Electric Vehicle in Logistics and Transportation
Hassan Nasirzadeh Vanahri , 2017.09.12
In recent years, the role of logistics services has changed with the demands of globalization and emerging market conditions. In a setting of increasing logistics complexity, organizations can face their competitors also providing advanced services designed for a more competitive and environmental-friendly supply-chain management. In addition, national and international institutions have demonstrated growing engagement in environmental issues and their potential solutions, which can be strengthened by green logistics global and local application. Emerging technologies are “an important link in the supply chain management” because they can help organizations achieve sustainable and competitive results. Over the previous decade, electric vehicles have picked up prominence in a few nations, despite the fact that their piece of the overall industry is still generally low. Be that as it may, most picks up have been made in the range of traveler vehicles and most specialized and logical investigations have been committed to this case. Interestingly, the capability of electric vehicle innovation for products conveyance has gotten less consideration. The issues identified with the utilization of EVs for products dissemination open up an extensive variety of significant research issues. The points of this study paper are to give transportation scientists a review of the specialized and showcasing foundation expected to lead inquire about here, to exhibit an overview of the current research in this field, and to offer viewpoints for future research.
Keywords: Electric vehicles technology, logistics, and transportation, green transportation,
Searches showed that the investigation in Green logistics in this moderately new field has been gradually expanded, as seen by the developing number of distributions on green transportation and city coordination’s Research on green transportation has concentrated on controlling of air pollution issue which tries to plan idea for new vehicles which can reduce greenhouses gas.
Green logistics includes a lot of different activities, for example, green delivery, green material management and assembling and coordination. This action affects different activities and procedures with delivery, packaging, and transportation.
There are several project report of actions with electric vehicles for goods distribution in terms of Logistics which are the most of these are doing in Europe.
Furthermore, in North America, most of the big companies are using electric delivery vehicles, for instance, FedEx, General Electric, Coca-Cola, UPS, Frito-Lay, Staples, Enterprise, Hertz, and others.
2. What is Logistics and Supply Chain Management?
Already today, logistics is used more and more in across the world and refers to the coordinating process and moving the resources, materials, inventory, and equipment from a location to the desired destination. While supply chain management refers to a large network which works together and coordinates their actions to deliver a product to market.
Since logistics includes the range of activities refers to moving and coordinating resources, production, and distribution of goods for consumption. It is consists of two separate but integrated branches; materials management and physical distribution. Material management involves all activities to reach a service level that ensures that appropriate materials are available at the right place and right time, in the appropriate scale and quality, and reasonable cost. The physical distribution includes all activities related to the manufacturing and finished goods for consumption, particularly in terms of transportation and warehousing.
3. The Difference between Logistics vs. Transportation
Shipping of materials, people goods, and etc. from one location to other location via Roadway, Railway, Airway, Seaway, and pipeline is known as transportation. Transportation services are divided into three aspects: infrastructure, vehicles, and operations. While Logistics involves the movement and transport of materials and products, as well as their storage and packaging.
Transportation is the driver of logistics, but logistics is the race car driver in the seat of transportation
4. Why promotion Electric Vehicles?
Electric vehicles can help improve local air quality and combating climate change by reducing carbon emissions and other unwanted pollution to the Earth’s atmosphere.
Motorized road transport is the third largest source of UK greenhouse gas emissions and is the main source of many local pollutions, containing nitrogen oxide (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), particulates (PM10), butadiene and benzene.
As the EVs reduce greenhouse gas emissions, they effectively eliminate the source of this local pollution and increase overall health and quality of life, as the EVs use cars equipped with an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE).
1) More or less 48% of Tehran’s emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) originate from road transport
2) Around 71% of Tehran’s emissions of particulates (PM10) originate from road transport
3) Pollution levels can be 3 times higher inside a car than outside on the street
4) About 25,000 people in the IRAN suffer an early death each year because of air pollution
5) 2 in 10 school children in IRAN has asthma
6) 4,500 premature deaths a year in IRAN caused by pollution.
7) Tehran is most polluted cities in Iran
5. External factors of air pollution
ü Economic Costs. They include a range of external influences such as damage to property, structures and infrastructure, and loss of productivity for people and products.
ü Social Costs. Nearly most of the air pollutants have some bad physiological effects on humans, not limited to cardiovascular and respiratory systems. “In the crowded cities, most of the elderly people are suffering from the air pollutants, therefore, governments have to think how to reduce the greenhouse gas?”
ü Environmental Costs. They include general damage to the ecosystem through the atmosphere, water that humans drink and use, the place which people are living and etc. Can affected by air pollutants.
Therefore Evs can help people to save what is left of our natural resources and make the world a better place to live in for our future generation.
