Control face. And none in the green

Control of the Seas had given the British a tremendous advantage in the early years of the war. If a British army on the coast were in trouble the British Navy could sail in and whisk that army away. But with France as America’s ally Washington could now contemplate what control of the seas might mean for the American cause and at Yorktown, he and his French partners would exploit French sea power with tremendous success. With the entire South poised to fall to the British Congress asked Washington to appoint a commander for the southern army. Washington turned for help to the man who had been the most reliable and important officer in all his campaigns. That was Rhode Island General Nathanael Greene a former Quaker he was. An unusual generally at a bum leg walk with a limp but what a bright guy he was. He had really completely absorbed Washington’s strategy of an army to look the enemy in the face. And none in the green southern army could look the enemy in the face with more courage than the Virginia frontiersman known as the old Wagoner newly appointed Brigadier General Daniel Morgan.The people described him as very muscular in describing such giant of a man. Very physical. According to National Park Service’s biography of Daniel Morgan, “In his youth, Morgan had survived five hundred lashes from the British during the French and Indian War in 1755” (“Daniel Morgan”). He and his Virginia riflemen had been with Benedict Arnold on the epic march to Quebec in 1775. He had been among the last to surrender when the Americans tried to take that walled city. And he and his riflemen had been decisively effective against Bergeron at the battles known as Saratoga in 1777. Now suffering from a bad back and arthritis he was ready for the Battle of his life. In early January of 1781, Morgan received a message in the field from Nathanael Greene. Nathanael Greene once said, “Colonel Tarleton is said to be on his way to pay you a visit I doubt not but he will have a decent reception and a proper dismission general” (Fleming 87). This is the spot where Morgan decided to fight an open area known as the cow pens because cows had been corralled here before driving them to market. With the Broad River to Morgan’s back Tarleton had but one Avenue of attack and the old Wagoner had no chance of retreat. Morgan in a number of conversations and letters to friends had expressed a desire to have a crack at Alton to get it, Charlton, he saw Tarleton’s as his counterpart in the British southern army and recognized the value of trying to destroy the Tory Legion. The butcher Tarleton was pleased when he learned of his enemy’s position. It is certainly as good a place for action as Lieutenant Colonel Tarleton could desire. America does not produce any more suitable to the nature of the troops under his command. The night before the battle Morgan used his canny frontiersmen in an understanding of psychology to prepare his troops. He went among the volunteers help them fix their swords, joke with them about their sweethearts, told him to be in good spirits and the day would be ours. An hour before daybreak Morgan’s pickets brought word that Tarleton’s Legion and other crack British troops were less than five miles away at marching fast down this road. Morgan put his green militiamen in front they fired then according to a prearranged plan they dropped back. Tarleton viewed the action as a retreat Charlton’s men surged forward they broke ranks in their enthusiasm in their anticipation and at that point then Morgan’s mainline loosed a really lethal blast that just staggered decimated many of the forward units. When the regulars fired it seemed like one sheet of flame from right to left. In a few moments, Colonel Washington’s cavalry was among them like a whirlwind and the poor fellows began to keel from their horses without being able to remount the shock was so sudden and violent they could not stand it and immediately betook themselves to flight. Morgan’s militia and Continental regulars had been attacked and now began to regroup. The whole British Army in Fabares to care for them Sudan had guns and begged for mercy the other half just started legging it down the road and this battle turned the whole revolution around in a state of South Carolina and it destroyed the creme of Tolerance legion which meant that the British Army no longer could make the lightning strikes. In less than an hour of fighting 110 of Tarleton’s Legion and supporting British forces were killed 200 were wounded and 500 became prisoners. Morgan lost only 12 men. Cornwallis then surged forward in a vain effort to destroy Morgan’s unit that was obviously much smaller than his main army. But Morgan and his men now joined by commanding General Greene had disappeared into the North Carolina countryside. Cornwallis was one of the ablest of the British commanders. Morgan claimed back problems and malarial fevers and chose to return to his home in Virginia. Greene’s task was now to win back the south while keeping his weakened and vulnerable army intact. His basic strategy was not to win battles it was not to lose them. Although Morgan had quit the theater of battle he left Greene chillingly efficient advice. When Greene’s army meat Cornwallis at this site at the attle of Guilford Courthouse. His line of militia did flee but his regulars held . And soon Cornwallis had to turn to a brutally cold logic of his own to save his army. He gave the order to fire upon friend and foe alike with cannon. According to George Washington’s Mount Vernon.org, “At the Battle of Guilford courthouse an attack mingled British and American troops that the moment was extremely critical and Cornwallis a solution to it was to order his artillery to open on the home ass with