Contents distinguished between other people who are

Question – 1. 2
i. 2
ii. 2
iii 2
iv. 3
Question – 2. 6
i. 6
ii. 6
iii. 7
v. 8
Question – 3. 9
i. 9
ii. 9
iii 9
iv. 10
v. 10
Question – 4. 14
References. 16








Question – 1

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i. Groups are a collection of two or more people that work
together to achieve common sets of goals. The types of groups consists of
primary groups and secondary groups. Primary groups are groups that are bounded
to each other by strong relationships and mutual interests.  People join groups for a variety of reasons
such as for filling social needs, for reducing insecurities, provides people
with a feeling of self-worth and status etc. 

ii. The characteristics of a group are their features.

–       The task force consists of two
or more people interacting with one another and exchanging ideas.

–       The task force consists of
people with common interest or goals meaning in the task force all the members
wanted to use the current design.

–       They have collective identity
as they can be distinguish from the non-members all the members in the task
have a specific status.

People from different departments with similar
levels were selected and called for a gathering or more specifically a meeting
to talk about a topic. The topic is the task or objective that the company
wants accomplish with the help of the task force. Hence they will work together
as a group to perform the tasks. As they have collective identity they can be
distinguished between other people who are not in the task force or group. Plus
most importantly a group has someone to guide them such as a leader. Who will
guide them to the right path and leads them to the success or fulfills the
objective of the company.

iii. Formal groups are
groups that are assigned to accomplish an organizational objective.

These are the organizational functions of formal group:

1. Accomplish complicated, interdependent responsibilities
which might be beyond the capabilities of people.

2. Generate new or creative thoughts and answers.

Three. Coordinate interdepartmental efforts.

4. Offer a trouble-fixing mechanism for complex troubles
requiring varied data and exams.

5. Put in force complicated decisions.

6. Socialize and educate newcomers.

And these are the individual function in a formal group:

1. Fulfill the individual’s need for affiliation.

2. Increase, enhance, and affirm the character’s
self-esteem and feel of identity.

3. Supply people an opportunity to test and share their
perceptions of social truth.

4. Lessen the individual’s anxieties and emotions of lack
of confidence and powerless-ness.

5. Offer a trouble-solving mechanism for personal and
interpersonal troubles


iv. Tuckman’s five stage
theory of group development.


1. Forming stage

The first stage of organizational development is referred
to as the forming stage. The forming stage represents a time in which the
institution is simply starting to come collectively and is characterized with
anxiety and uncertainty. Participants are cautious with their behavior, which
is pushed by using the preference to be usual by using all participants of the
group. Conflict, controversy and personal opinions are avoided even though
contributors are starting to shape impressions of each other and gain an
expertise of what the organization will do together.

2. Storming stage

The second one stage of group improvement is called the
storming degree. The storming stage is where warfare and opposition are at its
best. That is due to the fact now that group individuals have a knowledge of
the task and a fashionable sense for who they may be as a collection and who
group participants are, they experience assured and begin to address some of
the extra vital issues surrounding the institution. The storming stage is where
the more dominant of the institution contributors emerge, at the same time as
different, less confrontational contributors stay in the comfort and protection
of suppressing their emotions just as they did inside the previous level. Consequently,
now not all groups are capable of flow past the storming degree.

3. Norming stage

Once a group receives the clarity that it so desperately
desires, it is able to flow directly to the 1/3 stage of group development,
known as the norming level. The norming level is the time wherein the
institution turns into a cohesive unit. Morale is excessive as institution
individuals actively well known the competencies, abilities and experience that
every member brings to the group. Leadership is shared, and participants are
inclined to evolve to the wishes of the institution. Information flows
seamlessly and is uninhibited because of the experience of security individuals
feel inside the norming level.



4. Performing stage.

At its peak, the group moves into the fourth stage of
institution development, know because the performing stage. The performing
stage is marked via excessive productivity. Group participants are unified,
dependable and supportive. Competence in all participants is visible, making an
allowance for an excessive level of autonomy is selection making. Problem
solving, experimentation and checking out possible answers are excessive as
group contributors are centered on mission final touch and achievement. The
general objective of the organization throughout the performing stage is to
finish their project and fulfill their cause though intention success.

