Air pollution estimated by highway transport in the United States, 1970-2014
The most important transport publications related to carbon monoxide are volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and nitrogen oxides, while transport plays an important role in the emission of particulates and sulfur oxides. Due to better engine technology and stricter standards, the amount of released pollutants has been significantly reduced. Partnership patterns are relatively consistent across developed countries, but there are differences.
Figure X – Estimated Air Pollutants Emitted by Highway
6. The Environmental Impacts of Transportation
The issue of transport and the environment is naturally contradictory because transport brings socioeconomic, but transport also affects environmental systems. on the other hand, Transport activities, support the increase the demand for transport for the passengers and freight, while transport activities are associated with higher levels of external environmental impacts. Recently, the growth of personal and transportation movements has expanded the role of transportation as a source of greenhouse emissions and also huge impacts on the environment. These effects are divided into three categories:
ü Direct impacts. The immediate result of transport activities in the environment. For example, noise emissions and carbon monoxide have direct harmful effects.
ü Indirect impacts. The secondary effects of transport activities on environmental systems. They are often of higher consequence than direct impacts. For instance, respiratory and cardiovascular problems which caused by particulates in the air which result of incomplete combustion in an internal combustion engine.
ü Cumulative impacts. The multiplicative consequences of transport activities which direct and indirect impacts on an ecosystem. Transportation has an impact on climate change with a complex cause and consequences, 15% of global CO2 emissions are attributed to the transport sector. There are several natural and anthropological factors which transportation can effect on it
7. The relationships between transport and the environment
Transportation has become an important dimension of the concept of sustainability, which has become the main focus of transportation activities, including the release of the vehicles into green supply chain management practices. The environmental dimensions of transportation related to the causes, the activities, the outputs and the results of transport systems. Establishing linkages between environmental dimensions is a difficult undertaking .For example, to what extent is carbon dioxide emissions associated with patterns of land use?
v Transportation Activities Affecting the Environment
Transportation activities involve separate modes supporting the movements of passengers and freight. Each has an environmental impact:
ü Infrastructure. Construction and maintenance of transport infrastructure require resources (materials), energy and land.
ü Vehicle manufacture. Involves the resources and energy consumed in the manufacturing process.
ü Vehicle travel. The outcome of transport vehicle use, which varies by mode, usually involves the consumption of fossil fuels.
ü Vehicle maintenance. The consumption and disposal of parts during maintenance, including lubricants.
ü Vehicle disposal. Once the useful life of a vehicle is over, it must be disposed and recycled.
An electric vehicle (EV), also referred to as an electric drive vehicle, is a vehicle which uses one or more electric motors for propulsion. An electric vehicle may be powered through a collector system by electricity from off-vehicle sources or may be self-contained with a battery, solar panels or a generator to convert fuel to electricity. EVs include road and rail vehicles, surface and underwater vessels, electric aircraft.
The EVs first appeared in the middle of the nineteenth century, when the electricity was one of the proposed methods for motor propulsion and providing the level of comfort and operation power that was not achieved by gasoline cars in that time. The internal combustion engine has been used for motor vehicles for almost 100 years.
List of modern production plug-in electric vehicle which product more than 50,000 production
Types of Electric vehicle
1. Ground vehicles
1.1. Plug-in electric vehicle
A plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) is any motor vehicle that can be recharged from any external source of electricity, such as wall sockets,
1.2. Hybrid EVs
A hybrid electric vehicle combines a conventional (usually fossil fuel-powered) powertrain with some form of electric propulsion.
1.3. On- and off-road EVs
EVs are on the road in many functions, including electric cars, electric trolleybuses, electric buses, battery electric buses, electric trucks, electric bicycles, electric motorcycles and scooters, neighborhood electric vehicles, golf carts, milk floats, and forklifts. Off-road vehicles include electrified all-terrain vehicles and tractors.
1.4. Rail borne EVs
The fixed nature of a rail line makes it relatively easy to power EVs through permanent overhead lines or electrified third rails, eliminating the need for heavy onboard batteries. Electric locomotives, electric trams/streetcars/trolleys, electric light rail systems, and electric rapid transit are all in common use today, especially in Europe and Asia.
1.5. Space Rover vehicles
Manned and unmanned vehicles have been used to explore the Moon and other planets in the solar system.
Since the beginning of the era of aviation, electric power for aircraft has received a great deal of experimentation. Currently flying electric aircraft include manned and unmanned aerial vehicles.
Electric boats were popular around the turn of the 20th century. Interest in quiet and potentially renewable marine transportation has steadily increased since the late 20th century, as solar cells have given motorboats the infinite range of sailboats.
