that is attention
grabbing, and at the heart of the human condition—most  effective in creating a mirror emotional
response from the audience. Tropes of this genre generally include ambiguous
situations where characters do not completely reveal what is going on and the
audience is left with an unsettling feeling that all is not quite right. Characters’
slightly odd reactions (Anne’s heated discussion with Margaret about the
wallpaper, or Steve’s initial impatience) hints to the viewers that all is not
as it appears, and intrigue is created. Another trope is Margaret’s melodramatic
moan as she realises the truth of her situation: that she has discovered her
dream home, and that she is selling it to move into the nursing home the next
day. The plot twist in the third act: the grand reveal that all is not
what it seems as Margaret suffers from reverse culture shock when Anne grows
tired of playing along with her fantasy is also typical of the drama genre. In
deviation from the norm of the genre, the conflict between the family members does
not escalate into a break-up of the family unit, and both arguments in Relocation
are resolved quickly.


             “Don’t get caught up in the end result and
deny us the fun of how they get there” (156), warns Snyder. In initially coming
up with a plot-driven screenplay, I was focused on making the characters serve
the direction and resolution of the story that my characters may come off as
rather one-dimensional. Anne’s character does not undergo a transformation, she
remains harrowed and emotional throughout. “Make the bad guy badder,… making
the hero bigger,”  (148) Snyder also
advices. There is no true antagonist in Relocation,
hence support for Margaret cannot be garnered by pitting her against a
terrible foe.


            One of
the revisions of the script involved writing off Jason, and replacing the scene
with an argument between Anne and Steve, revealing that Steve’s character is
more sentimental than he originally lets on, aiding in creating better fleshed-out
characters. Having fewer characters works better from a practical standpoint
too: one less actor to hire. With tight budgets for short films, my screenplay succeeds
in viability from a commercial standpoint. I also succeeded in utilising arrangement
and proportioning of material as Margaret moves further into the house with
every scene. Margaret’s home of several decades represents her life, and she
reveals increasingly personal emotions and experiences. “Like the visual
element, sound can tell the story, or lead the writer to a flow of more
story, character, and nuance.” (66) I have succeeded in using the sound of
draining water to link scenes 2 and 3, hinting that they are in fact the same
location. I have also achieved creation of both “physical and emotional action”
(89). Just before Margaret’s memory “catches up” to present time, when the
climax occurs during the revelation, Margaret moves quicker physically as she looks
for the dog. The combination of physical and emotional action creates the
effect of the story plot moving with increasing velocity towards the inevitable
climax. Margaret’s fantasy world collides with the one of reality, and she is
spun out of her imaginary control.


believe that McKee’s image system is particularly effective in setting the atmosphere
of a scene, and impart non-verbal messages to the audience. One motif I have
included in every act is the property advertisement. Margaret clutching it when
she “visits the properties” implies how inaccessible (as she cannot even read
the flyer due to losing her glasses) the house, and all her memories created in
it, is to her now. Margaret’s understanding of the house is reduced to the
brief description on the advertisement—flat, and impersonal. When Steve takes the
flyer from Margaret, it is symbolic of the house being taken away from her. When
Steve pockets the “saved” advert, her children almost seem to be cashing in on
what is something very sentimental and personal to Margaret, which creates a
sense of sadness on behalf of Margaret, and also disapproval of her children’s
decision to sell the house.   


            I did
not fancy Syd Field’s 3 act structure. I felt like it takes away the organic
quality of a screenplay. Although plot-wise it might aid in development and
help solve the problem of “what happens next” in the story, strictly sticking
to the confines of the 3 act structure with its time limits for each act
ensures the plots characters are part of will be “manufactured” to be rather
predictable, which perhaps in some cases will take away the believability of
the characters, impeding the audience’s identification with the characters’
plight, negatively affecting the amount of emotional response from the
audience. Relocation does not adhere
to Field’s rules of designating a quarter of the screenplay for act one, half
for act two and the rest for the last act.


            I have enjoyed
watching a few short films as further reference and guidance in writing Relocation.  The first film, Past the second stage incorporates interesting use of diagetic
sound. Conflicting “on-hold” music over the phone with the visual storytelling,
creates a friction that breathes life into the protagonist’s emotional strife. Past the Second Stage’s character does
not simply remain sad and grieving over the loss of his brother, which would be
unrealistic and boring. I have incorporated audio cues into the unfolding of
the plot of Relocation, using the
sound of draining water to link both locations in scene 1 and 2 to each other,
hinting that they are one and the same.


and punch, another film I watched was shot in just one internal location,
which aids to create a sense of raw reality of the film—in the mundane,
domestic location, viewers are drawn to the relatability of the characters, and
are able to “see” their friends in the other characters. This creates a genuine
emotional response in the audience.


Cigarettes and coffee has lighthearted
conversation that just dances on the edge of the more serious and tragic issue
at hand: the father’s unemployment, the mother’s critical bedridden state, as
well as their crippling poverty—all while the son is unmoved and unsympathetic
to their plight as he has moved up the social ladder. The close-ups of the
father’s face as he talks creates the effect of being alienated from his son,
and being lonely in his plight, thereby eliciting sympathy for the father
character from the audience.


I felt that it was useful to begin with the “the bones of a screenplay, as
constructed in the story beats”(68). This allowed me to write the screenplay
with more direction in mind. Syd Field believes that “the ending is the first
thing you must know before you begin writing.” Creating an opening image, while
keeping in mind the “‘after’ snapshot” (72) was useful in that it aided in
showing the original position of the characters in contrast with “how things
have changed”, because “a good screenplay is about change” (72). This way, I
could map the direction I wanted Margaret to develop in her character arc.
However, while preparing the one-page proposal, I felt that only character
outlines were useful because they provided a framework and context to a
character’s reactions and actions, allowing me to populate my script with more
realistic characters. The synopsis I thought was superfluous in the preparation
for the writing of the script because beat sheet and scene-by-scene outlines
were just re-iterations of the synopsis, except in more detail.


            In conclusion,
the purpose of my screenplay was to portray the alienation of dementia patients
from everything that should be dearly familiar to them—their homes, their
families—and create sympathy for the plights of these patients. In creating
Madeline to be a doting maternal figure who is devastated by the regaining and
then subsequent loss of her “dream home” full of happy memories of her family,
the audience is moved to sympathise with her, and root for Madeline. In doing
so, the audience sees through her eyes the distance that gaps in her memory
create between her and her loved ones. 

Scene Sudan, with 82, Cote d’Ivore, with

Scene setting

immune deficiency (HIV) is a chronic sexually transmitted disease that infects
a person for life and leads to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) if
left untreated (5). HIV is spread via blood, semen, breast milk, and vaginal
and rectal fluids. The disease weakens the immune system by attacking it,
leaving those infected more prone to disease (5).  Though HIV was once a death sentence, anti-retroviral
therapy (ART) has allowed HIV patients to keep the disease under control and
live otherwise normal lives (9). ART is proven to reduce HIV transmission
from one sexual partner to another by 93%, and the use and availability of ART
in low and middle-income countries has saved 5.2 million people from AIDS
related death (2,3). Unfortunately, ARTs have not been as effective in
sub-Saharan Africa, compromising 70% of the global burden of HIV infection (7).
As of 2013, the highest death rates per 1000 people living with HIV were in
Central African Republic with 91, South Sudan, with 82, Cote d’Ivore, with 75,
Cameroon with 72, and Chad, with 71 out of 1000 living with HIV (4). Though ART has reduced instances of HIV and
death in these five nations, they have almost ten times higher death rates than
high income countries, showing that there is a need for further intervention (4).

In their study, Use of a Vaginal Ring Containing Dapivirine for HIV-1 Prevention in
Women, Baeten et al. indicate that young
sub-Saharan women shoulder most of the HIV-1 related burden (1). While
ARTs are proven to reduce HIV transmission, the authors cited three articles in
which ARVs were not effective in preventing HIV-1 incidences among African
women, hypothesized to be due to low adherence to daily or coital antiretroviral
gels, films, or pills (1). This subgroup of women may have difficulty
remembering to use these ARV measures, or may be prohibited from using these
technologies by their partners due to cultural beliefs or taboos. Given that
the greatest
mode of HIV-1 transmission in sub-Saharan Africa is unprotected heterosexual
intercourse, it is clear that young women in sub-Saharan Africa require an
innovative intervention to lower their chance of HIV-1 infection (3).

et al. hypothesized that using vaginal rings for ARV administration would provide
longer term protection, thus making adherence easier for these young women,
ultimately decreasing new HIV-1 incidences (1). They decided to administer
dapivirine via the vaginal rings, as it is a topical antiretroviral medication
that blocks HIV-1 reverse-transcriptase enzymes, preventing a broad range of
HIV-1 subtypes from multiplying in the body and causing infection (11). Dapivirine
was chosen as it decreased susceptibility to HIV-1 in previous studies without
exposing the entire body to the drug (1).