Question – 2

i. learning is the acquirement of new skills , knowledge or
modifying the existing skills , knowledge, behavior etc… . Which leads to
change, and is relatively permanent hence last a lifetime a plus is gained by
repeated experiences. It begins from a person’s birth to the end of his lasts
breath and can happen consciously or without any idea that he/she is learning.

ii. after explaining the sole purpose of the group José opened
up for suggestions and opinions from the group members. The group consisted of
people from similar positions meaning the way of thinking is pretty much
similar to each other too. And the group is very much formal so there is no
mutual friendship between each other. After José opened up for suggestion the
first one to give an opinion was Mariana and her suggestion was to stick the
old designs this was the total opposite of what group was for. As she gave the
idea one by one agreed on it and disagreed to create any new designs which was
the opposite of the objective of the group. This happened as they from a
similar level positions so they have a mutual understanding between each other.
The chair of the task force or group José tried to remind them the purpose and
objective of the group but he was outnumbered by people as the whole task force
wanted to stick to that current designs as they believe it was good enough to
do the job.

As a result all of the group members nodded their heads to
an agreement of using the current designs José did try to convince them however
the group insisted José to write a memo to the council of presidents with the
recommendation to use the existing designs and to begin to design the plant and
manufacturing system.








The learning process starts with leaner developing or
perceiving an idea of what has to be done, these ideas will be developing from
the learner’s own experience. Then the brain processes the idea whether he can
or cannot do and will compare the activities that are similar from the past
that whether he was able to do the activities or tasks or if he wasn’t able to
do it in the past the learner will think about why he wasn’t able to do the activities
and will come up with a conclusions hence he will change some of the decisions
that the learner took in the past hence deciding how to put the idea in to
response and finally he will decide to put the idea into action and carries it
out and output is produced. After the learners idea has been put into action
they will receive feedbacks on the idea that the leaner has given out as input.
The performance will then be evaluated by using some qualitative and
quantitative measures taken from the output that the learner generated. And
then if the output after giving feedbacks the learner will be asked to practice
further and improve.



v. learning is categorized mainly into three theories which is
conditioning theory, cognitive theory and social learning theory. The
conditioning theory is based on two main theories that is classical
conditioning and operant conditioning.

Classical conditioning:
theory states that learning is based on the interaction with the environment.
So in this theory the behavior is learnt by frequent association of the
response and the stimuli. For example like the experiment that Ivan Pavlov
carried out to study digestion in dogs. In the experiment he provided the dogs
food and he noticed that the dogs salivated to the presence of the technician
that normally fed them rather than to the food that was provided. After this as
a stimuli he introduced a bell to his experiment as a result they salivated in
the response to the sound. Hence it was concluded that the dogs salivated in the
presence of a particular stimulus.

Operant conditioning:  it is given by B.F
skinner who believes that the behaviour of learners are voluntary, determined,
maintained, and controlled by the consequences. Hence this theory states that
people will likely show responses unless there is a reward or punishment. For
example as in the rats in a cage pull a lever they get food as a result the
rats frequently pull the lever in order to get the food or if a cat scratches
something you spray water at it as a punishment so therefore the cat will stop
the behaviour in order to avoid getting punished.

Social-learning theory:
this theory states that people learn from
one another by observing each other’s actions and attitudes, and what are the
outcomes of those attitudes hence from the consequences observed individuals
will learn how to act according to the situation. For example in a school for a
group of students the teacher gives treat to the best behaved or the highest
scoring the students that didn’t receive the treat will observe this and as
result they will observe the best students and try to replicate their behaviour
in order to get the treat.




