Probing into the world of Tarantino’s genius Essay

Probing into the world of Tarantino’s genius

A cult icon on his own, Quentin Tarantino is arguably the most influential director of 1990’s. As a writer, producer, actor and director, Tarantino’s works have been so immensely popular right from the moment he was recognized for his film-fest-worthy movie. Known for his talent at intelligently blending elements of pop culture, intense violence, and witty narratives in his films, he has earned critical appraise for his work, the first of which was the 1992 Sundance Film Festival entry, Reservoir Dogs. Pulp Fiction, on the other hand, won the coveted Palme d’Or at the 1994 Cannes Film Festival. Other films such as Jackie Brown, Kill Bill and Death Proof added to his merit, nominations from various award giving bodies such as the Academy, Emmy, BAFTA and Grammy Awards. In a sense, in just over a decade, Tarantino has achieved such great heights with his innate talent and genius.

It is not such a wonder then that his passion for the art of filmmaking took its deep roots early in his life. Having dropped out from high school at 15, he initially pursued an acting career and enrolled in theater classes. The defining moment in his life as a director and film icon, however, came when he found a job at the Manhattan Beach Video Archives in California. With that, Tarantino became, primarily, a film geek. Rapidly becoming a cinephile, he learned about films and cinema from the racks of a video archives and it had helped that he was in an environment where easy discussion of everything cinematic was available. His interests grew and soon he delves not only on the classics but also on the weird, unconventional, and independent film types as well. This opportunity provided avenues for establishing his style and cinematic talent and it also provided for him to meet and establish friendships with fellow film buffs. This has sparked his unending love affair with films and as such, greatly influenced his work

The depth and extent of Tarantino’s knowledge in films is evident in the variety of his film’s inspirations. His postmodern views are rooted from a wide array of films; from blaxploitation films to spaghetti westerns, martial arts films to Japanese samurai movies. His taste in film even transcends culture and race as evident when he cited Filipino directors Eddie Romero, Gerardo de León and Cirio Santiago as his personal movie icons. (Tejero , 2007) Other directors that influenced his work included Brian de Palma, Martin Scorsese, Jean-Luc Goddard  and Sergio Leone. His production company, A Band Apart is named after Goddard’s film, Bande à part. Tarantino’s work is also greatly influenced by the people around him. One of his long time friends, Roberto Rodriguez had a number of collaborations with him. Rodriguez also influenced his style, converting Tarantino from a traditionalist, to digital-film worshipper.

Moreover, the strong fact is, he is so much engrossed, even obsessed, with films that most of his works are ‘borrowed’ heavily from existing films. His, unfortunately unsuccessful work, Four Rooms, was derived from an episode of Alfred Hitchcock Presents. Elmore Leonard’s novel, Rum Punch, is the basis for Jackie Brown. The intro titles to this film reference to the intro titles in The Graduate. His famous unconventional narrative composition was directly influenced by Stanley Kubrick’s The Killing. In his Death Proof, he gives tribute to 1970’s sordid exploitations car chase films. Moreover, the Don Siegel version of The Killers influenced the critically acclaimed Pulp Fiction, and the adrenaline-injection scene was similar to a story in Martin Scorsese’s American Boy: A Profile of Steven Prince. Similarly, lines such as “to work on homes here with a pair of pliers and a blow torch” resemble “You know what kind of people they are. They’ll strip you naked and go to work on you with a pair of pliers and a blowtorch” taken from Charley Varrick, one of Don Siegel film. Samuel L. Jackson, in Pulp Fiction recites a Bible verse that can also be seen in the 1970’s action film Karate Kiba.

Kill Bill, as Steven Rose investigates, has the most heavily referenced movies. The Quentin Tarantino Archives fansite lists around 80 movies that motivated Kill Bill. The fight scene wherein The Bride battles are portrayed as silhouettes is roughly a direct reproduction of a scene in Hiroyuki Nakano’s Samurai Fiction. Some shots are also immensely similar to those in Branded to Kill. Steven Rose adds that three foreign films: the Toshiya Fujita film, Lady Snowblood, Female Convict Scorpion: Jailhouse 41, and the aptly titled Thriller: En Grym Film, from Sweden prefigured Kill Bill’s fundamental theme of victimized women looking for revenge. Lady Snowblood is a swordswoman in the 19th century, seeking justice for the murder of her mother’s husband; Scorpion is an escaped convict seeking to get even with her brutal warden. Thriller is a story of a young, innocent girl turned into a mutilated sex slave, who then exacts retribution on her captors. Tarantino intently used Daryl Hannah’s character’s eye patch as a tribute to Thriller’s heroine. Remarkably, Tarantino has lifted very much from these movies. In particular, Lady Snowblood is virtually the outline of Kill Bill Vol 1. (Rose, 2004)

The sheer number of the movies that influenced Tarantino’s works is overwhelming. As such, Tarantino may be viewed as the hero of marginal films. His work has brought a lot of long-forgotten movies back into the mainstream, paying tribute to them in his works. When asked why he so adored B-grade films to the point of making his movies appear like one, he related that those movies were the films of his youth that he enjoyed so much and that this is his way of “giving back to a generation that had missed that stuff.” (Tejero, 2007)

On the other hand, the various similarities of Tarantino’s films with other movies create a sense of unease in other people. He may be seen as just a mere copycat who cannot put up anything that is entirely his own, and thus resorts to mere aggregates of films that have long been buried in people’s memories. However one may see it, Tarantino’s works, are undeniably, wildly original, if not in the cinematic stories or ideas, then at least in the wonderful craft of the films themselves.

.           Tarantino is so adept at his craft that he is able to spin stories in popular culture, with extreme violence and sharp dialogues all enmeshed in each other. And he does so with flair and with an uncanny ability of making low-budget films into high quality, wildly entertaining movies. His nonlinear, splintered narratives and artistic portrayal of extreme violence simply work. His style earned him an adjective ‘Tarantino-esque’ which has become an embodiment for both pop culture and popular postmodern cinema. Tarantino-esque has sometimes become synonymous to ‘postmodernism’ especially for film journalists. Tarantino’s dedication to postmodernism is apparent in his obscuring the cultural limits, especially those between exploitation and mainstream films, and between genres, such as the From dusk ‘til dawn’s mid-movie change from crime thriller to horror film. Tarantino also sprinkles his works with various intertextual references. These may be seen through discussions, either internal or explicit of reference subjects such as in the discussion of Madonna in Reservoir Dogs. Another aspect makes use of props and character situations to reference; like simply putting John Travolta up for a dance competition in Pulp Fiction reminds audiences of Saturday Night Fever. (Tasker, 2002)

All these and more make Tarantino an exceptional figure in cinema, extremely influential in his art. Beyond the cinematography and artistic techniques, however, lie themes that are recurrent on his works.