Need for study

to the WHO, 20% of new global HIV cases were in women between the ages of 18
and 25, meaning that a fifth of new HIV incidences occurred in only 11% of the
adult population in 2015 (6). That same year, young women in sub-Saharan
Africa suffered from 56% of new HIV cases globally among all adults (6). This report demonstrates the gender gap in HIV
infection, while identifying sub-Saharan women as an especially vulnerable

African women are the most affected by the HIV epidemic, Baeten et al’s study
addresses the need to decrease HIV incidence by protecting this at-risk
population (1). Though socioeconomic factors such as insufficient education,
lack of quality healthcare, poverty, and violence drive the high HIV incidence among
women in sub-Saharan Africa, it is clear that the HIV epidemic needs to be
controlled epidemiologically (6). Previous
studies have proven that monthly HIV and STI testing of women and their partners,
risk-reduction counselling, and free condoms were not enough to protect against
a positive HIV diagnosis (1). The need is to increase adherence to ART via a
longer acting option so women would not need to remember to take a daily pill or
apply a gel every time they have intercourse (1). As vaginal rings release
medication over a longer period of time, they offered promise in this regard (1).

authors conducted a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo–controlled trial
of dapivirine vaginal rings in African women to determine whether vaginal ring
offered simpler, long term protection against HIV in comparison to a placebo
ring (1). Every month, participants were provided with new rings, condoms, clinical
consultations, HIV-1 and STI tests for themselves and their partners, safety
monitoring, and individual adherence counseling (1). It was important for the
authors to study whether vaginal rings, in conjunction with these other interventions,
had their intended effect of increasing adherence to ART while still providing
care and information to each participant.


details of the study and analysis

authors followed sexually active, non-pregnant women with a negative HIV
diagnosis between the ages of 18 and 45 years in Malawi, South Africa, Uganda,
and Zimbabwe (1). At baseline, 5516 women underwent HIV-1 screening, and the
2629 women who tested negative for HIV-1 were enrolled in the study. Baeten et.
al then assigned 1313 women to the dapivirine group and 1316 women to the
placebo (1). Within each country, half the participants were randomly assigned
to use the vaginal ring containing 25 mg of dapivirine while the other half was
allocated a placebo ring. The rings were indistinguishable, enabling both participants
and researchers to remain blinded to the condition assigned to each participant
(1). Women were taught to insert and remove the rings, and were provided a new
ring at each monthly appointment, along with HIV-1 risk reduction counselling
and free condoms.

was assessed via a plasma dapivirine level of over 95 pg per millimeter (1).
Additionally, a used ring containing less than 23.4 mg of dapivirine objectively
indicated the participant was adherent (1).  Based on their definition, the authors reported
the rate of adherence in the study to be over 70% (1).

et al. aimed for their test to correctly reject false positives 90% of the time
and used an end point driven study design to record a minimum of 120 HIV-1
diagnoses to achieve this statistical power (1). They aspired to record 60%
lower incidences of HIV-1 in the dapivirine group over the placebo (1). All
participants were followed for 12 months minimum or until they tested positive
for HIV-1. The results were modelled using cox regression showing cumulative
incidence to compare differences between the dapivirine and placebo groups in
each country. The authors claimed to use intention-to-treat (ITT) methods in
carrying out two analyses, one that showed cumulative incidence rates at all 15
sites, and one that excluded two sites with exceptionally low adherence (1).

ITT analysis, the results showed 26% less incidence of HIV-1 in the dapivirine condition,
which was significant in all 15 sites. The 95% Confidence Interval showed HIV-1
incidence to be 1 to 46 percent lower in the dapivirine group, with a p value
of 0.046. The data was then analyzed by excluding two sites where adherence was
lower than expected. After exclusion, the authors reported 139 HIV-1 infections
among 2395 participants, 54 of which were in the dapivirine group and the other
85 incidences in the placebo group. This result showed that incidence of HIV
was 37% lower in the dapivirine condition, with a 95% confidence interval
between 12 and 56% decreased incidence in the dapivirine group with a strongly
significant p value of 0.007 (1). Baeten et al. noted that the efficacy of
HIV-1 protection of less than 25% was not ruled out in either analysis (1).

efficacy of HIV-1 protection differed significantly based on age, which Baeten
et al. determined via a post-hoc analysis (1). They found dapivirine increased
HIV-1 protection by 61% as compared to placebo in women aged 25 years or older
(95% CI, 32 to 77; P<0.001). For women under 25, dapivirine had an efficacy of 10% (95% CI, ?41 to 43; P = 0.64) (1). To better analyze the effect of age, the authors stratified participants into 3 age groups: 18 to 21, 22 to 26, and 27 to 45. Among the 18 to 21 year olds, 44 out of 451 were diagnosed with HIV-1 in the placebo group, yielding an incidence of 5.4 out of 100 person years (1). Within the 22 to 26 year olds, 51 out of 752 participants in the placebo group were diagnosed with HIV-1. The incidence rate was 6.1 per 100 person years (1). Finally, 27 to 45 year olds had 44 out of 1192 participants diagnosed with HIV-1 in the placebo group with an incidence rate of 3.0 out of 100 person years (1). These results imply that dapivirine was effective in reducing new cases HIV-1 in women over 25, but was not effective in reducing HIV-1 incidences in younger women, as shown by the non-significant p value of 0.64. Additionally, HIV-1 incidence rates were lowest in women between 27 and 45, indicating the intervention was most successful in this demographic.   Study critique Limitations                                                                                While adherence was assessed via a plasma dapivirine level above 95 pg per millimeter, this level is usually achieved after using a dapivirine vaginal ring for 8 continuous hours (1). As women were instructed to wear the ring for a month, they cannot be truly adherent if they wear the ring for a shorter time (1).  As the authors' objective was to find a way to administer ART in a way that young women will adhere to, it is important that they actually ensure whether or not their target population adhered to the vaginal rings and found them to be a more desirable form of ART over gels, pills, or films. Thought the authors reported that 70% adhered to wearing the ring based on their definition, they can only speculate whether these women truly wore the ring for the whole month. Baeten et al. seemed to modify their results to show as strong an effect as possible. Originally, the null hypothesis was set as dapivirine being no more than 25% effective in reducing incidence of HIV-1. The alternative hypothesis was that dapivirine would have an HIV-1 incidence difference up to 60% lower in the dapivirine group. The authors aimed to rule out effectiveness below 25%, however, they changed the parameters of statistical analysis when dapivirine reduced HIV-1 incidence by only 26% (1). In order to obtain significant results, 0% was used as the standard reference parameter. This difference of 26% was only moderately significant in all 15 sites based on the p value of 0.046, meaning this result could be due to chance. Using ITT analysis while excluding participants in due to noncompliance is a limitation of the study. In ITT analysis is the gold standard and includes all participants within the condition to which they were randomly assigned, including the noncompliant, in order to maintain randomization (9). Though Baeten et. al wrote that the majority of participants met the criteria for objective adherence, they analyzed their results while excluding two sites, because they believed participants in these places to be non-compliant with little discussion as to their reasons for thinking so (1). Analyzing participants based on whether they followed the parameters of their assigned condition is known as per-protocol analysis (9). As the authors originally set out to determine whether dapivirine vaginal rings would be more effective and make compliance easier for women in sub-Saharan Africa, it seems unethical for the authors to pick and choose data to analyze under the guise of ITT analysis when it is more in line with per-protocol analysis. The per-protocol analysis showed HIV incidence to be 37% lower in the dapivirine condition, with a p value of 0.007, a strongly significant result. The confidence interval showed that dapivirine protection was between 12% to 56% lower in dapivirine compared to the placebo, which still includes the original null hypothesis value of 25% lower HIV-1 incidences in the dapivirine condition. Though there was a protective effect due to dapivirine in the study, it seemed as if the authors were statistically manipulating data to show a stronger effect. Though Baeten et al. discussed younger women having lower compliance rates and higher incidences of HIV-1 in their introduction, they did not stratify for age until after the study was over. The median age for the 2629 women between ages 18 and 45 was 26, meaning half the participants were younger than this age while half were older (1). Thus, there were many more younger participants in this study, making the fact that women between 18 and 21 having a 27% more HIV-1 incidences in the dapivirine group even more striking, as this age groups makes up a large portion of the study population (1). This result was moderately significant with a p value of 0.45, showing that vaginal dapivirine rings were not an effective treatment to reduce HIV in young sub-Saharan women between 18 and 21 (1). The authors stated that the lack of protection within the 18 to 21 year age group could be due to behavioral and biological factors combined, citing low adherence and potentially more HIV susceptible genital tracts (1). Seeing as the women were provided monthly support, STI testing, and free condoms along with the dapivirine rings, it is hard to imagine what more could be done to increase adherence in sub-Saharan Africa, especially as Baeten et al. did not explain potential biological factors in detail.  Though only 2% of women reported engaging in anal sex within the last 3 months at baseline, it is important to keep in mind that younger women may have higher rates of HIV because they are engaging in anal sex without reporting it due to fear of judgement and social stigmatization (1).  Topical dapivirine in the vagina would not be able to prevent HIV infection transmitted in the rectum (1). If this is the case, the vaginal ring's concentrated protection is not beneficial to young women, who would need a systemic ART.   Strengths             The authors used good randomization techniques in order to decrease confounding factors. Baeten et al. used block randomization to allocate research condition while stratifying by country, ensuring that confounding factors were reduced to a minimum (1). A strength of this study was demonstrating that incidence of HIV-1 was significantly lower in older women who adhered to the dapivirine study condition (1). Dapivirine vaginal rings were effective in women over 21 years of age, with results showing 56% less HIV-1 incidences as compared to the placebo. A p value of 0.001 shows the result is strongly significant. Additionally, 27 to 45 year olds had the lowest cumulative incidence rate of the three age groups with incidence of 3 out of 100 person-years. Conversely, 18-21 year olds were the only group in which the cumulative incidence rate of HIV-1 in placebo was lower than in the dapivirine condition, meaning less people died on placebo. Though Baeten et al. did not succeed in finding an intervention to help younger women in sub-Saharan Africa reduce incidence of HIV-1, they may have found a potential intervention to decrease HIV-1 transmission in older women. As many other studies could not yield any protective effects, a 26-37% decrease in HIV incidence is a promising start (8).   Next Steps While this study shows dapivirine releasing vaginal rings increases efficacy in HIV-1 protection in women over 21, who were much more adherent to the rings than younger women, there is still a public health need to develop an intervention to decrease HIV-1 incidence in young sub-Saharan women. Clearly a vaginal ring would not be clinically feasible for the young women who did not utilize them even with additional support. Policy makers and scientists should focus on finding a long acting, systemic ARV to protect young women against all methods of HIV transmission, as it remains a pertinent public health challenge. The women in this study should be followed up for qualitative interviews or questionnaires regarding their experience with vaginal rings to determine if they were comfortable, culturally appropriate, easy to use, and whether there were side effects. Women could also report their partners perspective on the vaginal rings, as a non-supportive partner may have contributed to decreased adherence. These interviews could help researchers understand why younger women did not adhere to the rings as much as older women, ultimately leading to the development of a more clinically significant intervention. While vaginal rings were not proven to be clinically significant in helping younger women prevent HIV-1, scientists should continue to study vaginal rings potential to deliver ART as an option for more adherent women. Results from Baeten et al's study shows promise of longer term, efficient protection against HIV-1 for the population of older women, which may prove to be more economically feasible and clinically more significant in this demographic. Though more work needs to be done to protect young women living in sub-Saharan Africa, this study provided evidence of dapivirine protecting women over 25 with longer term HIV-1 protection. Though the authors may not have achieved their goal of decreasing HIV-1 incidences in younger women, they have developed a promising intervention that may ultimately decrease the number of women living with HIV-1 in the future. Policy makers and scientists should work together in developing dapivirine rings as a new intervention, while further exploring new potential interventions targeted towards the young women in sub-Saharan Africa.