Question – 3

i. an attitude is a person’s perception, feelings , emotions
towards an objects, people, or events. Attitudes consist of three components
which is the cognitive, behavioral and affective. The cognitive component is the
thoughts and beliefs of someone towards the way things are. Behavioral
component is known as the purpose of someone’s behavior or actions towards a
situation, something or someone. And finally, affective component calls upon
the reactions and feelings.

ii. If I was in José place I would give a brief introduction
of about myself. Then about what the meeting was about and how it was created
and for what purpose. Then explain in detail the purpose of the task force and
about the task. Most importantly I would have collected enough information
about the tasks and such as the advantages of creating a new design and most
importantly prepare myself for the debates that will happen during the
exchanging of information as they will discuss. Plus come up with ideas myself.
So that it might help as an input for that it will be easy for the teams to
come up with ideas. Or I could tell them about the task a day before the
meeting so that they can prepare and come.

iii. A good leader will always motivate people to work hard to
achieve success, Individual and team development are important activities
carried out by transformational leaders. To develop a team, leaders must first
understand the team dynamics. Leaders are role models so they have set a
particular direction for themselves and the others to reach success. A good
leader will always support his/her group members. Encourages the followers to
be innovative and to be creative. A good leader has to be good listener and
concerns about each and every person individually. In addition a good leader
will value the people tha works with them.

There were a lot of things that José have to improve as a
leader, such as being polite and be more encouraging. Most importantly direct
the group to the right path such as keep them in the path coming up with new
designs rather than the old. And instead of interrupting the member he could
have listened to their opinions carefully and try to convince him that coming
up with a new design will be more beneficial as a market. Jose should have a
list of advantages with him so that he could give reasons and explain to the
group that the idea of having new ideas are far more beneficial than the old of
current designs. Jose should also have in mind that he has to work with the
people in the group not against them that is why motivating and inspiring them
is important.

iv. The continuing patterns of emotions, thoughts and habitual
behaviors that changes due to biological and environmental factors is known as
personality. Personality can be affected because of the gene heritance within
family members such as twins will show similar behavioral patterns, this is
known as nature in personality. Nurture means that a person’s personality can
alter due to certain experiences in life learning and socialization.

v. motivation is the reason for the willingness and urge to
do a task , desires and needs.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of

This theory is based on the psychological needs of humans
ranked up a hierarchy. the hierarchy is made up of 5 levels starting from the
bottom which is psychological needs such as the most fundamental needs must be
met before they become motivated to achieve the higher levels of needs.









                                                Maslow’s hierarchy of needs.

Psychological: basically these are the fundamental requirements
such as air and water are needed for a human to live  without them a person cannot survive hence it
is the most important need in the hierarchy and has to be met with first.

Safety: once the
psychological needs are fairly fulfilled then comes the safety concerns and
wellbeing of a person. This includes personal security, financial security,
health and safety needs against accidents, illness and its unfavorable effects.
This level is more important for children as they have greater need to stay

Social: after
the basic needs and safety needs are met, then comes the social or
interpersonal needs such as friendships, intimacy and humans need to
be loved and adored by others both sexually and non-sexually in order to avoid
the feeling of loneliness , social anxiety and depression.  This need is stronger in childhood.  In the absence of this need the need for
belonging might overcome the basic and security needs according to the strength
of peer pressure.

Esteem: this
includes self-respect and self-esteem. Esteem presents the usual human desire
to be acknowledged and valued by others. Maslow stated two variations of esteem
needs: a “lower” type and a “higher” type. The
“lower” type of esteem is the need for respect from others such as
status and fame .The “higher” version manifests itself because of the
want for self-respect including independence and competence.

Self-actualization: This
degree of want refers to what someone’s complete ability is and the realization
of that potential. Maslow describes this level as the choice to accomplish the
entirety that one could, to come to be the most that one may be. Individuals
may additionally understand or awareness on this need very in an
example, one man or woman may additionally have the utmost desire to become an
ideal parent. As a result to understand this level of need a person has to
master all of the previous levels.

 Herzberg’s two factor theory 

This theory is also known as motivation-hygiene theory 

This theory stats that motivation is affected by two
factors. Which are:

 – Hygiene factors;
this includes the things that if taken away from the people they become
dissatisfied and will try to get them back. In other words these factors has no
effect on motivation with their presence however motivates with its absence.