In all or Tarantino’s works, there is a sense of effort in imposing on its audience a more liberal and broad-vision, approach to life. It has not been a struggle. He has created a world where taboos and unacceptable language and behavior are the norm and casualness of life with such panache that the people do not even know what hit them. One example of this is the frequent use of bathroom humor in his works. The characters in Tarantino’s films spend much of their time in bathrooms and in doing so, “the bathroom acquires a dramatic centrality in his work” (Willis, 1997). Where most films use the bathroom as mere snippets and as an element of private reclusion and unimportant sentiment, Tarantino fills his work with countless scenes and dialogues about and taken in bathrooms. In a sense, he aims to present to his viewers not a polished view of the world, but the actual unadulterated perspective, right to its very bare essentials. “It links affective release with getting caught unawares and exposed.” (Willis, 1997). In Pulp Fiction, John Travolta’s character was killed when he was caught with his pants down, an evident metaphor that illustrates how much people would avoid being stripped bare. To stretch it a bit, it is a metaphor that depicts how people protect themselves from being vulnerable; that their core beliefs and principles may not be shattered by mere bombardment of all things unusual and the exposure of the forbidden.

            The aestheticization of violence has been a central theme in Tarantino’s movies. Most of his films have three or more characters pointing guns at each other simultaneously. His films have massive amounts of blood making scenes graphically violent; all done in an artistic sense. His portrayal of violence is known for its macabre humor and seemingly casual treatment. Because of this, he is widely criticized. To these disapprovals, however, he answers, “Sure, Kill Bill’s a violent movie. But it’s a Tarantino movie. You don’t go to see Metallica and ask the fuckers to turn the music down.”

            In a way, the violence and brutality has become intertwined with the concept of African American culture. The African American impact is evident in much of Tarantino’s work, perhaps more than Asian culture, which is seen in the Kill Bill movies. He pays tribute to references to blaxploitation movies and soul music in his films. Soundtracks of Tarantino’s early work had mostly African American music. However, Tarantino has been condemned for an extremely casual attitude towards other cultures. Spike Lee questions the presence of racist epithets such as the word “nigger” in various Tarantino works such as Death Proof, True Romance, Reservoir Dogs, Jackie Brown and Pulp Fiction. Tarantino has defended his side, saying that black people appreciate his blaxploitation-influenced works and that Jackie Brown was primarily made for “black audiences.” (Wooton, 1998) Moreover, his construction of a world in which African American masculinity is composed of casual interpretations of racial references. In Reservoir Dogs, one particularly comedic scene involves that of a confusion in naming and color. Joe Cabot gives his men aliases such as the hilarious Pink, Brown, Orange, White, Blue and Blonde. Cabot attests to his naming them instead of them picking their own names. He explains, “Put four guys in a room and let them pick their own colors, everyone wants to be Mr. Black.” In this sense, Tarantino achieves to depict black as something desired and coveted, with white only as something almost equally desirable. (Willis, 1997)

His portrayal of ‘cool’ has also been the major premise of his work. Quentin Tarantino is enthralled with the iconic pop culture and depiction of coolness. His films tend to delve into the world of the cool, their origins and reputations, wonderfully fashioned in a masterpiece of rich images in popular culture. Through his “cool gaze” portrayal of things, otherwise unacceptable, the audience is enmeshed in an entertaining, enjoyable experience when they see his work. Tarantino uses words such as “nigger” and themes like homophobia and sadomasochism by turning them into an acceptable norm, something cool and hip. He infuses macabre humor for added effect and appreciation. The intelligent dialogues play a great effect on this. The opening monolog in Kill Bill puts it, “Do you find me sadistic? I bet I could fry an egg on your head about now, if I wanted to. No kiddo, I’d like to believe, even now, you’re aware enough to know there isn’t a trace of sadism in my actions… Okay — Maybe towards these other jokers — but not you …No Kiddo, at this moment… this is me at my most masochistic.” The “cool gaze” is Tarantino’s approach to upsetting and dejecting social conventions, of getting his audiences to think and reassess their personal beliefs and values. (Gleason, 2004)

In his first films, an absence of women and their feminist authority is evident, consequently having majority of his fans as young males. The absence of women in Reservoir Dogs and the intense violence may offend his women viewers who are more sensitive to blood and gore than the adrenaline-addicted and conflict-loving men. (Willis, 1997) The masculinity of Tarantino’s films however got toned down with time and the emergence of Kill Bill proved it so. The theme of dominant and brutal women perhaps may be defining elements of his work. Tarantino’s Kill Bill is the unbelievable tale of The Bride, a woman who challenges and defeats patriarchal authority. The protagonist Beatrix Kiddo is even saved from the difficulties and discomfort of going into labor in giving birth, something that is seen as a divine punishment imposed upon Eve; a story wherein patriarchal supremacy is somehow rooted from. The film may be viewed as an ideological vision of feminism and the way women exact retribution from their oppressors. As Robin Gleason puts it, “the Kill Bill saga deals with the process of creation — it is a sombre ballad about the artistic agency of an auteur in a postmodern world.” (Gleason, 2004)

The great impact Quentin Tarantino has made on films and audiences has undeniably revolutionized the world of cinema. His appeal that stems from his intense love of film transcends all boundaries of time and ethnicity, his themes highly universal. From the onset, when Reservior Dogs came out, the film industry has seen the increasing power and influence of Quentin Tarantino. His passion for what he does translates to his works, his films, his audiences. Tarantino relates, “It’s not like having a different Mount Everest to climb I just have to be good enough to climb the same Mount Everest again, and again, and again. I’m kind-of making the same movie again, and again, and again. But the thing is, it’s not about looking for a different mountain, it’s just having the energy and the tenacity to just keep climbing the mountain. Again, and again, and again.” (Utichi, c. 2008) He could not have said it any better.

List of References

Gleason, Robin (2004) The Unbearable Lightness of Being Cool: Appropriation and

Prospects of Subversion in the Works of Quentin Tarantino [online]

<http://www.brightlightsfilm.com/45/toilets.htm>

Rose, Steve (2004) Found: where Tarantino gets his ideas, The Guardian, [online]

<http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/2004/apr/06/features.dvdreviews>

Tasker, Yvonne (2002) Fifty Contemporary Filmmakers, Routledge

Tejero, Constantino (2007) Tarantino raves over Pinoy B-movies, Philippine Daily Inquirer

Utichi, Joe. (c. 2008) Focus On: Tarantino Talks, [online]

<http://www.filmfocus.co.uk/focuson.asp?FocusID=3>

Willis, Sharon (1997) High Contrast: Race and Gender in Contemporary Hollywood Film,

Duke University Press

Wooton, Adrian (1998) “Quentin Tarantino interview (III) with Pam Grier, Robert Forster

and Lawrence Bender”, The Guardian. [online]

<http://www.guardian.co.uk/film/1998/jan/05/quentintarantino.guardianinterviewsatbfisouthbank>

 

Defining given society considers appropriate for men

Defining gender as the socially constructed
roles, behaviors, activities, and attributes that a given society considers
appropriate for men and women and gender based violence as any act that results in or is
likely to result in physical, sexual or psychological harm and suffering to
women including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of
liberty whether occurring in public or private life,