The the radiation from mildly relativistic outflows

The recent observations in the High Energy (HE; = 100 MeV)?-ray band show that the extragalactic ?-ray sky is dominatedby the emission of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) of differenttypes. Dominant in these are blazars – an extreme class of AGNswhich have jets that are forming a small angle with respect to theline of sight (Urry & Padovani 1995). Blazars are very bright andluminous sources known to emit electromagnetic radiation in almostall frequencies that are currently being observed, rangingfrom radio to Very High Energy (VHE; > 100 GeV) ?-ray bands.Their broadband spectrum is mainly dominated by non-thermalemission produced in a relativistic jet pointing toward the observer.Other important class of ?-ray emitting AGNs observedby Fermi Large Area Telescopes (Fermi LAT) are radio galaxieswith relativistic jets at systematically larger angles (Abdo et al.2010a; Kataoka et al. 2011). Due to larger jet inclination angleas compared with blazars, the jet emission is not significantlyDoppler boosted, making it less prevalent over such componentsas the radiation from mildly relativistic outflows or emissionfrom extended structures. This opened a new window to havean insight into the particle acceleration and emission processesin different components of AGNs.The radio galaxy 3C 120, at a distance of ˜ 144.9 Mpc, is anactive and powerful emitter in all the observed wavebands. Inthe radio band, its characteristics are closer to the Fanaroff-Rileyclass I radio sources (Fanaroff & Riley 1974) with a powerfulone-sided radio jet from sub-pc to 100 kpc scales (Walker et al.1987). The one-sided parsec-scale jet has been studied by longbaseline interferometry and superluminal motion has been observedwith apparent speed up to 4-6 c (Homan et al. 2001;Gómez et al. 1998, 1999). Recently, using X-ray and radio observations,Marscher et al. (2002) found that the dips in the Xrayemission are followed by ejections of bright superluminalknots in the radio jet which clearly establishes an accretiondisk-jetconnection. The kpc-scale jet of 3C 120 has a complexstructure with several knots, k4, k7, s2, s3, and k25 (see Fig.2 of Harris et al. (2004), where on the 1.6 GHz radio contoursthe section of the jet with knot labels is shown), detected in theradio, optical, and X-ray bands (Harris et al. 1999; Harris et al.2004). The knots are labeled by their distance from the corein arcseconds (e.g., k4, k7) and the smooth sections of the jetdetected in the optical band (Hjorth et al. 1995) are labeled ass2 and s3. These knots appeared to have interesting morphologyand spectra, more tricky among which is the X-ray emissionfrom the knot k25: it has a very weak radio flux but it isbright in the X-ray band. It is a real challenge for one-zone synchrotronemission scenario to interpret the emission from k25 incase of which large deviation from the minimal energy conditionis required. It has been suggested that X-rays might be producedthrough the synchrotron radiation of an electron population disArticlenumber, page 1 of 10A&A proofs: manuscript no. 3c120tinct from that responsible for the radio emission (Harris et al.2004). Alternative theories such as proton synchrotron emission(Aharonian 2002) or inverse-Compton scattering of CMB photons(Zhang et al. 2010) have also been proposed. However, it isto date not clear which is the exact mechanism responsible forthe X-ray emission.The core of 3C 120’s jet itself has interesting and peculiar features.It is very bright in the X-ray band with a flux of ˜ 5 ×10-11 erg cm-2s-1at 2-10 keV, variable on time scales from daysto months (Halpern 1985). The ?-rays from 3C 120 had beenalready detected by Fermi LAT during first 15 months’ scan ofthe whole sky (Abdo et al. 2010a) which was then confirmed bythe data accumulated for two years (Kataoka et al. 2011). Alsoa long-term (several months) variability had been found usingthe five-year Fermi LAT data (Sahakyan et al. 2015) with shortperiods (days and hours) of brightening (Tanaka et al. 2015;Janiak et al. 2016). Inverse Compton scattering of synchrotronphotons seems to be the mechanism responsible for the ?-rayemission from 3C 120 (Tanaka et al. 2015; Sahakyan et al. 2015)while the flares and the fast ?-ray variability are explained withinmore complex structured jet scenarios (Janiak et al. 2016).Combining of the data derived at the sub-pc and kilo-parsec regionsof the same jet could greatly help to understand the featuresof powerful extragalactic jets, e.g., shed some light on theevolution and propagation of the jets from the central engine tothe outer regions, where the jet is starting to significantly decelerate.This approach can be fruitfully applied to the sourcesshowing a large-scale jet long enough to be resolved by Chandra.Unfortunately, the best-studied blazars do not tend to havewell-studied large-scale jets, precisely because the blazars aremost closely aligned with the line of sight, reducing the projectedangular dimension of the large-scale jet. Thus, only a fewjets can be studied on both scales. The prominent features of 3C120, e.g., the strong jet well resolved in both small (pc) and large(kpc) scales makes this object an ideal target for investigation ofthe processes occurring in the powerful jet along its propagation.The low statistics in the ?-ray band did not allow to study the fluxchanges on sub-month scales (the light curves contain many upperlimits). The recent update of the Fermi LAT event-level analysisfrom PASS7 to PASS8 has significantly improved the eventreconstruction and classification which increased the sensitivityand improved the angular resolution. Combining this withthe data accumulated for a longer period (8 years) would significantlyimprove the statistics allowing to perform a detailedstudy of the ?-ray flux evolution in time. Also, the analysis ofthe Swift data will allow to explore the emission from the coreregion with the help of contemporaneous Spectral Energy Distributions(SEDs). Moreover, due to several Chandra observationsof the large-scale jet of 3C 120 in 2001-2016, the overall exposureis large enough to perform a spectral analysis of the X-raydata. This motivated us to have a new look on the emission fromthe jet of 3C 120 in small and large scales using the most recentdata available.The paper is stru

Effecting of the mind, such as user

Effecting Player Emotion in Games Design


Lewis kennedy



Q. What is Psychology, and why is a
better understanding of the ‘psychology of the user’ important to Design?



This essay focuses on the fundamentals
of psychology when it comes to emotion within design, starting off with the
uncanny valley and discussing some of the ways to avoid it or use it for
animation, and then the essay goes onto discuss the basics of look and feel, as
well as design such as colour, and then finishes with how audio can be used to affect
a person’s emotional state while playing a game.