grapeshot” (“Battle of Guilford Courthouse”). Killing and wounding both sides but breaking up the attack and giving the British time to recover. A ruthless way of treating the situation that one had worked at the end of the battle. Cornwallis had possession of the field but a quarter of his men were killed wounded or missing. Greene had accomplished his goal his army had survived. Lord Cornwallis has conquered his troops out of shoes and provisions and himself out of troops. Cornwallis now virtually abandoned the Carolinas to Greene who set upon a systematic strategy of winning those states back from the British. The British the English commander marched towards his supply base in Wilmington North Carolina. That march would continue to Virginia eventually taking him to a camp on the Yorktown Peninsula and a siege that would change the course of history.French General Cut De Rochambeau was not impressed with his allies when he sailed into Newport Rhode Island with over 5,000 French troops in July of 1780. In spite of heroic efforts by the financier, Robert Morris, the American cause was on the verge of economic collapse. In a country that would not have its first bank until 1781, the citizens put little faith in continental dollars backed by the promises of Congress. In the spring of 1781, Washington knew how desperate his situation was. Times were desperate for France too. She had been financing her own participation in the war and also providing the Americans with huge sums of money. They couldn’t pay the debts stemming from no participation American Revolution which cost over a billion French pounds and the equivalent of several years worth of total income of the French monarchy. According to OpenLearn.edu, “the French government was approaching bankruptcy and 1781 was the last – all of the dice” (“French Revolution”). After his disastrous battles against Morgan and Greene in the Carolinas, Cornwallis found new opportunities in Virginia. Virginia was practically defenseless. They had lost their enthusiasm for the war in many respects. This was a huge state 700,000 people in Virginia and this little British army was just watching up and down the state at will. Cornwallis received support in Virginia from the newest British general Benedict Arnold. Arnold for some time led forces in the Virginia area he would go into an area destroy supplies and get active militia try to bring the area back under British control. The British had made Arnold a brigadier general but he was unsuccessful in attracting enough deserters and loyalists to complete his Legion. After some months in Virginia Arnold led a raid on the area in which he was born and raised. He burned familiar New London Connecticut to the ground. Near West Point, allied generals Washington and Rochambeau discussed battle plans. According to Revolutionary War Archive.org, “Washington wanted to attack Clinton’s army in New York, but Rochambeau had another idea take Cornwallis on Virginia’s Yorktown Peninsula” (“The Long March to Yorktown”). For the first time in the long war, Washington saw the opportunity to use naval superiority to his advantage. They send a message by frigate to Admiral De Grasse in the West Indies. Acting autonomously he made one of the most momentous decisions of the war. He decided he would take a gamble and come up even though it was a hurricane season. He could spare them six weeks that’s it. Washington arranged for the transport of all troops to Virginia he tricked Clinton into believing the Allies were heading towards his forces in New York, thus rendering him and his huge army inactive in South Carolina, Nathaniel Greene could take great satisfaction when he learned Washington was coming to Virginia for Cornwallis. Not far from the Yorktown Peninsula the grass met a British fleet on the open ocean off the Chesapeake Bay. In the battle that won for the Allies their needed naval superiority. Washington marched down to Virginia and the French fleet showed up and they had Cornwallis in the box at the end of the peninsula. The Allies started from Williamsburg before dawn on September 28th by dark they had surrounded the British at a comfortable mile’s distance. 52 gigantic French siege guns would be devastatingly effective in that range. On the 10th of October, the Allies opened fire. the enemy threw bombs 150-200 pounders. Many of the enemies were killed by bursting bombs and their houses destroyed by the enemy fired in one day. On the night of October 14, the Allies assaulted two strategic British readers Alexander Hamilton, who had been Washington secretary and trusted aide commanded one of the attacking parties. With the capture of the two results, the allies moved to within 300 yards of the main British encampments. Cornwallis knew the end had come every American and French gun was blasting away at the British fortification. Then Cornwallis had his letter of surrender delivered to Washington. I propose a cessation of hostilities for 24 hours to settle terms for the surrender of the posts of York and Gloucester I have the honor to be Sir your most obedient and most humble servant Cornwallis (Bauman 158). For the first time in six long years of fighting Washington could claim a victory against British regulars. Washington was the commander-in-chief but Washington declined the sword as well and had his representative Benjamin Lincoln who had surrendered the American army at Charleston accept the enemy’s weapon. Yorktown was said the greatest British disaster of the war the surrender was amazed humiliating of course a bitter experience for troops who had fought under the colors of their regimentsIn London news of Cornwallis’s defeat at Yorktown assured in a new government that was interested in ending the American war and concentrating on the