 

Recalling
Article
1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which states that “Human beings
are born free and equal in dignity and rights”, Article 2 of the Universal
declaration of Human Rights which states that “all human beings have equal
rights and that no discrimination should be carried out based on gender in
enjoyment of those rights” Article 3 states “All human beings have the right of
life, right to liberty and right to security”,

 

Noting that in December 1993, the United
Nations General Assembly passed a resolution 48/104 which recognized the urgent
need for the universal application to the rights and principles of women regarding
equality, security, liberty, integrity and dignity of all human beings,
 

Further noting that those rights and principles
are enshrined in international instruments, including the Convention on the
Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of
Discrimination against Women, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the International
Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the Convention against
Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment,

 

Alarmed by the social causes of gender based
violence, including the discriminatory patriarchal mindset of the general
populace, gender norms being established and accepted within a society and
inherent discrimination passed from the parents to the children in a family,

 

Aware of the legislative causes of gender
based violence, including loopholes in legislations allowing perpetrators to
walk away with relatively lower punishments, inefficient reporting systems
which leads to the crime not being reported and improper implementation of
international conventions,

 

Deeply Concerned that some groups of women such as
women belonging to minority groups, indigenous women, migrant women, refugee
women, women living in rural or remote communities, destitute women, women with
disabilities and women in situations of armed conflict are vulnerable to
violence,

 

Recognizing the deplorable condition of female
prisoners as they are denied fundamental rights and the hierarchy which exists
in prisons allows the prison guards to induce gender violence without
accountability,

 

Alarmed at the current situation in USA and
hoping to rectify it,

 

1.      Urges states to sign and ratify the Convention on Elimination of
all forms of Discrimination Against Women;

 

2.      Reaffirms the General Assembly resolution 61/143, passed on December
2006, on the intensification of efforts to eliminate all forms of violence
against women;

 

3.      Recommends the need for proper implementation of the rights of women,
as provided to them by aforementioned documents;

 

4.      Affirms the distinction between the forms of gender based violence
through,

a.       The element of contact;

i. Contact gender violence: The infliction of physical harm
which may result in psychological harms as well;

ii. Non-contact gender violence: Not involving physical
infliction of harm, usually resulting in only psychological harms;

b.      The medium through which it is
carried out;

i. Domestic violence which usually occurs in the confinement
of the victim’s own home and since the perpetrator is the victim’s partner, it
would usually result in problems with reporting;

ii. Gender based violence carried out through external parties
not related to the victim;

iii. Gender based violence by the government and state
officials which usually involves non-contact violence through discriminatory
legislation;

 

5.      Further recommends the framework E for E (Education for Eradication) which
would operate under the following mandate;

a.       It would operate under the national
government in a nation;

b.      It would serve as a national organization
with state appointed officials to carry out its actions;

c.       It would strive to eliminate gender
based violence existing against women through,

i. Education through mass communication so both women and
men are made aware of their responsibilities to promote and practice gender
equality,

ii. Campaigns that aim to show that neither females nor
males are superior or inferior to one another;

iii. Raising awareness in the public pertaining to the harms
of discrimination;

iv. Raising awareness of the harms of forced marriage and
child marriage to put an end to it;

d.      It would further strive to provide
educational awareness to the general populace, including but not limited to;

i. Awareness about the physical and psychological harms of
gender based violence and other forms of sexual abuse against children;

ii. Awareness on the importance of reporting such crimes so
that the perpetrators are identified and can be prosecuted;

iii. Informal educational sessions for the poor and illiterate
groups in a post conflict nation;

e.       Youth exchange programs may be used
in countries specifically for indigenous women with high rates of
discrimination in coordination with countries with low rates of discrimination;

f.       Scholarships should be given to deserving
women;

g.      Establish protection units in
schools, telephone helplines and other means by which females can report abuse;

h.      Ensure that girls have safe access
to and from and within the schools, being mindful of location of the schools
and providing safe travel arrangements or security;

i.       
It
would also strive for the provision of free and compulsory elementary education
for 6 years for every single child who is a resident of the state and would
encourage member states to increase access to secondary and post-secondary
education to improve literacy rates among women;

i.  Collaboration with
United Nations Children’s Emergency Fund and United Nations Educational,
Scientific and Cultural Organization to help with the implementation of this in
developing nations and underdeveloped nations;

 

6.      Endorses that member states may voluntarily provide financial
support to funds, such as the Fund for Gender Equality which focuses on
economic and political empowerment for women, the United Nations Trust Fund to
End Violence against Women, the United Nations Voluntary Fund,
the United Nations Fund for Indigenous People that address women in
post-conflict zones,

a.       Economically developed countries may
give loans with less interest to economically less developed countries to
rectify the economic problems pertaining to gender based violence;

b.      This will enhance efforts to prevent
gender based violence;

c.       This will ensure protection and
promotion of human rights;

 

7.      Requests governments to sanction crackdowns on hotspots where gender
based violence is concentrated such as refugee camps with Internally Displaced
People to abolish the act and prosecute the perpetrators;

 

8.      Recommends the following framework to be used to
cater to the healthcare problems faced by victims;

a.       Formation of
HFA (Healthcare for All) and funding from UN to be used to cater to the
healthcare issued of victims;

b.      A separate department
of physical and mental health to be established;

c.       Cognitive development
programs to be set up to help child victims recover from direct or indirect
violence;

d.      Training
to be provided to help bring children of victims who are psychologically
disturbed;

 

9.      Recommends that all member states should provide at least 12 weeks of
paid maternal leave to all individuals belonging to the state;

 

10.  Emphasizes on the fact that both contact and non-contact gender
violence different forms of the same crime, and that;

a.       Contact violence is the more
aggravated form and so the punishment should be comparatively harsher;

b.      Sentences for the aforementioned
crimes should be decided by the state governments or the national government;

 

11.  Recommends the provision of women with access to legal representation,
they should also be equal before law in regards to punishment and that could
give them opportunities to present their capabilities;

 

12.  Suggests member states to make law enforcement more responsive to
violence against women;

 

13.  Affirms the following policy;

a.       Emphasizes upon the fact that due to
not only their biological differences but their gender specific roles in the
society with regards to previous security council (resolutions 1325 and 1820),
both males and females should be systematically addressed differently;

b.      Social, Cultural and especially
Religious practices and norms, such as “Sati” and the child marriages should be
gradually eliminated;

c.       Non-state actors and the media
should play an essential role by;

i. The media should promote the education system, as the
rehabilitation and education of the society would demote the idea of gender
inequality and promote multicultural equality, with regards to gender;

ii. The spread of unreported gender based violence through
the public domain media, in respect to their anonymity to eliminate the fear of
the perpetrator;

 