– Motivators; this factor includes every need that is on
the top of Marlow’s hierarchy plus the intrinsic motivators. These factors have
no particular dissatisfaction with their absence but motivates with their presence.

So as a conclusion, hygiene factors determine
dissatisfaction and motivators determine satisfaction. And both the factors
work independently to each other.

Theory X and theory Y

Douglas McGregor came up with this theory with his own
experience as a management consultant and is based on work force motivation and
management. Theory X is based on pessimistic assumptions concerning the
standard employee. This management style supposes that the everyday employee
has little to no ambition, shies far from work or obligations, and is
person-purpose orientated. Generally, theory X fashion managers trust their
personnel are much less sensible than the managers are, lazier than the
managers are, or work solely for a sustainable profits. Theory Y managers act at the belief that human beings
inside the staff are internally stimulated, revel in their hard work in the
organization, and paintings to higher themselves without a direct
“reward” in return. Theory Y personnel are considered to be one of the
maximum treasured property to the company, and virtually pressure the inner
workings of the corporation. Workers moreover have a tendency to take full
responsibility for his or her paintings and do not require the want of
consistent supervision if you want to create a best and higher standard

As a conclusion it can be said that theory X is positive
assumptions and theory Y is negative assumption.

















Question – 4

 Leadership is the
ability to influence, motivate and guide a group of people. Leaders are the
people that inspire and motivate people to do the right thing and show them the
correct path to follow.

Oprah Winfrey

Oprah Gail Winfrey was born on 29 January 1954 born at home in
Kosciusko, Mississippi. She is an American media proprietor, talk show host,
actress, producer, and philanthropist. She is best known for her talk show The
Oprah Winfrey Show,

Primarily based on leadership evaluation, Oprah Winfrey is
a transformational leader who regulations by way of inspiring others. She has the
air of charisma and confidence to influence different kind of people. She is
the ideal type of leader to follow for many reasons. She has these four components:

1. Inspirational motivation

2. Individualized consideration

3. Idealized influence

4. Intellectual stimulation

Here are some of Oprah’s style of leadership:

1. She strategically selects members of her team

A real leader recognizes the truth that achievement need
now not be a solo endeavor. Whilst forming a team, but, Oprah Winfrey most effective
hires and helps proficient humans that she believes in

2. She values excellent mentorship.

Oprah credit her initial success together with her
lengthy-time period partnership with lawyer Jeff Jacobs. He was one essential
thing, this is. She additionally made it a point to build mentor relationships
with enterprise professionals, specifically for the duration of her in advance
years. This simplest suggests that it is wrong to think that leaders most
effective lead. They need steerage too from depended on mentors and enterprise

3. She values her customers.

Inside the enterprise global, clients bring inside the
earnings. Without them, a corporation could fail, that’s why exquisite customer
support is a pinnacle precedence. Oprah acknowledges this and suggests her
appreciation to her viewers via giving them generous items, plus listens to
them and even integrates them in her suggests.

4. She takes care of her employees.

If customers carry inside the
income, employees are the lifeblood of a company. They make the wheels flip, so
business operation goes easily. As a way of thanking them for their efforts,
Oprah has been known to lavish her crew praises and holidays. She even provide
handpicked items to top group of workers members.

5. She clearly communicates her visions.

Recall inspirational motivation?
Oprah Winfrey simply has this particular characteristic. She now not handiest
desires up a vision, however additionally communicates it together with her
team with clarity and then conjures up them to assist her see it via.
Motivating her team of workers comes certainly for her, and this is one
capability this is frequently considered the great in her list of best leaders.

8. She cares for the community.

Most importantly she cares about
the people in the community. Her willpower to her charitable works and
foundation is a testament to Oprah’s social judgment of right and wrong. It
additionally made her one of those humans who’s lauded for her positivity,
self-development and charity. Such tendencies allow her to gain and preserve
loyalty from her followers and from the network.

These traits additionally make
her an outstanding leader. In a file in Forbes, it is said that she has been
recognized to rely on a “leadership philosophy that prioritizes people, vision
and values”. So, if you are seeking out a frontrunner to emulate, Oprah Winfrey
is a great choice.



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