Copyright duration of a copyright spans the

Copyright is a legal right created by
the law of a country that grants the creator of an original work exclusive
rights for its use and distribution. This is usually only for a limited time.
The exclusive rights are not absolute but limited by limitations and exceptions
to copyright law, Copyright is a form of mind property,.

Copyrights are considered
“territorial rights”, which means that they do not extend beyond the
territory of a specific area. While many aspects of national copyright laws
have been standardized through international copyright agreements, copyright
laws vary by country.

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Typically, the duration of a copyright
spans the author’s life plus 50 to 100 years meaning a copyright entitlement
will last 50 + years after the death of the author. Some countries require
certain copyright formalities to establishing copyright, but most recognize
copyright in any completed work, without formal registration. Generally,
copyright is enforced as a civil matter, though some jurisdictions do apply
criminal sanctions.


There are many different types of copyright protection they are listed
below. These copyright agreement protect different types of media and
intellectual property (songs, musics, lyrics and books)


?      PPL: PPL is the UK-based
music licensing company that licenses recorded music played in public or
broadcast on the radio or TV and then distributes the fees to its performer and
record company members. Established in 1934, PPL now carries out this role on behalf of tens of thousands of


?      PRS: PRS for Music and PPL (Phonographic Performance Limited)
are separate organisations who license different
sets of rights in the use of music. You may need a licence from both organisations.


?      MCPS: The Mechanical-Copyright
Protection Society (MCPS),
established in 1924, is a not-for-profit organisation which currently
represents over 17,000 composers, songwriters and music publishers . The
essential function of MCPS is to
collect and distribute royalties.


Another protection
if your music is to be used in collaboration with a film or TV programme is a
Sync right. A music synchronization license, or “sync” for short, is
a music license granted by the holder of the copyright of a particular
composition, allowing the license to synchronize (“sync”) music with
some kind of visual media output (film, television shows, advertisements, video
games, accompanying website music, movie.


of a Famous Fraud case:


vs Koons


In October, 1989, when Rogers filed suit against both Koons and his
principal gallery, the Sonnabend Gallery. He sought at least $375,000 in
compensatory damages, and $2.5 million in punitive damages. Unfortunately Jeff
koons had ignored the copyright notice on the postcard that he copied.
Additionally, there was proof that he didn’t merely want to appropriate the
photograph but to copy it, as per his instructions to the craftsmen who were
constructing the works he specifically instructed them to do the work based
exactly on the photograph. He also asked his craftsmen to exaggerate certain
aspects of the puppies characteristics such as their noses in order to create
something found between real life and animation. Koons’ defense was that the
Rogers note card represented an accurate depiction for the couple and their
puppies. He argued that he merely borrowed information from the work and not
any expression. Koons sold the allegedly infringing works for $375,000. Art
Rogers every incentive to pursue the issue to trial, it also made Koons a
wonderfully inviting target.


Ethical issues in the Music Industry


Ethical Issues in
the Music Industry Response to Innovation and Piracy.

In the Media industry there is much debate and laws about ethical
issues seen in films or music video. For example in music video in the genre
grime. Many ethical issues are raised by the viewers such as the perception of
ethnic minorities and their youths. Throughout the grime genre there are many
other factors such as criminal connotations of gangland violence and other
Anti-social behaviours. This could influence other youths as the majority of
the artist viewers are young influential adolescentes who would be drawn to
this lifestyle along with many 18 rated games.


One ethical case in the music industry was the leak of a rock band’s
new album in 2012 online. The rock band ‘The Ting Tings’ new album was leaked
onto the internet. This made the record label and the band to lose thousands as
many listeners would only download the album illegally saving them lots of
money. To combat this the record label tried to advance the release of the new
album by a few weeks to ensure that them could generate an income for
themselves and the artists.