Definition of Psychology

Psychology as it is defined by the Oxford dictionary is “The
scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those
affecting behavior in a given context” there are many different psychology
fields and practices that are used to study different areas of the mind, such
as user Psychology which focuses on the behavior and mental processes of a
user, HCI (human-computer interaction) is the area of study in psychology which
focuses on how people use computer and how best to make that interaction user
friendly and why that is, and UX (user experience) which’s focus is on the
end-user’s interaction with a company and its products.

The importance of Psychology

Having an
understanding of how to use psychology in design is a very important thing to
have, because it can help a designer have a better understanding of the target
audience or consumer, and help them create a product or service which is better
suited and more user friendly for that target audience than if they did not
have an understanding of psychology. An understanding of psychology is
important to design because it can better help you understand why a user might
do certain things while playing through a game, and will help let you lead a user
through a game without having to directly tell them what to do. It can also
help you shape the feelings and thoughts of the player during their time
playing in a game, by giving you the knowledge of what can trigger certain
emotional and psychological effects on a user.

The Uncanny Valley

A games designer
having a psychological understanding of a player’s emotional state
and why they might feel an emotional state to certain stimuli, for example
could be very useful during the creation of games, they could learn about the
uncanny valley effect and why it may occur when designing and animating a
character or scene within a video game.

According to the
Oxford Dictionary the definition of the Uncanny Valley is “Used in reference to
the phenomenon whereby a computer-generated figure or humanoid robot bearing a
near-identical resemblance to a human being arouses a sense of unease or
revulsion in the person viewing it.”

According to the
article “Emotion, autonomy and psychopaths: a cyberpsychologist’s take
on video games” by Cara Ellison, DR Angela Tinwell’s research suggests
that the Uncanny Valley effect is created when “human beings feel
alienated from people who do not emote in the top half of their face,” her research also
suggest that this effect might be occurring because people who display
psychopathic behavior tend to be expressionless in the top half of their face
which can trigger warning signs in others.

This research is
important because it could let a designer learn about how off facial
expressions or details as well as sound could be used to make a player feel
fear towards a character, this could be used to enhancing the gameplay experience
during a horror game. The obvious other advantage about knowing why this
phenomenon happens is that learning about it, and also the most common reasons
why this can occur can also help the designer prevent it from occurring as much
as possible, meaning that they can create a more relatable character for the
player to get attached to while they play that designers game.

Besides the uncanny
valley effect there are many other different subjects of psychology that are
important for a designer to keep in mind when it comes to designing and
animating characters for video games.



Look and Feel

Within a game the
look and feel of playing the game is a very important aspect when it comes to
design a menu or combat system, a system that just functions would not be fun
to use in a game and would become a chore for the player to use. Don Norman at
TED2003 has said “I really have the feeling pleasant things work better” he also brings up an
example of an experiment that he said that Alice Isen had performed were people
were asked to tie two pieces of string together, the experiment that Don Norman
talks about could not be found there is a chance he might be misremembering the
experiment, but ther is a similar one to the one he is talking about which was
were the experiment was intended to show the relationship between positive
affect and creative problem solving.

Five groups were
tasked with solving a problem as quoted from the study.

task” used by Karl Duncker (1945) in his demonstrations of
“functional fixedness.” In this task, the subject is presented with
the common objects of a box of tacks, a candle, and a book of matches, and is
asked to attach the candle to the wall (a cork board) in such a way that it
will burn without dripping wax on the table or floor beneath. The problem can
be solved if the box is used as a candle holder. The box can be emptied, tacked
to the wall, and used as a platform for the candle, which can then be lit and
will not drip wax on the table or floor”

Different groups
were given different conditions, group one was shown a comedy film, and group
two another film that was intended as a control group, three was given a box filled with tacks, a candle, and a book of matches,
group four had the same display but the tacks were displayed as a pile next to
the empty box, group 5 had the standard display but were first shown another
task that required an innovative solution the pencil task and were shown the

the report says that
“Performance on the
candle task was improved by the facilitative display condition, the pencil task
condition, and the positive affect condition. All of these conditions produced
significantly more solutions than did the control conditions, which did not
differ from each other.”

This report provides
evidence that positive affect can influence cognitive organization, this report
is important when it comes to design because it provides evidence that how
something looks or is laid out is an important thing to keep in mind when
designing, if it is poorly laid out then the consumer could potentially
struggle to use your product, if the consumer is happy and what they are given
is easy to understand they have a better chance to use your product.



The fundamentals
such as colour, basic things within design have a psychological effect on a
person, while simple can provide a person with a strong foundation for design
if they understand the psychological effect that these can have on a player.

Colour Theory

Colour theory while
it is a very rudimentary thing to learn can also be a very important area to
learn about for when you are designing characters or an environment for a
videogame or basically any visual medium, having a better understanding of a
person’s psychological and emotional responses and connections to the
use of colour and colour combinations with in a design can help a designer
create both a visually more appealing character design, as well as help the
designer create a design that gives the player more of an idea about what the
character or environment is meant to be like within the game.

As brought up by
Susan Weinschenk in the book 100 things every designer needs to know about
people, it is important to keep in mind that colours can have different
meanings and associations to different countries and groups, but there are also
colours that are considered to be fairly universal such as the colour gold
tending to mean success, one of the examples given within the book is how in
the U.S white means purity and is used for weddings but for some other cultures
the colour white can mean death and is used for funerals.

An example of good
use of colour within character design would be Ganon from the most recent Zelda
game Breath of the Wild, because he is the villain of the game they use a lot
darker colour’s within his design as well as reds and oranges, which are
typically associated with aggression and heat which provides a perfect contrast
with most of the rest of the game which has a more natural setting that tends
to use greens and blues which is part of a more cool colour palette than ganon’s warmer one.

Sound Design

Besides the visual
cues that are used within a video game another important area to keep in mind
when trying to influence and also enhance a player’s emotional state
while they are playing a video game is the sound design that is used, such as
when more intense fast paced music within an action-packed part of a game used
to pump up a player’s adrenaline, or a more melodramatic or somber song used to
make a player feel sad during certain cutscenes within a game.

Inger Ekman in the
paper “Psychologically Motivated Techniques for Emotional Sound in
Computer Games” brings up an important point that a “silent
two-dimensional representation has limited apparent reality on its own, but
adding sound helps perceiving the pictures on screen as physical bodies” removing sound from
a scene or a piece of gameplay can have a drastic effect on a person’s emotional state,
an example of this even though not from a videogame can be seen in television
shows that use laugh tracks such as the big bang theory, the laugh track is
used to make the scene seem funny by making it seem like other people are
laughing at it so you should join in as well but without the laugh track and
just silence there instead it makes the scene seem awkward and cringe
instead.(link to video showing example below).

Inger Ekman in the
paper “Psychologically Motivated Techniques for Emotional Sound in
Computer Games” brings up a very important point about the use of sound in
video games, by writing about how sound use in films and games differ a key
point that is brought up in the paper about how games differ from films is that
“Games ask players to
become active and play. Hence, sounds must support action, respond to player
control and often survive high repetitiveness” games that overuse
certain songs or sound effects can often become grating and annoying for a
player to listen to.

An example of
effective sound design used within videogames can be seen within a classic
scene from the well-known videogame final fantasy 7. The developers of this
game Square Soft (now Square Enix) even though cutscenes were still at the time
of the games release in 1997 relatively a new thing, they were able to
effectively use music to enhance the emotion in the scene, and make the players
feel sad by having the scene quite until after aerith is stabbed and her bead
falls to the ground, then the music begins with a sad sounding piano song
intended to make the player go from a feeling of shock to sadness.



Ekman, I. (2008) “Psychologically
Motivated Techniques for Emotional Sound in Computer Games”, Proc. AudioMostly
2008, October, Piteå, Sweden, 20-26.

Ellison, C. (2013). Emotion, autonomy
and psychopaths: a cyberpsychologist’s take on video games. online The Guardian.
Available at:
Accessed 8 Dec. 2017.

Alice M. Isen (1984) ,”The
Influence of Positive Affect on Decision Making and Cognitive
Organization”, in NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 11, eds.
Thomas C. Kinnear, Provo, UT : Association for Consumer Research, Pages:

Don Norman. (2003). 3 ways good design
make you happy. Online Video. April 2003. Available from:

Accessed: 1 December 2017.