14.  Endorses the Rehabilitation and Reintegration of Victims (RRV)
framework for the survivors of gender violence which would work under the
following mandate;

a.       An RRV committee should be formed
nationally in all member states, which would be directly under the government
and so it will be run by state appointed officials;

b.      Its first phase would consist of
Rehabilitation;

i. Rehabilitation clinics should be set up around the
country which specialize in the diseases and harms faced by victims of gender
violence including but not limited to, genital mutilation, sexually transmitted
diseases, physical torture, scarring, beatings and unwanted pregnancies;

ii. Concentration of these rehabilitation clinics in refugee
camps;

iii. The standard for the medical care that will be provided
in these clinics should be set by the World Health Organization;

c.       The second phase will consist of
Reintegration;

i. Psychiatrists should be made available in these Clinics
to provide therapeutic care to deal with the psychological trauma that the
victims of gender violence face, including but not limited to, post-traumatic
stress disorder, anxiety and eating disorders;

 

15. 
Recognizes discrimination in employment areas
on the following tiers;

a. Discrimination in recruitment, even when they have the
merit to do the job;

b. Wage gap between men and women performing the same task;

c. Glass ceiling which does allow women to get promotions;

 

16.  Suggests the corporations in a nation to provide men and women, in
the same jobs with equal pays in regards to their post, also there should be
meritocracy based recruitment processes, failure to do so should result in a
fine being imposed on these corporations;

 

17.  Further suggests the International community to provide reassurances of
their international labor laws by confining to International Labor Organization
Convention which focuses upon the;

a.      
Prohibition of forced labor;

b.     
child labor;

c.      
the right to organize in a trade union;

d.     
and suffer no discrimination;

 

18.  Recommends that reporting may be improved through;

a.       Complete anonymity for reporters;

b.      Easy modes of reporting;

c.       Accessibility to survivors, witness
and different state and non-state institutions if the state permits them;

d.      Report needs to be submitted to
United Nations Human Rights Council for analyzing the different effects and
problems regarding gender based violence;

 

19.  Recognizes the need for immediate action to combat gender violence in
post conflict zones,

a.       Systematically agrees upon the
violence inflicted upon all female refugees;

b.      Establishes the need for the
establishment of health centers in these conflict zones in collaboration with
the World Health Organization, which tends to both physical and psychological
health issues;

c.       Suggests that governments may work
in collaboration with the World Bank to help in the establishment of
rehabilitation centers and health institutes;

 

20.  Understands the need for major reforms in prisons to stop gender
violence against women,

a.       Segregation of male and female
prisoners;

b.      Infrastructural reforms in prisons
such as;

i. Improved prison conditions and separate prison cells and
toilets for all prisoners;

ii. Better sanitary conditions in
the prison compounds;

c.       Female gynecologists should be
present inside the prisons that cater to pregnant women;

d.      The wardens and administration for
the female section of the prisons should be female;

e.       Provision of better standard of food
for the prisoners;

f.       Provision of proper clothes and
services;

g.      Provision of feminine utilities and
toiletries throughout the female block monthly to cater to their biological
feminine needs;

h.      Installing monitors and CCTV cameras
throughout the female block;

 

21.  Suggests
member states to allow abortion only consensually within the first 24 weeks of
pregnancy, exceptions may be made like based on state laws;

 

22.  Acknowledges the fact that state discriminatory laws are an obstacle to
respond and prevent gender based violence and it needs to be diminished as soon
as possible;

 

23. 
Recommends that all the obstacles like
traditional norms, religious fundamentalism and social customs needs to be
diminished gradually by the state sovereignty in mind;

 

24. 
Affirms that role of International
Non-Governmental Organizations are important stakeholders in eliminating gender
based violence;

 

25. 
Further invites the international community in the
encouragement of United Kingdom National Action Plan on Women, Peace and
Security 2018 to 2022 that aims to;

a.       Fulfill women’s human rights within
the developed states;

b.      Achieve gender equality;

c.       Assist women whilst building more
stable society;

 

26. 
Recognizes that political representation of
women is a dire need for stability and peace in a region thereby, encourages;

a.  Greater political representation in
the legislature;

b. Local governments representation;

 

27.  Recommends that forms of gender based violence like honor killings,
female genital mutilation, acid throwing, forced marriages, dowry issues and female
specific infanticide should be dealt with decisiveness;

 

28.  Reaffirms that domestic violence is a heinous form of crime in gender
based violence;

a.  Rapid response by the police;

b. Hotlines need to be made;

c.  Media may play a role for awareness;

d. Educational institutions should also
provide awareness;

e.  Survivors and witnesses should be
given protection;

f.  Financial and legal assistance to
the victims could be given by the state;

 

29.  Notes that illegal immigration causes sexual exploitation and
financial dependency which needs to be rectified from transparent and legal
immigration;

 

30.  Recommends that important personalities may be incentivized by member
states to raise the awareness about gender based violence;

 

31.  Aims
to remain actively seized on this matter.

In and his mother, Mama, for the

In the play A Raisin in the Sun, the audience is immersed into the lives of the Youngers, an African American family that struggles in finding a place in society where they belong. The primary focus of this play is The American Dream, and throughout the play the audience gets to see what each character considers to be a better life. A primary example for this would be Walter Lee, he struggles to accomplish his dream and inclinations, yet, he also serves as a hero and villain due to the actions that he takes to reach his goal. Walter’s main dream is to be the sole provider for his family and being able to provide a better life for each of them. “Walter: I been married eleven years and I got a boy who sleeps in the living room…. And all I got to give him are stories about how rich white people live…” (Hansberry 34). Due to the segregation that was intertwined with society in the 1950s, Walter cannot provide the same privileges to his family that white men provide for their families. Walter’s plan for being able to provide for his family is to invest on a liquor store with the insurance money that Big Walter left for Mama after he passed away, but little did Walter know that it would be the most regretful choice that he’s made. “The more familiar irony of the Youngers’ poverty is obvious enough: their deprivations expose the gap between the American Dream and the Black American reality.” (Brown 241). The critic, Brown, shows how the race of some people can deprive them in achieving the American Dream, pointing out how it is not for everyone, which is a misunderstanding.The authority figure and person with the most power in the Youngers family was constantly in changing hands. In A Raisin in the Sun, the audience is shown the struggle between Walter and his wife, Ruth, and Walter and his mother, Mama, for the power and authority in the Youngers household. In Act one of the play, Walter oversteps Ruth’s authority just to aggravate her and demonstrate his power as head of the family.

