Correlation substance abuse was the single largest

Correlation
VS Causation

Amrit
Dhanoa J0051241

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Justice
Institute of British Columbia

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Psychology
1100

Instructor:
Surita Jhangiani

January
26th, 2018

Word
Count: 1229

 

 

 

 

 

This
paper will discuss how correlation and causation work together and separately
in other cases. For example, the correlation of more money equals more happiness,
some may argue this is true and some would say the opposite. A correlation is
something that describes the size and direction of a relationship between two
or more variables (iPerceptions, 2016). On the other-hand causation indicates
that the result of a single event is the occurrence of another event
(iPerceptions, 2016). However, the paper will go into more depth on the
correlation and causation that, homelessness cause crime, crime causes
homelessness. In addition, this paper will focus mainly on the people that
abuse substances or illicit drugs to convey how they associate with criminal
justice system. A crime is “An action or omission which constitutes an offence
and is punishable by law” (Oxford Dictionary).

Crime Causes Homelessness

            It is accurate to say that crime
does not always cause homelessness. For example, it is a crime to assault
someone, therefore, it is an offence that is
punishable by law. However, this does not mean that the person that assaults
someone will be homeless in most cases. On the other hand, there are crimes
that would cause homelessness. For example, substance abuse such as heroin,
cocaine and many other hard illicit drugs which are illegal are often a cause
of homelessness (National Coalition for the Homeless, 2009). The reason this
crime causes homelessness is because abusing substances forms relationship
disputes with family and friends. Furthermore, some
people even lose their job. In 2008, a survey
was conducted by the United States Conference of Mayors where 25 cities were
asked the 3 top reasons of homelessness, substance abuse was the single largest
underlying source of people being homeless (National Coalition for the Homeless,
2009). Moreover, the national data showed that
46% of the homeless population had an addiction to drugs in the United States
(Kertesz, S. G., Crouch, K., Milby, J. B., Cusimano, R. E., & Schumacher,
J. E. (2009). Substances abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs are usually done by
people to attain temporary relief from their problems also known as a coping
method for many. This is a cycle that keeps on rotating because abusing
substance gets expensive and the tolerance level of the person gets higher. Also,
the dependency on substances just adds to their problems because this decreases the chance of the person from being employed. This
path of destruction ultimately leads to poverty since illicit drugs get harder
to afford. Ultimately, this opens the doors of a
person being in the criminal justice system for a long time and some never make
there way back out. The people who are addicted to certain types of drugs start
committing other crimes to make money to fulfil the need of drugs. Drugs for
them, eventually become so important that they
are unable to survive without them. Some may even go without the basic needs to fulfill
the addiction.  However, not all crimes
lead to being homelessness but abusing substances often can lead to being
homeless according to the article by National
Coalition for the Homeless.

 

 

Homelessness Causes
Crime

            The potential of crime is high when
someone has been homeless for an extended period or is mentally ill (British
Columbia, 2001). As a matter of fact, a person being homeless is involved in a
type of society where hope and positive motivation is tremendously low. The
homeless individuals lack in self-discipline, have negative attitude and blame
themselves and towards how their life has turned
out (Hardin, J., & Wille, D. E. (2017). Therefore, it is hard for them to
make a living because most of them have been abusing substances to cope with
the stress and problems they are facing from being homeless. In addition,
homelessness is mostly a cause of not being financially stable. Abusing illicit drugs
does not help money-wise, which makes it a repeating cycle where money usually
comes from committing crimes (theft) and gets invested in illicit substances
which creates more crime. This is a cycle that repeats itself as when the tolerance levels get higher, the person commits more crimes. Also, the atmosphere
that homeless people live in does not generate positivism. A cross sectional sample of the imamates at the New York
City correctional facility was done. Out of the two groups, one had a
percentage of 24 percent and the other group 34 percent of being homeless
during the two months prior to an arrested. In addition, 22 percent of the
primary sample was homeless the night before the arrest (British Columbia,
2001). The sample shows the correlation of homelessness links to being arrested
for a criminal offence. There are 4 different explanations according the
article Homelessness — Causes & Effects, of why there is criminal activity
among the homeless. Firstly, doing criminal
activity may be one of the possible ways just to survive for the homeless. It
is extremely difficult for them to get employed, thus,
leading some to commit offences like theft, a small level of drug
dealing or prostitution. Secondly, there are the
people who suffer from chronic deviant behaviour, drug syndromes and disruptive
personalities. Thirdly, there are the homeless
people that manipulate the police into arresting them, so they can get a decent
amount of sleep under a shelter and a proper meal. Lastly,
there are homeless people that display psychotic or bizarre behaviour that
lands them in the correctional institution. Furthermore, the study also revealed
that the youth between 15-24 that have struggles getting the basic needs, are highly to turn towards criminal activities (British
Columbia, 2001). Therefore, this also represents a repeating
cycle that rarely ever ends between being homeless to committing crimes and
being in the criminal justice system.

            Ultimately, there is a correlation
between crime causes homelessness and homelessness causes crime. These two
things describe people being homeless to criminal activity and vice versa. The
causation that results from being homeless is usually criminal activity and
being in the criminal justice system. This happens because the homeless are
individuals that are not financially stable. Therefore, to cope with the stress, most homeless people will start using drugs and
eventually start abusing them when the tolerance levels get higher. As a matter
of fact, from there onwards, it gets hard to afford these illicit substances so
most start committing crimes to fulfil their addiction. Crime does not always
cause homelessness but being homeless usually does cause crime just because of
the surrounding atmosphere these unfortunate people are in.

 

References

British
Columbia. “The Relationship between Homelessness and the Health, Social
Services and

Criminal
Justice Systems.” Homelessness — Causes & Effects, BC, Feb. 2001, www.housing.gov.bc.ca/pub/vol1.pdf.

Hardin, J.,
& Wille, D. E. (2017). The homeless individua’s viewpoint: Causes of
homelessness

and
resources needed to leave the sheltered environment. Social Work &
Social Sciences Review, 19(2), 33-48.

iPerceptions. Causation
vs Correlation – What’s the difference. 10 June 2016,

www.iperceptions.com/blog/causation-vs-correlation.

Kertesz,
S. G., Crouch, K., Milby, J. B., Cusimano, R. E., & Schumacher, J. E.
(2009). Housing

first
for homeless persons with active addiction: Are we overreaching?. Milbank
Quarterly, 87(2), 495-534. doi:10.1111/j.1468-0009.2009.00565.x

Substance Abuse
and Homelessness. National Coalition for the Homeless, July 2009,

www.nationalhomeless.org/factsheets/addiction.pdf.

“The World’s
Most Trusted Dictionary Provider.” Oxford Dictionaries, Oxford
Dictionaries,

2018,
www.oxforddictionaries.com/.