Weinschenk, S., 2011. 100 things
designers need to know. 1st ed. New Riders.




According of vehicle at crash time with

According to Munteanu’s publication on “Human
and Environmental Factors Contributing to Fatal Road Accidents in a Romanian
Population”, the study conducted a research about the contributions of human
and environmental factors to the road accidents in Romania. The study analysed
the possible climatic factor involed in road accidents, specifically, the
presense of wet roads, winter condition, fog, and darkness. They found out that
among the climatic factors , the  most
frequent factor was darkness. The risk increases if the roads do not have
proper lights.

PICS – wet roads,
winter conditions, fog, darkness                            

While on Lankarani’s “The
Impact of Environmental Factors on Traffic Accidents in Iran”, the study revealed
that environmental factors are major causes of road accidents. It was
established that dusty weather had the highest death rate compared to other
weather conditions. This roadway geometry limits the driver’s vision and causes
difficult control of vehicle at crash time with subsequent increase in fatal road
traffic accidents risk.

According to the study
by Shankar et. al. (1995), rainfall plays a significant role in road traffic
accidents. They argued that higher rates of fatalities resulting from road
traffic crashes in poor weather could be explained by poor visibility due to
rainy or snowy weather and the road surface which may be more slippery thereby
reducing the vehicle-roadway friction. In addition, Hijar et. al. (2000) in
Mexico supported the findings of this study. They showed a definite association
of adverse environmental conditions such as rain, fog, and wet pavement as well
as driving in daylight with traffic crashes.

Based on Olawole’s
Impact of Weather on Road Traffic Accidents in Ondo State, Nigeria: 2005 – 2012″,
the study has examined the role of temperature and rainfall as it affects road
traffic accidents in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study has particularly
highlighted the dual roles of temperature and rainfall. The effect of rainfall
on accidents seems to be related non-linearly with accident rates. Studies have
found negative or non-significant correlations between rain and accidents

The climatic and
environmental condition is a factor that contributes to vehicle crashes on Ondo
state roads according to the study of Aiyewalehinmi
on “Analysis of Road Traffic Crashes/Collision in Ondo State Roads”. Weather
contributes to the wetting of pavement that reduces friction between the asphalt
road surfaces and moving vehicles. A few percentage of severe crashes occurred
on Ondo State roads due to effects of weather.

The Figure 1
shows the percentage distribution of factors responsible for crashes on Ondo
State from January 2005 to December 2010. It shows that the effects of weather
does not significantly contribute to vehicular crashes in Ondo State roads.

in rainfall is often linked to high accident frequencies according to the study
of Fridstrom et al. (1995), Chang and Chen (2005), Caliendo et al. (2007),
Hermans et al. (2006). However, increase in rainfall has also been found to reduce
the number of accidents based on the study of Karlaftis and
Yannis (2010). They found that, contrary to
previous research, increases in rainfall reduce the total number of accidents
and fatalities as well as the pedestrian accidents and fatalities, a finding
that attributed by more cautions behaviour of the driver. The time varying effects of rainfall
have also been investigated. Eisenberg (2004) has shown that the impact of
precipitation on a given day is reduced when precipitation was observed in the
previous days, which is possibly due to driver adaptation. In addition to this,
Brijs et al. (2008), have confirmed Eisenberg’s finding that the longer the
“dry spell”, the higher the number of accidents when rainfall occurs. Enete and
Igu (2011) examined interactions between rainfall characteristics and road
crashes in Enugu, Nigeria. The study established that almost 30% of road
crashes in Enugu occurred during wet months. The study also found that the
effect of rainfall on road accident count depends
on the length of time since the last rainfall. Large dry spell days recorded
more accident counts, supporting  Eisenberg’s

on Karlaftis’ publication
on “Weather Effects on Daily Traffic Accidents and Fatalities: A Time Series
Count Data Approach”, the study found
that temperature increase lead to increase on
accidents. This study verifies Scott’s discovery that higher temperatures increase accident
frequencies. Extreme temperatures; low in winter and high in summer are
positively correlated with road accidents. Also, the number of hours of
sunlight appears to increase road accidents concluded by Fridstom et al. (1995),
Hermans et al. (2006). Based on Brijs et al. (2008) and Stipdonk (2008), the deviations
from mean daily or monthly temperatures have been found to increase road
accidents. On the other hand, Hermans et al. (2006) and Stipdonk  (2008) concluded that
increases in sub-zero
temperatures days, lower the exposure thus reducing the number of road

Introduction is usually diagnosed by the time


ADHD is a learning disorder that over five percent of Canadian children
and teenagers have to deal with on a day-to-day basis. ADHD stands for
attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This disorder creates the inability
for a person to focus on one particular thing for an extended period of time.

People with ADHD should be able to function in the same way that the kids that
do not have the disorder do. This will be shown when the paper discusses the
issues that come with having ADHD, how it effects the performance of the person
in school, how it effects their socialization and what can be done to help
reduce the severity of the disorder.


Summary of Research

When researching ADHD, it became apparent that a lot of people around
the world have to deal with the disorder. 
ADHD is usually diagnosed by the time the kid turns seven years old. A
survey taken with sixty-six children between the ages of ten and sixteen years
old suggests “that physical activity helps to improve attention in children who
have been diagnosed with ADHD” (Silva, 2015).  Another research topic that helped to better
the effectiveness of the argument that children with ADHD should be able to
function in the same way as a child without is its effect on socialization. Mark
Cameron Dumas says “approximately 50% of
children with ADHD experience significant peer relationship problems” (Dumas, 1998). This research paper
discusses the connection between how boys with ADHD can lead to a more
difficult time with trying to socialize with other children. He proves this
point by going into details about how children with ADHD especially boys tend
to have problems with knowing what is needed to create good communication.

 In addition to challenges
with socialization, there is also a connection between the performance in
school and ADHD. For this portion of the research there was a news article from
the Washington Post that goes into great detail into the correlation of the
two. The article talks about the fact that teachers and parents tend to underestimate
the disorder by a great deal because they believe that it is only effecting the
attention of the kids (Strauss, 2016). Although the main
symptom of the disorder is attention based, other things come into fruition
like impulsivity, poor multi-tasking abilities and interrupting others while
they are speaking. This disorder is important for parents and teachers to
understand because if dealt with properly the child can correctly deal with
their attention issues and as a result will have a better chance for success.

 A lot of people mix up
the difference between attention deficit disorder (ADD) and attention deficit
hyperactive disorder (ADHD). The designation of the two disorders is commonly
misconstrued. ADD is a solely attention based disorder in which the person
easily loses focus if bored or overwhelmed. Whereas ADHD is a more common
disorder in which the child or adult is unable to sit still for long periods of
time, zone out very frequently and in some scenarios can become overly active
and hard to control. ADD is a lot easier to control and can be used to a
persons advantaged if correctly.

Some of the best minds in history had ADD: Albert Einstein,
Picasso and even Van Gogh. This disorder can be used to be able to better focus
on a specific task or job so that the person is able to do the best work they
possibly can do. ADHD on the other hand is not as easy to control because
people who have ADHD tend to not be able to sit still and get bored easily.

Another interesting research topic that was discovered was the
correlation between rational decision making and ADHD. This was best shown in
an article from the University of North Carolina. This article states that
“ADHD effects all of the main brain functions like behavioral inhibition, working memory, regulation
of motivation, and motor control” (Et Al, 2002). If behavioral
inhibition is effected by ADHD this can lead to making irrational decisions.

This is due to the fact that the person does not know the difference between
what make makes a decision rational or not. As a result the people with ADHD
tend to make very impulsive decisions without considering the consequences of
their actions. Another type of decision that people with ADHD tend to make are
ones in which requires a lot of thought like jumping off a cliff into water.

Decisions like these are made very often by people with ADHD which is why
thrill seeking can be connected to the disorder.

There are three main drugs that could be found
that are used to either help take the edge off the person’s ADHD or help them
be completely focused. The first pill is called Adderall, this is a nervous
system stimulant that helps to control the brain and nerves. This drug is
especially common when it comes to test taking. When a person with ADHD has to
take a test Adderall is the go to medication. Then there is Ritalin, this drug
also tries to reduce the severity of the ADHD but does have some key side
effects such as drowsiness, loss of appetite and weight loss. The last drug
that is recommended to be used to help reduce or contain the ADHD is called
Concerta. This medication is the best option because it comes with the least
amount of side effects and can be purchased in many different dosages depending
on the need of the child.  


Analysis of Key Findings

With all the research conducted on the subject of
ADHD, it was discovered that the disorder effects people in more than one way.

ADHD effects the way in which children and teenagers learn. This is because
when the child’s attention continues to wonder or they can’t stand still it
contributes to a less successful learning process for them. As a result, this
may limit the amount that someone with ADHD can get and may lead to the distraction
of other students. If not treated correctly the kid will not meet the true
potential that they have if not for them having ADHD.