IntroductionGlobal body than we will feel better

IntroductionGlobal warming, also referred to as climate change, is the rise in the average temperature of the Earth’s climate system and its related effects. Multiple lines of scientific evidence show that the climate system is warming. The effects of global warming can be can be catastrophic to the world as we know it. Global warming can impact the society in many ways, some of the ways it can affect society are through the change of temperatures, sea levels rising, and the quality of the air we breathe. Some of the changes that I would want to see are things like companies beginning to show that they are trying to stop polluting into the environment by trying to cut down on the amount of greenhouse gases that they emit. This issue is very important for us to look at since if we do not change the amount of greenhouse gases that we are emitting than the world will start to become uninhabitable. The earth is like a human body if we take good care of our body than we will feel better but if we treat our body like trash than we will start to feel like trash.Global Warming BackgroundGlobal Warming is happening everywhere we look since this will affect all parts of the world from the middle of Africa to Antarctica. The people involved in global warming is everyone since everyone can help to stop global warming. On the other hand, a lot of people neglect the effects of global warming as they do not care to try and help stop polluting the environment. There are many major concerns that are associated with global warming, some of them are rising sea levels and increased coastal flooding, longer and more damaging wildfire seasons, more destructive hurricanes, and more frequent and intense heat waves. If these things begin to happen the world as we know it will begin to change, water will flood most places and the amount of habitable land will begin to shrink and then we will have an overpopulation problem. The awareness of global warming began in 1896 when a scientist by the name Svante Arrhenius calculated the effect of a doubling atmospheric carbon dioxide would increase surface temperatures by five to six degrees Celsius. Even though his calculations showed that increasing the levels of carbon dioxide would increase the surface temperature no one did anything about it since they did not believe that it would hurt the environment or society. It wasn’t until the 1970’s when the media began to start to talk about some of the effects of global warming. This began to make people aware of what global warming and climate change really was and what it could possibly do to our environment. This problem still occurs in our society now because of how long we have taken to realize what global warming is and what it can do, and how long it has taken to realize the effects of global warming. For example, The Kyoto Protocol is an international treaty which extends the 1992 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) that commits countries to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This treaty only had a commitment for 4 years where countries had to reduce greenhouse gas emissions which is not really a long time, especially if we want to start seeing significant changes. Another problem is that people do not put in enough effort to see a significant change. For instance, the pollution from driving everywhere, smoking, and landfills are heavily impacting the environment if we were able to cut down our pollution on things like that we would start to begin seeing changes that would help put an end to global warming. Efforts to Address Global WarmingCanada continues to work with its global partners to address climate change. For example, Canada played an active and positive role in negotiating the Paris Agreement under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Canada is also a part of other international organizations and initiatives that help to reduce global GHG emissions. For example, Canada is a founding partner and major financial contributor to the Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC), an international, voluntary initiative aimed at reducing pollutants (SLCPs) such as black carbon. In addition, Canada chaired the Arctic Council in 2013–2015. Under Canada’s chairmanship, the Arctic Council started the Task Force for Action on Black Carbon and Methane. The Task Force secured an agreement by Arctic States and the participating Observer States to significantly reduce overall methane emissions. One way in which Canada helps to advance global efforts is to address climate change by supporting adaptation of renewable energy in developing countries, through climate finance. For example, in 2014, Canada pledged $300 million to the Green Climate Fund, a global fund that provides support to developing countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and to adapt to the impacts of climate change. This funding builds on Canada’s previous investment of $1.2 billion under the Fast-Start Financing Initiative that has supported adaptation, clean energy, and sustainable forestry and agriculture projects in more than 65 developing countries. In 2015, Canada committed to contributing $150 million to the G7 African Renewable Energy Initiative, a plan to bring 10 gigawatts (GW) of renewable energy to the continent by 2020. Offering access to affordable and renewable energy services can play a huge role in relieving poverty and stopping global warming. There are also international agreements like the Paris agreement and the Kyoto agreement. These agreements involve most countries around the world to lower the amount of greenhouses gases they emit every year to try to help the environment.Suggestions to Help Stop Global WarmingThere are many great ways to help stop global warming, one of them is global warming initiatives with the governments to help stop global warming. Some of the initiatives are things like renewable resources, recycling programs, and public transit. Renewable resources are one of the initiatives that governments should try to put into place. Some renewable resources are things like solar energy, wind energy, biomass, and geothermal energy. Use of these types of energy will help stop global warming since it will reduce the amount of pollution from burning fossil fuels and we will also never run out of renewable energy. Countries should also start making funds where they invest money into green energies. Another thing they can do is things like encouraging recycling and compost so that less waste will be put into landfills. To do this they should start doing things like always having unlimited recycling, and putting a limit on garbage or fining people that put out too much garbage a week. In addition, they could start to fine people who put out vast amounts of garbage every week and give people tax rebates who put out a lot of recycling each week. Public transit is also another thing the government can do to help reduce the amount of pollution happening in the country. Public transit will help since it will cut down the amount of cars that are producing carbon dioxide and instead of one person per car you could have 20 people on one bus. One idea that I have to help stop global warming would be to put a limit on every corporation/companies greenhouse gas emissions. Then if they exceed those limits you should give them a heavy fine, that is enough that companies would try to stop polluting. Also, if the company keeps exceeding the greenhouse gas emissions they should be shut down, no matter how large or popular the company is. ConclusionIn conclusion, if we do not start to reduce the amount of pollution that we as humans emit into the environment we could start to see catastrophic changes to the earth as we know it. Some of the ways we can start to help stop global warming are by doing things like using renewable resources, recycling, public transit, and coming together as a nation to decrease the amount of greenhouse gases we emit every year. Since we want to start to see significant changes in the amount of greenhouse gases that are being emitted every year by having companies, corporations and citizens reduce the amount of pollution they are emitting.

When murder is defined by the FBI

When
people hear the word serial killer they think of an isolated, mentally ill,
Caucasian man who carries out a minimum of 10 sadistic homicides. (1) However, this misconception
is very far from the truth. A serial murder is defined by the FBI as ‘three or
more separate events with an emotional cooling-off period between homicides.’ (2) This definition shows
that the idea that for an individual to be a serial killer they have to kill at
least 10 victim is not accurate. However, not all murderers who kill three or
more victims are necessarily serial killers (2). For an individual to be
considered a serial killer, according to The National Institute of Justice,
they often have to carry out their crimes with a ‘psychological motive and
sadistic sexual overtones’ (3).  

A
psychological motive is a ‘state of physiological or psychological arousal
which influences how we behave’ (4). An example of a
psychological motive is sex drive (5). This is a biological
motive that is a result of the secretion of certain hormones such as androgens
and estrogens and it is these hormones which motive us to fulfil these urges (5).  Many serial killers often have very dark
fantasies about sex that include violence and often murder (6).  These dark sexual fantasies are often the
result of violent fantasies, which are often due to psychosocial factors such
as neglect and abuse as a child, becoming combined with masturbation (6).  Psychosocial factors are influences that
affect a person psychologically or socially’ (7).  They are a result of the combination of mood
status (anxiety, depression etc.), cognitive behavioural responses
(self-esteem, self-efficiency) and social factors (socioeconomic status,
family, education etc.) (7).Eventually, serial killers will get to a stage
where they need to act out their fantasies (6)  due to their need to satisfy their sexual
urges. It is often after this initial murder that causes a serial killer to
develop a need to kill, as they have discovered how to act out their secret
fantasies and crave to experience the fantasy again (6).