4-Electrically powered spacecraft
Electric power has a long history of use in spacecraft. The power sources used for spacecraft are batteries, solar panels and nuclear power. Current methods of propelling a spacecraft with electricity include the arc jet rocket, the electrostatic ion thruster, the Hall Effect thruster, and Field Emission Electric Propulsion. A number of other methods have been proposed, with varying levels of feasibility.
8. Solving approaches:
These days there are numerous applications of autonomous technology in logistics that provide more evidence that driverless vehicles are safe and successful in closed environments. This next evolutionary stage starts to use this technology outside the building and on public streets.
Beyond warehousing operations, analysts expect more future plans throughout the entire supply chain, especially in outdoor logistics operations, shipping lines and last mile deliveries.
I. SELF-DRIVING VEHICLES
Progress in sensor and imaging technology have led to the exciting new generation of self-contained vehicles that are more flexible and reliable than ever. From autonomous forklifts in warehouses to driverless trucks in line-haul transportation, self-driving vehicles will transform logistics by unlocking new levels of safety, efficiency, and quality.
II. Drive assistance system
Driver assistance systems are currently available in many modern private vehicles. Although limited in their current program, similar types of autonomous support systems for today’s line haul drivers are available. For example, to provide a safer environment than the highways, there are driver assistance systems that inform the driver about the safe distance of driving, helping to maintain and control optimal speed and apply emergency brakes.
In many developed countries, there is lack of long-distance drivers in the roadway transportation industry, and this shortage is increasing due to the demanded hours, the long time away from home, and the dangerous nature of this career. These challenges can be answered by this assistance system technology.
The trucks which used this system will automatically stay in lane, preserving a safe distance from the front of the vehicle and adjusting the maximum speed and / or speed limit along the highway.
Imagine this scenario: Once the truck completes loading in a warehouse, it is manually driven to the highway entrance. From here, the driver activates the driver assistance system then system can decide the optimal vehicle operation and routing, decrease fuel consumption and adjust the speed in terms of date and time of delivery.
III. Self-driving robot
ü Self-driving robot can offer several boxes within 5 kilometres radius
ü The self-driving robot can detect obstacles, adjusts speed/stops and crosses the street.
ü Lid is locked during journey; requires a special code to open; on-board GPS and a video camera are used to mitigate risk of theft.
ü The potential for local delivery is 5 to 10 times cheaper
Still, there are some point and challenges problem to use SELF-DRIVING vehicle
ü Increase operational efficiency and productivity
ü More reliability and quality by eliminating human errors
ü Improved fuel efficiency through optimized routing with less impact on the environment
ü Technology must be matched and mature before self-driving vehicles can be used in dynamic environments
ü In many countries, there are no legal driving for self-driving vehicles. (restrictions to use)
ü Potential threat of hackers and software bugs
ü Insurance and liability questions should be solved
ü Social reception by public
IV. UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) or “Drones” can change future’s logistics by having new mode of airway transportation of express delivery through coordinated air networks.
While UAVs will not replace roadway transportation, they will represent add value to high traffic levels and long- haul (long-range) locations. Drones can potentially increase the speed and customer satisfaction, in lower costs, and access to un-accessible environments.
ü The operational efficiency of logistics networks can be increased
ü Risk and accident reduction through automatic delivery in remote areas
ü Increased flexibility and delivery speed, especially in crowded places
ü Illegal interception or hacking of drones
ü Lack of Privacy issues and public safety
ü Numerous restrictions on UAV traffic in crowded airspace networks
ü Legal restrictions which come from government
The advancement that the electric vehicle industry has seen in recent years is not only been highly welcomed but also very urgent, due to an increase in global greenhouse gas emissions. As mention in the paper, the benefits of electric vehicles are far higher than the costs of on it. All in all, the biggest obstacle to promoting the use of costly electric vehicles is because of the fact that the gasoline is easily accessible, comfortable and low-cost. The costs to a vehicle manufacturing are still higher than the conventional vehicle additionally cities will require electrical system equipment for this technology.
Hopefully, during the next decade, technological advances and policy changes will help reduce the greenhouse gas emission.
Renewables, along with the full range of other climate-friendly technologies—including nuclear, energy efficiency, clean coal, carbon capture and storage, and plug-in electric hybrids—must all be a part of the electric power industry’s long-term future In addition, the realization and success of this industry are heavily reliant on the global population, and we hope that through mass marketing programs and environmental education programs people will feel the incentive and ability to drive an electric vehicle. Each person can make a difference. furthermore, the Maximum usage rate of using EVs on transportation depends on rapid technological progress, increased government support, and consumer acceptance.so go ahead and help to make a big difference to better future!