Another way in which ADHD effects people is it
can lead to poor communication. This can be demonstrated in more ways then one
whether it is the inability to stand up for themselves and the difficulty of
trying to communicate with strangers. When talking about the inability to stand
up for themselves this means that if something happens that they don’t like
they just let it go because they do not know how to deal with this situation.

An example of this would be someone was buying a specific food item and got the
wrong thing, that person would rather just eat the item given to them instead
of confronting the people who gave them the food.

The other big social issue for the teen age is in
reference to trying to have conversations with strangers. In these scenarios
the person tends to avoid eye contact, usually are looking away from the person
and always try to keep the conversations very short. The person with ADHD can
try the medication route to help stimulate the brain which will result in a
better attentiveness. If the person decides they want to be medicated for this
disorder the best choice is Concerta. It does not have the heavy side effects
and also does not have limited dosages either. But, because in most cases
doctors will recommend to use Concerta anyways. This medication comes in four
different dosages eighteen, twenty-seven, thirty-six and fifty-four.

But, some people with ADHD may go the
non-medicated route as well and this may include: cognitive behavioral therapy
or ADHD coaching. Cognitive behavioral therapy in the case of someone having
ADHD helps to better develop organization skills. By developing these skills,
the adult with ADHD will be able to organize their thoughts and create a plan
to carry these ideas out. The other option is to seek out the help of a ADHD
coach. What they do is help with the person’s problem solving skills, create
studies to target the patient’s attention problems, anger problems and even
organizational skills. ADD and ADHD if used in the right circumstances can be
very beneficial to a person. This is because if they are hyper focusing on
something in particular then it will become even better. This disorder is
especially helpful to professions such as scientist or artists due to the great
detail required to succeed in these industries. So ADHD is not all bad if it is
both treated and used in the correct way. 



Although ADHD is a disorder that can be a hindrance of the
attention of the people who have it, if treated correctly this disorder can be
a good thing. This was proven when the paper discussed how ADHD can effect both
learning and socializing, how to differentiate ADD from ADHD and how it is
treated. Some of the most extraordinary people throughout history have had
ADHD, what is stopping you from becoming your best self?

Bio to benefit the immune system, help

Bio K Plus

1.What is Bio K Plus?

Bio K plus is an
international biotech company that basically focuses on research, manufacturing
and marketing of Bio K Plus probiotic. The company has completed nearly two
decades successfully and now provides its valuable products to different
international regions.

Probiotics are the
special mixture of microorganisms that are supposed to provide health benefits
when consumed, mostly orally. Bio K plus Probiotic is a supplement widely used
as a digestive health supplement. It is also a natural immune booster.

Two product lines are
available with Bio K plus international: fresh drinkable products and
targeted-release capsules. The capsules have unique enterosoluble coating which
improves the efficacy of the product.

Bio K Plus probiotic is
meant to offer digestive support and minimize gut problems. These products are
said to benefit the immune system, help with regularity and support gut heath. Proper
digestive health and bowel function are also linked to effective weight
management. There are both liquid and capsule formulas available. They do not
contain any added flavors or sweeteners.

Bio K Plus drink is a
potent probiotic enzyme complex that is intended to efficiently lift your
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help maintain the body in a state of better health. Bio K Plus ingredients are
selected very carefully to provide its users the most beneficial effects that
promote health by improving digestive system, immune system and also helps in
weight management.

2. Difference between prebiotics and probiotics

There terms
“prebiotics” and “probiotics” sound similar but they are not. Prebiotics and
probiotics are actually two completely different types of supplements and not
two different forms of a similar supplement.

Prebiotics does not
contain live microbes but they work to enhance the effects of naturally
occurring good microbes in the body. They are mainly used to boost internal
microbes and sometimes also to enhance the effect of ingested probiotics.
Probiotics, on the other hand, contain live microbes intended to be given
orally to provide health benefits. cite url=

3.BIO K PLUS Ingredients

Bio k plus probiotic has
unique and patented formula. Bio k plus ingredients are carefully selected to
provide maximum benefits.

These include:




These strains are
proven for their synergistic effects and efficacy. The ingredients also include
water, whey protein concentrate, and skim milk powder in liquid formulas and other
binders and preservatives in capsules.

4. How did bio k plus act?

Consuming probiotics
provides countless benefits.

Researchers are
trying to identify the exact mechanism of probiotics. Some of the possible
explanations that we found are as follows:

When there is a loss of
“naturally good” gut bacteria in your body due to any reason
(for example antibiotics), probiotics will help by replacing them.
Probiotics help balance your
“naturally good” and “naturally bad” bacterial flora to
maintain the healthy environment in the gut for optimum benefits.

The benefits of the
ingredients of these bio k plus products for health are numerous. Thy can help
improve gut health and promote weight-loss as well by way of minimizing
digestive issues by favorably altering gut flora.

5.BIO K PLUS Claims

Probiotics have been
the subject of research. There is scarce evidence on the benefits of probiotics
at present.

There are many
statements by the manufacturer concerning the benefits of bio k plus products.
The manufacturer claims that the supplement helps to improve gut digestion and
reduces acid reflux. This is specifically helpful to the patients suffering
from frequent constipation and heartburn symptoms.

It is believed that a
healthy gut experiences less gas and/or colic issues, improved digestion, and
absorption of the nutrients. The gut has the highest level of immune system in
the body. Therefore by enhancing the gut health, it is also believed to benefit
the immune system in the long run.

In the United States,
language approval by the FDA is mandatory for food product labeling. Probiotic
manufacturers have received warning letters of looming legal actions for using
overstated claims for probiotics not supported by clinical evidence of

The manufacturer claims
that two capsules of Bio K plus can help reduction of upto 95 % of Clostridium
difficile-associated diarrhea. cite url= https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20145608

Probiotic products
without an enteric coating did not continue passage through the gastrointestinal
tract. There are studies where degradation of bacteria was observed in
simulated human gut environment. Therefore the enteric coating provided in bio
k plus capsules is very helpful. cite url= http://www.nchpjournals.com/manuscript/uploads/article_684.pdf


6.Does Bio k plus work?

The users often raise
questions like this. Does bio k plus work? The answer largely depends on the
reason for which you are taking it. If you take it for problems related to the
gut, theoretically, there are higher chances that it will be beneficial. If you
take it for prevention of some disease or for weight reduction, the exact rate
of benefit is not known.

7. What are the advantages of Bio k plus?

Each Bio K plus fresh
drinkable product contains up to 50 billion probiotic bacteria. They may be
taken in various doses to meet everyone’s needs (from ¼ of a bottle to 1 bottle
per day, as needed).

As the probiotic
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throughout your digestive tract.

Bio K plus products
are suitable for everyone as there are both liquid and capsule options of
different strengths. Bio K plus drinks are sold as flavored packs to satisfy all
tastes which increase its palatability. These products are gluten free.

8.Does bio k plus Work?

Everybody is
wondering, does Bio k plus Work?

Well, the answer is
not difficult. Bio k plus formula is an intelligent supplement of natural
probiotics. Although the beneficial effects of probiotics are well debated
since decades, conclusive scientific research on probiotics are ongoing at
present and there is no supportive evidence of the benefits of probiotics yet.

Many articles suggest
the supportive role of probiotics to regulate and improve gut health. Also,
it’s important to keep in mind that probiotic use is still not supported by
clinical evidence. The evidence is lacking to confirm the usefulness of weight-loss
effects on the long-term basis.

Occurring over many
years, the systematic reviews and clinical evidence recognized that a
cause-and-effect relationship had not been satisfactorily proven for the
probiotics products analyzed for their beneficial effects on various results.

9. Bio k plus benefits

The Bio k plus is
manufactured by a leading manufacturer. It is known for its high-quality health
products. The product was made to help you achieve overall health and wellness.
The company is based in the USA and claims to be one of the most appreciated
and trusted probiotics manufacturers. Bio k plus benefits are plenty and it is
being used as an important dieteru supplement.

10. Bio k plus probiotic results

There are multiple
uses of Bio k plus products, both therapeutic and defensive. Here are some of
the important conditions where probiotics are believed to be quite effective
and useful.

diarrhea (AAD)

Antibiotics are a
common treatment for various infections, and it has been observed that 20% of
antibiotic-treated children develop diarrhea. AAD mostly results from an
imbalance in the colonic microbial flora that is caused by antibiotic
therapy. This alteration disturbs the metabolism pattern within the gut.
It decreases short-chain fatty acid absorption which eventually
causes osmotic diarrhea and lose motion.  It has been witnessed that
probiotics have a key role in this condition. Probiotics may be protective and
useful for children taking antibiotics. Research has concluded a protective
effect of some probiotics in this condition.

Gastric acid reflux

Some strains of
lactic acid bacteria available in probiotics may affect Helicobacter pylori infections,
the most common causative factor of acid reflux disease in adults when used in
combination with standard medical treatments.