Psychosocial
factors often impact the formation of many psychological motives. ‘However,
it’s not just psychosocial factors that impact the formation of a serial
killer, some psychologist’s estimate that up to 60% of what influences a serial
killer are biological factors. (7). These biological
factors can include factors such as hormones, brain functioning, genes and
neurochemistry. An example of one of these factors is psychopathy. Psychopathy
is defined as a ‘mental disorder in which an individual manifests amoral and
antisocial behaviour, has a lack of ability to love or establish meaningful
personal relationships, shows signs extreme egocentricity and demonstrates a failure
to learn from experience’ (8). Psychopathic serial
killers will often demonstrate a ‘lack of empathy, guilt and remorse’ for their
crimes (9). This is thought to be
due to the brain of a psychopath appearing to have differences to the average
brain (9). Over a thousand FMRI
scans showed that it was more common in psychopaths for there to be decreased
neural activity in the paralimbic regions of the brain (9). The paralimbic region of
the brain is involved with ‘moral reasoning, emotional memory and inhibition’ (9).  Throughout this essay I will be discussing
whether serial killers are born or bred by exploring both the biological and
psychosocial factors and weighing up which has the greater impact as well as
seeing how they overlap.

The
MAOA gene causes synthesis of the enzyme monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and breaks
down molecules called monoamines (10).  Some of the monoamines broken down are
chemicals that act as neurotransmitters (10) . Furthermore, MAO-A
is positioned in the outer mitochondrial membrane in the presynaptic terminal
of the monoamine neurons so that it can regulate the amount available for
release of intracellular substrates as well the likelihood that a monoamine
neurotransmitter will be fired across the synapse (11).Neurotransmitters are
chemicals in the brain that transfer information throughout the body and brain (12) by transmitting
signals between the nerve cells in the brain (10).  These neurotransmitters are broken down when
the signalling is no longer required (10). The
neurotransmitters that monoamine oxidase A is involved in the breakdown include
serotonin, epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamine (10).  Serotonin regulates mood, emotion, sleep and
appetite (10). The signals that
are transmitted by epinephrine and norepinephrine control the body’s response
to stress (10). Dopamine enables
the body to produce smooth physical movements (10).MAO-A is also
involved in the prenatal development of the brain as it helps control the
process of apoptosis, the process of controlled self- destruction of cells,
which is a key aspect in the development of tissues and organs (10).  

To Kill a Mockingbird Prejudice Essay

To Kill a Mockingbird

William Hazlitt once said “Prejudice is the child of ignorance”. In To Kill a Mockingbird the author, Harper Lee, illustrates this idea through real life events. The three main types of prejudice are racial, social and gender. As Scout and Jem mature they both see all the evil that is in their small, old town of Maycomb, Alabama. In Maycomb the same families have been living there for a long time so the same families are passing on their ignorance generation to generation causing the prejudice that affects so many people in the town. Prejudice is driven by ignorance.

At the beginning of To Kill a Mockingbird we are introduced to a character that no one knows, Boo Radley. He is a mysterious figure that Scout, Jem and Dill are intrigued to see. Jem and Scout had heard rumors of Boo Radley from people, they said he was a malevolent phantom, that he went out when it was dark and commited small crimes and ate squirrels and and anything else he could catch. Jem would always run across the sidewalk when passing the Radley place on his way to school. Jem and Scout were scared out of ignorance, they believed everything they heard from other people but never actually had a hint of any knowledge about Boo Radley or why never comes out of his house. They start to receive gifts from Boo although they don’t know it right away because it was in the knot of an old tree by the Radley lot. They continue to receive gifts such as a spelling bee medal and two soap dolls but one day when Jem was going to check the tree he saw Mr. Radley filling the knot with cement. Jem was very sentimental about this because he thought that Mr Radley was being cruel to Boo, not letting him communicate with anybody. This is when the children began to believe that Boo was not the ghost that he believed to be.

Secondly is the case against Tom Robinson. Tom Robinson, a Negro, was accused of raping a white woman, Mayella Ewell who is the daughter of Bob Ewell the nastiest man in Maycomb. During the trial Atticus, the defendants lawyer, asks Heck Tate about Mayellas injuries, he says that she had been beaten and bruised, with a black eye on the right side of her face. Atticus then asks Bob Ewell to write his name on an envelope. Bob Ewell does as he is told and Atticus notices that he is left handed. This proves that Tom Robinson could not have beat her because he cannot even move his left arm because he got it caught in a cotton gin when he was twelve. If Bob Ewell was left handed it would make perfect sense that he could have beat Mayella and bruised her right eye. It also makes sense with Tom Robinson’s story.

That Mayella was trying to hug him and kiss him and Bob Ewell saw her and beat her because it was the lowest thing a white person could do, kiss a black man. All the evidence was there and against Bob Ewell but when the jury came out, they said Tom was guilty. This an example of racial prejudice, just because the colour of the man convicted of rape was black the jury said he was guilty due to ignorance. It would be almost blasphemous to let a black man walk away from any crime he was accused of committing; the jury ignored all the evidence simply because Tom Robinson was black.

Lastly is the gender prejudice that comes up frequently during the events in this book. The most specific or main event showing gender prejudice is after the trial. Jem asked Atticus why people like them and Miss. Maudie could not serve in the jury. Atticus told Jem that Miss. Maudie could not serve in the trial because she was a woman. Scout was quite confused with why women could not be in the jury. This is an example of gender prejudice because men are too ignorant to realize that woman are equal or even acknowledge the fact that they can choose to act how they please, not follow the stereotypical or traditional way of how to act like a woman or dress like one. There are many more examples of gender prejudice but this is the only example that directly states and shows it.

Through all of Jem and Scouts journey they have experienced many types of prejudice and have tryed to deal with them. The root of prejudice is the ignorance. Ignorance of narrow minded people who assume things without having any knowledge of the matter. I do not know if there is a way to stop prejudice but in Chapter 3 Atticus tells Scout “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view . . . until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.” This means that you should not assume things about a person until you actually try to understand and see things from their perspective.