war against France and Spain. In America, the great British defeat came not a moment too soon for the rebels. When Washington’s aide, Lieutenant Tench Tilghman, rode into Philadelphia to announce the Allied victory, the Congress was so destitute that its members had to reach into their own pockets for a dollar a piece to pay for his travel expenses. Washington was wise enough to know that you can negotiate better from strength than weakness and he feared that if he discharged his army England would take advantage of his weakness in the peace negotiations. In the two years from the end of the Battle of Yorktown to the actual signing of the Treaty of Paris, those two years in some ways were probably the most dangerous of any of the eight years of the revolution. Washington moved his army to Newburgh New York where they waited in readiness through a long winter. In 1782, as a second threadbare winter approached, he warned the Congress of his Army’s growing dissatisfaction. Washington once said, “The temper of the army is much soured and has become more irritable than at any period since the commencement of the war” (Ward, 26). By early March of 1783 Washington pondered the problem in his Newburgh quarters. Congress had not adequately addressed the Army’s grievances and some of his highest officers had threatened revolt of a military coup. According to New York State Parks.gov, “Washington called for a meeting of the officers at nearby New Windsor in this large wooden building called the Temple of Virtue” (“Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation”). He told them that they had fought for all of these years for freedom, but there was such animosity in the group toward the way they had been treated by Congress. From that moment on there was no longer any thought of the army rebelling against the Congress and probably in that one moment Washington had saved the American Revolution. As Washington struggled with his Army’s possible revolt in Newburgh New York, an ocean away in Paris France American diplomats led by Benjamin Franklin and John Adams struggled to formally end the long war. Franklin and his colleagues reached with Britain at the end of November 1782 had to wait nearly a year to become a formal peace. It was then that Britain finally came to terms with America’s allies France and Spain. The British came out of the wall was surprisingly few losses. In fact soon after the war ended, The United States once more became a part of the British trade empire. So Britain enjoyed the fruits of America about having to administer colonies there. In contrast, France came out of the war bearing a huge war debt. The financial burden and the French citizens raised infatuation with the ideals of the American Revolution would lead directly to Frances own Revolution in 1789. In front of the temple in New Windsor, the Continental Army heard the news that the fighting with Great Britain had come to an end the date was April 19th, 1783. Exactly eight years to the day since the first shots of the war were fired at Lexington and Concord. Over the next few months, nearly 12,000 Continental regulars set out for home, barring little more than the muskets they had been granted his farewell gifts sergeant. On the 25th of November, the British evacuated New York City which they had occupied since the last days of 1776. Less than two weeks later, Washington met his fellow officers for a farewell dinner at New York’s Frances tavern. After the officers had taken a glass of wine General Washington said, “I cannot come to each of you but shall feel obliged if each of you will come and take me by the hand” (Clark 62). General Knoxx being nearest to him turn to the commander in chief who suffused in tears was incapable of utterance but grasped his hand when they embraced each other in silence. In the same affectionate manner, every officer in the room marched up to kissed and parted with his general and chief. As Benjamin Tallmadge said, “The simple thought that we were about to part from the man who had conducted us through a long and bloody war and under whose conduct the glory and independence of our country had been achieved and that we should see his face no more in this world seemed to me utterly insupportable” (Harvey 302).Washington set out for Mount Vernon and the life of a private citizen at Annapolis. He did not take advantage of his military success; therefore set a pattern of civilian leadership of keeping armed forces in a secondary position that has remained an ideal right in our history. His surrender of his sword in December of 1783 was a momentous act that electrified the world. They couldn’t believe that a person who had that kind of power could give it up.Benjamin Franklin did not rush home after the Treaty of Paris was signed in September of 1783. Instead, the old diplomat spent an additional two years in France where he had achieved nearly godlike stature. He sailed on to America where Franklin landed in Philadelphia in late summer 1785, he was enthusiastically received by the population all of Philadelphia was in the streets. Within a month of his return, he was elected president of Pennsylvania. Two years later, he became the host for delegates who had come to his Philadelphia to attend one of the most influential meetings in history, the Constitutional Convention. A revolution is an internal war. you’ve got one group that wants to destroy the constituted authority to displace it and to take over. Therefore, you have the war you must win but if you just stop there you’ve only gone half way. You have torn down the old but you have not completed the revolution until you build up the new. Only in the United States did we have a successful revolution the War of the Revolution and a successful building of a new nation.