Vitamin deficiencies

Bio k plus like probiotic
treatment has been studied for its use to address disorders associated with
vitamin deficiencies. The clinical benefit of Bio k plus on vitamin disorders
is not certain. However, the use of probiotics has been said to elevate the
production of vitamin K.

Inflammatory bowel

Probiotics are being
studied for their potential to influence inflammatory bowel disease. There is
some evidence to support it. However, their use in conjunction with standard
medications in treating ulcerative colitis is somewhat helpful but there is no
evidence of their efficacy in treating Crohn’s disease.


This is a fatal condition
and several clinical studies provide evidence for the potential of probiotics
to reduce the risk of necrotizing enterocolitis and improve the outcome by
reducing mortality in premature infants. One meta-analysis indicated that
probiotics reduce these risks by more than 50% compared with controls. cite
url= http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD005496.pub4/abstract;jsessionid=80CC2E217BB3CE40BC20A69FB26C8F75.f02t01

Lactose intolerance

Lactose intolerance
is a very troublesome condition rendering an individual with compromised
quality of life and many food limitations. Probiotics may be useful to some
lactose-intolerant individuals by improving their digestive system.

Recurrent abdominal

A recent review of
probiotics including moderate to low-quality evidence suggests that probiotics
may be useful in relieving pain in children with recurrent abdominal pain, but
the proper strain and dosage are not known.

There is also some
evidence of the effects of probiotics for following conditions.

Skin conditions, like eczema
Improving oral health
Urinary and vaginal health
Preventing allergies

11. Bio K Plus Capsules

Bio K Plus capsules is convenient format especially
for travellers. It can be stored at room temperature as well.

It is made up of
enterosoluble coating that prevents damage to the contents from gut acidity. It
is also suitable for those who do not prefer fermented products. The capsules are available of different
strengths to meet your needs (12.5, 25 and 50 Billion).


12.How to Use (Take) BIO K Plus

You can take Bio k
plus products at any time of day, either with or without food.

If  you are taking a course of antibiotics, you
should take Bio K plus at least 2 to 3 hours prior to or after your antibiotics
dose. As antibiotics kill both good and bad bacteria, you should make sure to
space out your antibiotic and Bio K plus doses.

The recommended dose
is as follows:

maintain a healthy intestinal flora:

¼ bottle or 1 12.5 Billion capsule daily.

improve intestinal flora health:

½ bottle or 1 25 Billion capsule daily.

optimize intestinal flora health:

1 bottle or 1 50 Billion capsule daily.

antibiotic therapy:

1 to 2 bottles or 1 to 2 capsules of 50 Billion capsules during the antibiotic
course, as well as 5 days after treatment. Always take these products at least
2 to 3 hours prior to or after taking a dose of antibiotics.

hospitalization and to prevent infections due to Clostridium difficile:

2 bio k plus 50 Billion capsules during the antibiotic course, as well as 5
days after treatment.

Each person’s
intestinal flora is unique. Keep in mind that it is impossible to consume too
many probiotics, as any surplus will be eliminated through the intestinal

13.BIO K plus Side Effects

Following common side
effects may be observed with bio k plus.


and vomiting



Please contact your
doctor immediately if you suffer from any of these side effects.

14. BIO K Plus Product Warnings

Following general Bio
K plus product warnings should be observed for safe use of the product.

Intestinal problems can occur with
the usage of probiotics containing live microbes.
It is not appropriate for patients
with allergy to any of the contents of the product.
Do not use if you have immune
deficiency syndrome.
It should be avoided in critically
ill conditions.
Stop the use if you experience
prolonged side effects following its use.

15. Probiotics myths

Don’t be fooled.
There are lots of myths prevailing regarding the use of probiotics. cite

Food and supplement labels provide
accurate microbe counts

labels of these products are not monitored the way the labels of medicines are.
Hence blind trust shall not be kept just on the basis of the label.

All probiotic supplements are
basically the same

is absolutely wrong. Theoretically, every single probiotic supplement could be
different and cannot be interchangeable to any of the products available in the
market with a common tag of “probiotic”.

Taking probiotics might help
prevent colds

can boost immunity at large. However, it does not have an impact on the
prevention of viral infections like the cold.

Probiotics can replace medications

wonder how one can even imagine to this extent. I would never advocate stopping
a medication and switching to a probiotic. You may consider the use of
probiotics as an add-on to your existing treatment programs, or you may
consider it preventively so you might avoid the need for a medication down the

Most yogurts are generally a good
source of probiotics

growth of microbial flora will be different in different yogurts. The strength
and strains of one yogurt may not be similar to the other one.

16. Bio k plus capsules or bio k plus liquid?

The decision of
selection merely depends on personal preference. You can select either capsule
or liquid Bio K plus products of your choice.

Bio k plus liquid
offers different flavors to sooth your taste buds. You can select any one or
even try all alternatively to keep it interesting. However, if you find liquid
is little inconvenient, you can simply select capsules. These are also available
in different strengths.

Please remember that,
if you on antibiotics for any reason, you should space Bio-K Plus either two
hours before or two hours after your antibiotic dose.

Ultimately, your
choice of the probiotic source may depend on your food preferences and the type
of probiotic you need to consume. cite url= https://www.livestrong.com/article/323099-directions-for-bio-k-plus/

17.Any BIO K PLUS lawsuits?

There are no direct
lawsuits identified for Bio K plus. However, probiotic supplements have been in
controversy mainly due to over claiming and lack of evidence.

The Federal Trade
Commission has taken punitive actions against probiotic manufacturers, for
deceptive advertising and exaggerated claims of health benefits for a yogurt
and probiotic dairy drink. The punitive action also included a US$21 million
fine coordinated across 39 state governments. cite url=

The European Food Safety
Authority has rejected all petitions by commercial manufacturers of probiotics
for health claims on probiotic products in Europe. The rejection was due to
insufficient research, and thus inconclusive proof of effectiveness. cite url=

18. Bio k plus price

Bio K plus capsules of
different strengths come in pack of 15 capsules and priced from $24.98. Bio K
plus liquid six doses of 50 billion is priced at $96.99.

19. Bio k plus: where to buy?

Bio K plus products
are available at most of the nearby pharmacy stores, hospitals, grocery shops
and also at natural food outlets. Bio-k plus international availability is the
main advantage of the product. The product is also being sold online at Amazon.

20.BIO K PLUS Alternatives

As discussed, you may
choose between capsule and liquid type of probiotics. The choice depends on
multiple factors including the personal preference. It should be noted that not
all the probiotics products are same as Bio K plus products. Bio k plus
comparison has not been done with other similar products. Following are some of
the similar products.


Lovebug Probiotics




22.The Bottom Line on Bio K plus

Use of bio k plus
liquids and capsules may be helpful to you if you are frequently suffering from
gut issues. However, its use should be governed by medical advice. As we have
seen that it is not free from side effects and hence, we strongly recommend its
use only for appropriate use and by suitable candidates. The products are
easily available and also offers different flavors.

We just cannot
endorse the product 100% for the following reasons:

Inadequate scientific testing by
independent researchers
No long-term benefits determined
following clinical trials

The Bio k plus might
provide multiple health benefits including improvement of gut health, relieving
annoying gut problems and boosting immunity. However, please don’t replace
scientifically proven treatment with probiotics without consultation.


Generally be lit in noon so they

Generally nature can define as the phenomena of the physical world, which includes plants, animals, geological process, and weather. The term is often used as “natural environment” but when it refer as “human nature” then it’s define as the way of thinking, feeling and acting that are common to most people.

In the story of the lamp at noon, the author has portrayed nature, both- natural environment as well as human nature. The story take place in the rural area which is prairie farm located outside of the town. The story is about a family living in a farm during dust storm. Due to dust depression took place and family had to face hardship, isolation and loneliness. The dust blocked off the sunlight which cause lamp to be lit in noon so they can see each other. Ellen, Paul and unnamed baby are main characters of the story. Ellen is a middle aged woman around her mid 20’s, a wife of a framer and a loving mother. Paul is a thirty year old farmer and a father. The dust storm created constant worry, poor health condition and tension between Paul and Ellen. Thorough out the story Ellen described as a determined and remains consisted on her decision to leave the farm and moved back to her father place in a city, because she loves her child and thought about betterment of entire family. On the other hand, Paul described as stubborn and selfish. He doesn’t want to leave his farm, because of his dream and passion for farming. He believed that his dream is achievable and that lead him to be blind on the truth acknowledge by his wife. The dust creates separation in their marriage life but Ellen tried to convince Paul whenever she got chance. And she got that chance when Paul came to home in light of lamp, so light creates hope in Ellen. At the end of story, Paul realised that he can’t able to feed his family and animals. But it was too late for him because his son smothered by dust and died. The lacks of communication and pride have taken their child.