In of Classical and Medieval Artists, books

In the Renaissance Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press which impacted Europe. The most important consequences of the printing press were spread of ideas, weakening of the Catholic Church and the development of education. One of the most important consequences of the printing press was spread of ideas. The invention of the printing press contributed to the spreading of Humanistic ideas and the revival of classical literature. In a list of Important Works of Classical and Medieval Artists, books from authors of different periods were being printed; all books were printed during the Renaissance and were examples of classical literature (document 6).Desiderius Erasmus also used the printing press to spread humanistic ideas when his book the “Praise of Folly” was spread across Europe. The invention of the printing press also helped spread ideas because it increased literacy, books were cheaper and easier to print. In a graph showing Prices and Quantities of Printed Books in England between 1495 and 1639,  it can be observed that book editions and volumes are increasing and they are cheaper (document 4). Due to the facility the printing press was offering, many authors such as William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe started sharing their ideas and thoughts with the society and that way they increased the number of literature and creative pieces. Through increasing the literacy among people and rebirth of classical and medieval literature, the printing press contributed to spread of Humanistic ideas, helped people gain essential knowledge and making the access of the materials easier. Another crucial consequence of the printing press in Renaissance was weakening of the Catholic Church. The invention of Johannes Gutenberg caused a disruption in Christianity and made the church hard to exercise its control over the society. In an article named “The Printing Revolution in Early Modern Europe” written by Elizabeth Elsenslen in 1983, it is illustrated the tension which the invention of the printing press brought to the society. Elsenslen explains that the printing press had a harmful impact over the people by causing a religious warfare (document #1).  By creating pieces of literature which claimed that the individual has to determine his/her own actions not the church, Sir Thomas More also expresses the idea that the church is not in control of the society. The printing press also contributed to weakening the Catholic church by causing people to become protestants. A map representing the different types of religions in Europe during 1560 shows that most of the people in Europe are protestants whose views on the religion are in a contrast with these of Catholic Church (document #2). Between Protestants and Catholics arose a conflict since both of the communities were using the printing press to influence the public – the Protestants were printing revolutionary books whereas the Catholics – anti-Reformation materials. Due to the invention of the printing press tensions in Christianity occurred. Making the books more accessible and filling them with facts and knowledge about the world caused people to lessen the importance of Church and God. By providing people with scientific facts about the world’s existence, the society started to weaken the impact of the Catholic church.The final most important consequence of the printing press  over the society in Europe is the development of education. The printing press had a positive impact helping the education develop faster and easier  through the foundation of universities. A map picturing the different universities found in Europe throughout the centuries illustrates that when the printing press was invented the number of the universities became greater than previous centuries (document #3). The different universities offered to the students multiple types of information since with printing press people were able to translate any book into a different language. The Gutenberg’s invention also made the books more accessible and increased their importance by providing people with knowledge and new ideas. A list created by Charles Coulston Gillespie representing Isaac Newton’s Bookshelf shows the books by famous authors supplying Newton with the needed knowledge and giving him ideas in order to be The Father of the Scientific Revolution (document #5). Many books by well known professors or scientists giving essential information were reborn with the assistance of the printing press. The foundation of such a great amount of universities and providing people with textbooks and information made the development of education one of the most influential consequences of the printing press, The big number of universities helped people to develop themselves in multiple directions and extend their knowledge and their point of view. During the Renaissance Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press which showed great influence on people’s everyday life. It contributed to the spread of ideas by increasing the volumes and number of editions and making them cheaper and more massive. Also, it weakened the impact of the Catholic Church over the society by providing people with more information about the existence of the world. Finally it developed the sphere of education by making more literature pieces and textbooks available and by founding great amount of universities which helped people to advance their knowledge and abilities.

Starting Do you have the attributes of

Starting your own business is an excellent decision, but you should make sure that it’s worth buying your time and most likely some of your money too. Here is a small list of questions to help you evaluate if this, in fact, is the right move for you:•    Are you passionate enough? You are leaving to spend many hours working on that particular something, so you quite enjoy it.•    Have you nailed the industrial aspect of it? Depending on what type of industry you decide, make sure that you have more than just the basics down. •    Do you have the attributes of an entrepreneur? Such as perseverance, a strong desire to take the initiative, self-reliance, a strong urge to achieve, self-confidence and the capacity to lead (The goal is that your business will grow one day). •    Do you have excellent conversation skills? Running a business means a lot of networking, assigning and maintaining. •    Are you prepared for failure? As much as we’re crossing our fingers here for you, it’s essential that you brace yourself for it.02. Write a marketing planEven if you’re planning on beginning a small doggy daycare in your yard, you should write a business plan. This will help you organize all of the concepts you have in your headline and set up a roadmap for the future of your biz.Don’t ponder about if you should write one, remember how you’ll do it. There are plenty of examples and templates online you can get inspired by, but try to keep these few essential details in mind:•    Industry analysis: How long is the market you’re interested in and how is it expected to change? Who are your opponents and what are each of their key strengths and weaknesses?•    Customer analysis: Who is your target audience?•    Operational plan: What is your idea of action? Do you have a clear timeline? What are the milestones you wish to accomplish? Think regarding years and quarters. •    Financial projections: How much will you require to invest at first? How long till you’ll start earning a profit? Do you need investors?03. Create a strong identity’Don’t judge a book by its case’ doesn’t apply here. As mentioned before, the market is full of different organizations and services, so you need to make sure that you reach out at first glance. Before you go and whip out your box of crayons, you should go back to your business plan and look at your target public. Get familiar with their age, location and economic status as these factors will help you identify what’s the best way to request them, both regarding content and visual language.When creating your identity, you should plan the following:•    Logo – make sure it’s loud and clear. First, try designing your logo to save some initial costs!•    Color – Pick colors that resemble your market and can be identified and easy to relate to.•    Typography – Pick a clear font, as you want people to be able to read all of your content. A stylish yet straightforward font will ensure you have a memorable brand. •    Voice – All of your messaging should follow a unified voice – tailored to the public you have targeted.•    Slogan – Now is a good time to think of a killer one liner that best represents what you do or wants to sell, so “Just Do It.”

Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines Essay

Since 2001 it has been possible in the Netherlands for two men or two women to marry. There are certain differences, however, between same-sex marriage and marriage between a man and a woman. In 2001, the Netherlands became the first country in the world to create the possibility for two men or two women to marry. Since then, over 15,000 gay couples have married. Today, same-sex marriage is possible in nine other countries besides the Netherlands. The state of New York recently passed a law that legalizes same-sex marriages. That means gay and lesbian couples could marry, with legal protection ordinarily granted to male-female couples. Continue reading “Same Sex Marriage in the Philippines Essay”

In and when observing emissions by end-use

In order to come up with any effective mechanism
for carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Indiana, it is first important to understand its
energy sources, emissions, markets and consumption trends. Coal has been the
backbone of Indiana energy with more than 80% of Indiana’s electricity being
generated from coal-fired power plants: in 2015, the state ranked eighth in the
country for coal production and third for coal consumption (EIA, 2017-b). This
availability and usage of coal is one of the factors that has kept electricity
prices relatively low in Indiana, attracting industry to the Midwestern state,
which uses more energy than both the residential and commercial sectors
combined (Dillon & Slaper, 2015). Accordingly, in 2014, the vast majority
of state’s CO2 emissions were caused by electricity generation (66.9%) and
industry (27.8%) (DOE, 2014), and when observing emissions by end-use sector,
electric power remained the leading source with industry and transportation
being the next largest sources (EPA, 2014).

Over the last few years, the state has
diversified its energy portfolio due to environmental regulations on emissions
as well as dropping natural gas prices (Dillon & Slaper, 2015), but its
reliance on coal has caused it to have the eighth-highest carbon emissions in
the U.S. (EIA, 2017-b). In order to address CO2 emissions, there are
various policies that Indiana can implement: these may be market-based, such as
a carbon tax or cap-and-trade, or command-and-control policies, which include
regulations and technology specifications.

