Description about motion analysis within football was


The sport in which I have decided to analyse is Football.
Football, a 90 minute match between two teams of 11 players with the team scoring
the most goals winning the game. Although there is no clear documentation
stating the date or place of origination of the sport the first official match
under the FA (Football Association) was played between Barnes Football Club and
Richmond Football Club in which the game ended 0-0 at Barnes common at
Mortlake, London on the 19th December 1863. The sport is played
mainly on grass with the dimensions of the pitch being the being between 100 yards (90m) and 130 yards (120m) and the
width being between 50 yards (45m) and 100 yards (90m). However in most recent
years the sport as started being played on artificial grass pitches, also known
as 3g/4g pitches.

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Characteristics of the sport

Time Motion Analysis

An early research about motion analysis within
football was the overall distance covered by an outfield player during a match
consists of 24% walking, 36% jogging, 20% cruising, 11% sprinting, 7% moving
backwards and 2% moving in possession of the ball (Reilly and Thomas, 1976). However
different researchers had different categories in which they would categorise
players movements into, such as (Bradley et al, 2009)
categorised players movements into standing, walking, jogging, running,
high-speed running and sprinting. Another example is (Bradley et al, 2009) again
when he categorised player’s movements into only two categories: low to
moderate intensity and high intensity. In which he found that the low intensity
movements were 85.4% and high intensity to be 14.6%. Another researcher (Bloomfield et al, 2007) had a
similar finding of 80-90% of movement is low to moderate intensity while 10-20%
is high intensity movement. However before that Reilly and Thomas found out the
ratio of low to high intensity within a match as 2.2 to 1 for distance and 7 to
1 for time.

After looking at the above figures you can know
that within football the majority of movement is low to moderate intensity,
however a player is only on the ball for 2% of their movement. This showing
that most movements made on the pitch are off the ball. More findings from (Reilly
and Williams, 2003) shows that players have a only a short rest pause of only 3
seconds every 2 minutes and players will have to run at a high intensity every
30 seconds.


Physiological Analysis

The aerobic energy system is highly used with
average of 85% of the hearts maximal value and a peak heart rate of 98% of the
hearts maximal values (Reilly & Thomas, 1979; Ekblom, 1986; Ali &
Farally, 1991; Bangsbo, 1994; Krustrup et al., 2005). Then the average oxygen
uptake (VO2) is 70% of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2Max)
(Ekblom, 1986; Mohr et al., 2004). A player’s heart rate during a game is
rarely below 65% of its maximum heart rate, showing that blood flow to the
exercising leg muscles is continuous, meaning oxygen delivery is high. However,
the oxygen kinetics changes from low to high intensity during the game appear
to be limited due to factors and depend on the oxidative capacity of the
contracting muscles (Bangsbo et al., 2001; Krustrup et al., 2004; Nyberg et
al., 2010).

Elite football players perform between 150–250
intense actions during a game (Mohr et al., 2003) this intensity
during a game would lead to a high rate of creatine phosphate breakdown, which
then is re-synthesised low-intensity exercise periods or breaks (Bangsbo,
1994). Measurements of creatine phosphate in muscle biopsies obtained after
intense exercise periods during a game have shown values around 75% above the
players rest.  However during a game the
creatine phosphate level will be lower due to no substantial re-synthesis of
creatine (Krustrup et al., 2006).


Biomechanical Analysis

There are many types of movement within football;
however the main one which is needed to be able to play the sport is the
ability to kick a football. There are 6 steps to kick the ball; it starts off
with the approach. This is the run up or approach to the football, usually
a paced run up to the ball.  The diagonal approach produces greater swing
to limb velocity for greater ball speed. The 45 degree angle of approach
produces the greatest peak ball velocity, compared to a 15-degree or 30-degree
run-up (Isokawa and Lees). Next is a plant foot force. When kicking,
there is a direct relationship between the direction in which the plant foot
faces and the direction in which the ball travels (Abo-Abdo, H 1981). The ideal position of the plant foot as 5 to
10 centimetres to the side of the ball in which the plant foot is (Hay, J, 1996),
however if the plant foot is greater than 10 centimetres away from the ball,
the direction of the kick and the kicker’s balance will both be compromised
(Barfield, B (1998). Then it’s the swing to limb loading, during this phase the
players eyes will be focused on the ball, the opposite arm to the kicking leg will
be abducted from the body to counter-balance the rotating body (Chysowych, W, 1979).
While the plant foot is next to the ball, the kicking leg is extending behind
the body with extension at the knee. This stores elastic energy as the swinging
leg passively stretches and allows a greater transfer of force when the kick
takes place with maximal eccentric activity in the knee extensors (Barfield, B,
1998). Hip flexion and knee extension is next and it’s the start of the swing
for the kicking leg. As the hip flexes, there is rotation at the trunk, the
thigh of the kicking leg is swung forward. While this is happening there is
also a forceful extension of the knee when the movement of the thigh slows
down. This is due to the combined effect of the transfer of momentum and
release of stored elastic energy in the knee extensors. This then allows the
knee extensors to powerfully contract to swing the leg and foot forwards
towards the ball. Once the leg has been swung, the foot will have contact with
the ball. The foot contact is usually 16
milliseconds or longer (Powers, S, and Howley, E., 1997). However only
15% of the kinetic energy of the swinging leg is transferred to the ball, with
the rest being dissipated by the eccentric activity of the hamstring to slow
the leg down (Gainor, B, Pitrowski, G, and Puhl, J., 1978). Then lastly the follow through, which has two
main purposes. Firstly to keep the foot in contact
with the ball for longer due to a longer contact time of foot contact and the
ball will maximise the transfer of momentum to the ball which will increase the
speed of the ball (Barfield, B, 1998). Then secondly it’s used as injury
prevention. This is due to the body gradually
dissipating the kinetic and elastic forces generated from the swing. If the leg
didn’t have a follow through and came to a sudden stop hamstring within the
kicking leg would have an increased risk of hamstring strain (Hay, J, 1996).


Description of

The athlete I have
decided to use for my study is a 20 year old male who plays at an under 21
level for Redditch United FC, a team who are in the Evo-Stik Southern League.
He has been playing football since as young as he can remember has played for
many teams, best being Birmingham City FC Academy which he joined at 14, Sutton
Town U19’s, and North Birmingham Celtic. He trains twice a week which include
fitness either for half of one of the sessions or a short bit at the start of
both sessions, and also has a game every Saturday. In the past he has been
involved in training 4 times a week with one of the sessions being a full
session of fitness and all the others working on ball work and off the ball
work, with a game again being on the Saturday. The athlete has also had one
serious injury to his ACL and knee which ruled him out of football for over a
year. His future goals are to get into the Redditch United FC First Team, he
would like to improve fitness such as his cardiovascular fitness, speed and passing

The elite athlete in
whom I will be comparing my athlete to is a 19 year old male football player
who plays for Birmingham City FC and is currently playing for the reserve team.
He has played for Sutton Town, Boldmere St Michaels and joined Birmingham City
on a professional contract last season. He is currently training 5 times a week
and playing every Saturday with occasional Tuesday/Wednesday games.