In the story of dancing bear, the author has portrayed most about “human nature”. When a person become old and unable to do things in daily routine, he/she has to remain dependent on other and their lives become narrowing and they have no freedom on their demand. A bear represent as a symbol of strength and might. But when it caged and performed as entertainment, it consider as inferior and helpless. The same situation has occurred to Dieter Bethge, an old man who has difficulties to controlling his bladder. He is emotionally weak and often forgot things happened around him. Mrs.Hax is a nurse and care-taker of Dieter, who is appointed by Dieter son. In the story, Dieter often tried to get rid of Mrs.Hax, but he is not able to do so. The room represent as Dieter’s mind and when he looks himself inside the room, he dreams about his past life. When he and his father used to be a hunter and hunt bear which are lower and incapable than human. Dieter now feels like bear having incapability as being treated by Mrs.Hax. In a dream, when he saw a violinist abused the bear, he compares himself with a bear and violist as Mrs.Hax and feels that he has no freedom and always treated as a lower and insignificant person.

Canada is ranked 8th safest country to live in. According to the 2017 GPI(Global Peace Index), which is published by the institute for economics and peace, Canada ranks 8th among 163 countries around the world. The study referred to a Global Peace Index, which used 23 factors to rank countries on their level of safety and peace. Some of the factors include homicides, crime rates, level of terrorism and internal deaths. And Canada has lower score on homicide rates and internal conflicts. Weather can be harsh sometimes, but humans have instinct of survival. So Canada is a safe country to live in.

The especially undermining the ability of lower

The PNG economic crisis hit it pretty hard this year and it
will be a tough year for PNG families facing negative impact on family budgets
when the National Government has increase prices of 918 items effective from
January 1st. The rise of food prices has adversely affected the
livelihood of socially vulnerable groups, especially for those people suffering
from poverty because their diets usually rely on items that are becoming more
and more scarce and expensive such as rice, tin fish, flour and cooking oil. What
makes the life of these socially disadvantaged groups even worse is when crude
oil and petroleum have been fluctuated. The significant increase in fuel price
has obviously created additional financial burden on all populations,
especially undermining the ability of lower income groups to spend on
educational services if such provision is not guaranteed by the government.
Having experienced high food and fuel prices, PNG is now confronted with the economic
crisis, which has drastically affected the declining national income, job
losses and increase unemployment in the country.

Household with young children from lower income group,
education can constitute a very significant part of household consumption. Food
is the basic necessity for every household for survival purpose while education
is perceived by parents as very important for their children but increase of
food prices, many families will have to force to pull their children out of
school and send them to work, simply to survive. When families are confronted
with financial difficulty, female students are more likely to be dropping out
from schools. This will mainly affects the rural areas where boys are given
better chances than girls.

Recently, the National Government delivered their free
education policy but tough economic crisis has impact tremously on higher
education in PNG. The Government should do away with the current education
policy and re-introduce the old education system where it paid fees for
students going into colleges and universities. The higher education in PNG is
almost completely dependent on government budgetary allocation and with the
economic crisis, the education sector has decrease in the annual budget
provided by the Government. In times like this, higher education in the country
should urged to generate their own revenue instead of relying solely on the
government. This have greatly affected teachers’ salaries, quality of teachers
and learning, essential utilities to maintain in the continued operation of the
colleges and university’s teaching and learning activities and fee structure
for both new and continuing students in the country.  It has also affect the Department of Higher
Education, Research, Science and Technology owning K7 million outstanding
government Scholarship funds for 2017. The outstanding fund is one of the
reasons why the country’s premium university like UPNG and UOT has tripled its
student compulsory tuition fee for this year.

Some colleges and universities in the country are resorted
to banks for loans to support capital construction costs, resulting in high
levels of dept. Such pressures make it difficult for universities to focus on
teaching and research thus compromising the quality of higher education. Low
quality also contributed to the high level of graduate unemployment. Higher
education plays a very significant role in changing life situations and a major
driving force for developments in the country. The outcomes of higher education
are only realized from the students who complete the system and join the rest
of the work force upon their graduation. With the rapid increase in number of
university graduates in recent years, the job market does not quite match the
job expectation of the graduates, who expect to have high-level, white-collar
jobs waiting for them upon graduation.

One of the ongoing issues in the country are teacher’s
salaries and thus are vulnerable to cuts and extraordinary delays in receiving
their pay or reductions in their monetary incentives. In such economic crisis
like this, the national government needs to increase their pay so that there
may be decrease in absenteeism and improve quality of instruction and learning
in the classrooms.

Higher education is an important part of the economic
infrastructure in any country. It is a powerful vehicle of human development
that helps engender economic, social, and political stability in a country. PNG
government should realizes that developing a modern and effective higher education
system is essential to drive the country’s economic advancement based on development
of human capital, investment in research, cultivating an entrepreneurial
culture and building a new economy based on innovation rather than low-cost
labor. In adapting to the growing pressures of the funding crisis in the higher
education sector, institutions and governments need to focus on methods that
improve the accountability of financing higher education institutes while
ensuring  that higher education institutes
are able to produce the whole range of services required to fulfil society’s
needs. Ultimately, the most important question is to maintain the nature and
scope of higher education institutes in research and teaching that can
contribute to economic growth and social progress in the country.

The 2018 academic year will be a tough year for both parents
and students were they had to dig deeper into their pockets to pay for tuition
fees. Most likely to be affected by the increase of tuition fees will be the
subsistence farmers and low wage earners with either one employed parent or
single parent who have two to three children going to university. Looks like,
they would attend only secondary education and return to their villages while
rich kids will continue to attend colleges and universities in the country. 

Advance in the Philippines. In doing so,

Advance Construction Inc. started
in 1997 as a small painting business with one
employee. Now, it developed into a general and finishing contracting firm
that has pooled hundreds of professional engineers and workers who are willing
and ready to offer clients the highest quality of all-encompassing services.



mission is to develop our team as one of the leading general contractors in the
Philippines, providing the highest level of professionalism, transparency, and integrity—incorporating
priority to health and safety, for our staff and for our clients.”


Resources Strategies

Develop the team to
be one of the leading general contractors in the Philippines:

Advance Construction Inc. strives
to lead in the general contracting business in the Philippines. In doing so, Advance
Construction Inc. looks for people who demonstrate hunger to learn more, and who
empower employees to upgrade their knowledge and studies. This means the
company provides complete funding for tuition for any employees who wish to
improve their education. This is because Advance Construction Inc. believes
that development is vital to an organization’s advantage in the industry and
education incites development.

            Since the construction industry in
the Philippines is competitive, Advance Construction Inc. has faced problems
such as employees leaving for other firms. Hiring managers are taught to
pinpoint prospective employees who show consistent determination that parallels
with the company’s mission to be the best in the industry. The introduction of
this mission-oriented recruitment method ensures that all employees prosper
towards the company’s goals.


Provide highest level
of professionalism, transparency, and integrity:

            Advance Construction Inc. seeks to
provide clients with the utmost quality of work. To sustain its high level of
professionalism, transparency, and integrity, managers in Advance Construction
Inc. must uphold efficiency and competence within the company. For instance,
the introduction of employee uniforms can help create an attractive professional
business image as well as improve customer relationships through approachability.

This may also promote team spirit within the company and create a sense of
belonging with the employees and staff.

            Next, Advance Construction Inc. can
work towards transparency. This means that all information such as budgets,
planning, and other items concerning the company is made available for the employees
and clients. In the long run, practicing transparency will assure that the
Advance Construction Inc. is exercising their impact in the community.

            Lastly, Advance Construction will
work towards improving corporate integrity


Incorporating priority
to health and safety:

            With the current CEO being an
officer at the Philippine Department of Health—the principal health agency in
the Philippines that is responsible in protecting the welfare of Filipinos—Advance
Construction Inc. highlights the importance of health and safety with its
employees and clients. In finding the factors that may affect this, the managers
can look at the local environment and the firm’s internal standards that would
help determine the changes needed.

instance, the manager can examine trends with the weather. In the Philippines,
an average of eight to nine typhoons make landfall each year (CNN, 2017). This alone
may affect work hours and the safety of workers present in construction sites.

The manager must be trained to foresee these risks and must implement necessary
preventative measures.

 Looking at the internal standards of the company,
Advance Construction diligently complies with the Occupational Safety and
Health Standards (OSH)—regulatory standards that highlight safety in a
workplace. With the Philippines being a third-world country, it is common for a
lack in enforcement with certain safety guidelines and rules. For example, it
is common for small starting construction firms to have their construction laborers
work without a harness and other means for safety to save in costs—this is
strictly condemned by Advance Construction Inc. In Advance Construction, it is
crucial that employees and clients know the laws and regulation to make the
workspace safe and comfortable.

            In the long run, being aware in
these environmental aspects allows Advance Construction Inc. to retain their
position with the Department of Health, to successfully comply with their
mission, and to make the company attractive for those seeking employment. This
can all be achieved through awareness of the internal/external work environment
and proper training and development.