 

2.                 
The three options to cut emissions

 

Command-and-Control

Based on Indiana’s energy background,
command-and-control policies would likely regulate power plants or possibly
enforce fuel standards. Regulations regarding power plants and fuel standards
would focus on reducing the carbon intensity of power generators and
transportation fuel, respectively, setting CO2 emissions reductions
targets to be achieved by a certain year. In general, command-and-control
policies are useful when addressing market failures, such as externalities in
the case of emissions, but can be inefficient in terms of which carbon uses
they target: mandates can reduce emissions from high-value uses of carbon when
power plants and energy production are regulated (Lecture B12b, slide 15)
while they should aim to reduce carbon use where willingness to pay is lower
and closer to the social cost of carbon, which has a central estimate of $36
per ton (Lecture B14, slide 29). For example, much emissions are caused by
transportation, which should be targeted because they include low-value uses like
recreational driving and idling. Additionally, command-and control approaches
can be expensive and are less flexible than their market-based counterparts.

 

Cap-and-Trade

            Cap-and-trade could also assist the state in reducing emissions
from electricity generation and industry. The cap on emissions could be applied
to particular sectors or all companies with the latter option being more
beneficial but less politically feasible. In order to implement this system,
the state would set a cap that limited its emissions to an ideal level;
eventually, this would be where the social cost of carbon intersects the
state’s demand for carbon (Lecture B12b, slide 29), but the cap would likely
decrease over time to achieve this level. It would then issue permits in
accordance with the cap, auctioning or distributing them to emitters.

            Unlike some mandates, cap-and-trade passes on the correct price
signal for carbon and therefore targets low-value uses of carbon (Lecture
B12b, slide 30). Furthermore, when permits are allocated, it grants companies
a valuable property right, which would create necessary political support, and
if other areas implement similar programs, permits could potentially be traded
between states, further reducing low-value emissions (Lecture B12B, slide
30). However, setting the cap is a challenging task, and allowing for too many
emissions, which is likely with the state’s conservative climate, fails to
fully affect the targeted carbon uses and results in insignificant reductions.
The policy is also likely to disadvantage state trade and impact low-income
households more severely (Lecture B12b, slide 24), and these issues would
need to be effectively addressed to improve political support. Lastly, although
allocating permits would garner support, the right to pollute should ultimately
belong to the state due to the resulting effects on society.

 

Carbon Tax

            A carbon tax could reduce state emissions by “targeting the
carbon content of fuel combustion and other processes of emitting carbon”
(Lecture B12b, slide 18) and therefore raising the price of gasoline, natural
gas, coal, and electricity. The state would ideally set the tax equal to the
social cost of carbon in order to reflect the negative externalities of carbon
use, but a rising tax could also be implemented to achieve emissions reductions
over time and gain political support. Like cap-and-trade, this approach passes
on the correct price signal, changing the targeted carbon-emitting behaviors,
but is considered the most efficient, least expensive way to reduce emissions
(Lecture B12b, slide 23). Additionally, a carbon tax has the potential to
raise a significant amount of revenue, depending on the state’s tax rate; based
on total retail sales in 2015, a tax of $25 per ton would result in about $1.25
billion in revenues from electricity consumption alone (EIA, 2017-a). Because
energy taxes are very difficult to evade, a carbon tax would also reduce total
tax evasion in the state as well as make the informal economy less appealing,
helping diminish its size (Lecture B13, slide 25). However, the tax would be
difficult to implement due to opposition to emissions reductions in the state,
and again, it is likely to disadvantage state manufacturing and place a larger
burden on the poor, as it is regressive (Lecture B12b, slide 24). Lastly, the
tax would also create deadweight loss, or a loss of economic efficiency.

 

 

3.                 
Lessons from other states with similar emissions cutting options

 

Command-and-Control

Command-and-control policies at the federal and
state level could help guide the implementation of these regulations in
Indiana. The Clean Power Plan, which was proposed in 2014, aims to reduce power
plant emissions 30% by 2030, using carbon intensity standards, and it allows
states to achieve reductions with demand side energy efficiency, renewable
portfolio standards or goals, or market-based greenhouse gas emissions programs
(Lecture B22-1, slide 34). Similarly allowing power plants in the state to
implement a variety of emissions reduction methods could help increase
efficiency and garner political support. The Plan’s benefits also largely rely
on resulting health co-benefits (Lecture B22-1, slide 38), so it would be
more effective for the state to regulate these co-benefits separately through
mandates for filters and other measures that improve health. Additionally,
under California’s Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32), the state uses fuel standards to
reduce the carbon intensity of transportation fuel 10% by 2020, setting annual
standards for gasoline, diesel, and other replacement fuels that apply to
petroleum and biofuel providers (California Air Resources Board, 2017). Such
standards successfully target low-value uses of carbon, but the program has a high
potential for leakage, meaning the state could lose producers, jobs, and tax
revenues.

 

Cap-and-Trade

Several states have implemented cap-and-trade
programs that offer insight. In addition to fuel standards, California’s AB 32
also uses cap-and-trade: it auctions most available permits and enforces a
price floor of $10 per ton that grows 5% annually (Lecture B22-1, slide 25).
However, as previously mentioned, it has a problem with leakage; state trade is
disadvantaged, as companies must compete for permits, giving them incentive to
produce elsewhere. For this reason, virtually all permits have been given away
for free – a practice that will continue until 2030 (Sexton & Sexton,
2017). Nine states participate in another cap-and-trade program, the Regional
Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI), which caps the emissions of fossil fuel
plants with a capacity of 25 megawatts or more (Lecture B22-1, slide 9). Upon
implementation of RGGI, the price of permits immediately dropped to the price
floor of $1.86, indicating that the cap was too high. This has been a common
problem with such programs, and like these states, Indiana should set a price
floor to prevent prices from falling to $0 if cap revisions are necessary. To
address leakage issues, the state should also consider capping the emissions of
power plants rather than all carbon-emitting companies, as power plants are
already heavily regulated and cannot move if taxed (Lecture B22-1, slide 10).

 

Carbon Tax

Boulder, Colorado, levies a
carbon tax on electricity consumption of residents and businesses in an effort
to reduce overall emissions 80% by 2050, using separate residential,
commercial, and industrial tax rates (City of Boulder, Colorado, 2017). Each of
these tax rates is much lower than the price increases we would observe under a
carbon tax of $25 per ton, indicating that the tax is well below the social
cost of carbon. This would likely be the case in Indiana as well due to the
state’s conservative climate and existing opposition. While a lower tax would fail
to reduce emissions to the optimal level, Colorado’s tax demonstrates that
improvements are still possible, as it avoided over 50,000 metric tons of
emissions between 2007 and 2015 despite population and economic growth (City of
Boulder, Colorado, 2017). Additionally, a lower tax would still allow