Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide. doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell Computer Ethics, Security, Privacy & You Study Guide ETHICS ? Ethics refers to an individual’s standards of moral (good/proper) conduct. ? Telling the truth is a matter of ethics. ? An unethical act isn’t always illegal, but sometimes it is. ? Computer Ethics refers to the standards of conduct (such as copyright and privacy) as they pertain to computers. ? Computer organizations and United States corporations have established Codes of Conduct. Codes of Conduct covers the following: unauthorized uses of software, hardware, and communication networks to educate their employees; warn their employees of the consequences of performing acts the company has deemed unacceptable. WHAT YOU DO REFLECTS ON YOU ? When you use the Internet, it can feel like you are invisible. ? You might think that you could do whatever you want. ? You may not worry about getting caught. ? You may not think about whether your actions might hurt someone else. ? Most of the time you are not invisible on the Internet. ? Computer systems do a good job of tracking computer use. You actually leave little cyberfootprints wherever you go. ? You might forget that your actions can be traced. ETHICAL DECISION-MAKING STRATEGIES ? Golden Rule Test: How would you feel if others did the same thing to you that you have done to them? ? Trusted Adult Test: What would your mom or dad, guardian, or other adult who is important in your life think? ?
Is There a Rule Test: Rules or laws have been created to protect the rights of people and serve the common good. ? Front Page Test: If your action were reported on the front page of the newspaper, what would other people think? If Everybody Did It Test: What would happen if everybody made a decision to do the same thing you do? ? Real World Test: Would it be okay if you did this action or similar action in the real world? ? Gandhi Test: Sometimes when people behave inappropriately on the Internet, they claim that they are actually trying to make the Internet a better place. ? Check Inside Test: We all have a “voice of conscience” inside of us that helps us figure out whether an action is right or wrong. KEEPING IT PRIVATE (PRIVACY) ? It is important to learn to protect your own privacy and respect the privacy of others when you use the Internet. The Internet is never private. 2 C:8 th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide. doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell KEEPING IT PRIVATE (PRIVACY) (CONT’D. ) ? It’s important to remember that everything you do or write when using the Internet is stored in electronic form someplace. ? Others may be able to track or access what you have done or what you have said. ?
INFORMATION PRIVACY ? Refers to the right of individuals and companies to deny or restrict the collection and use of information about them. ? Some companies and individuals collect and use this information without your authorization. ? Electronic Profiles When you fill out a form such as a magazine as well as click on an advertisement on the Web, the merchant that received your information usually enters it into a database. – Merchants sell the contents of their databases to national marketing firms and Internet advertising firms. – By combining this data with information from public sources such as driver’s licenses, these firms create an electronic profile of individuals. – The information in these electronic profiles includes personal details such as your age, address, telephone number, spending habits, marital status, number of dependents and so on. Cookies – It is a small text file that a Web server stored on your computer. – E-commerce and other Web applications often rely on cookies to identify users and customize Web pages. – Cookie files contain data about you, such as your user name or viewing preferences. – Cookies allow for personalization to track user preferences. –
Many commercial Web sites send a cookie to your browser and then, your hard drive stores the cookie. 3 C:8 th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide. doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell INFORMATION PRIVACY (CONT’D. ) The next time you visit the Web site, your browser retrieves the cookie from your hard drive and sends the data in the cookie to the Web site. – You can set your browser to accept cookies automatically, prompt you if you want to accept a cookie, or disable cookie use altogether. ? Spyware – Is a program placed on a computer without the user’s knowledge that secretly collects information about the user. – It can enter a computer as a virus or as a result of a user installing a new program. – The spyware program communicates information it collects to some outside source while you are online. Some vendors or employers use spyware to collect information about program usage or employees. – Internet advertising firms often collect information about users’ Web browsing habits by hiding spyware in adware. ? Adware – Is a program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on Web pages, email, or other Internet services. ? Web Bug – Is hidden on Web pages or in email messages in the form of pictures. – Web businesses use Web bugs to monitor online habits of Web site visitors. –
Web bugs link to a cookie stored on your hard drive. To remove any spyware or adware, you can purchase a special program that can detect and delete it. ? Spam – Is an unsolicited email message or newsgroup posting sent to many recipients or newsgroups at once. – The content ranges from selling a product or service, to promoting a business opportunity, to advertising offensive material. – Spam sent through instant messaging is called spim. – Another spam, Spit, is sent through Internet telephony. – You can delete spam automatically in the settings of your email program. – You can also sign up for email filtering through your ISP as well as purchase antispam software. ? Phishing Is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official-looking email that attempts to obtain your personal and financial information. RESPECTING THE CREATOR (COPYRIGHT) ? Copyright laws balance two important values. ? First value is that it protects the rights of the creator and the second value is making sure the creator receives an income from their creative efforts. ? Copyright law gives you the right to protect any work you create, whether in school or at home. ? It is not ok for other people to use your creative works in a way that is unfair to you. 4 C:8 th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide. oc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell
RESPECTING THE CREATOR (COPYRIGHT) (CONT’D. ) ? It is not ok for you to use other people’s creative works in a way that is not fair to them. ? Copyright law protects creative works. ? A creative work could be writing, music, a picture, musical performance, or software. ? When you create a work, you become the owner of the copyright in that work. ? Once you have completed a creative work, it automatically becomes protected under copyright. ? A copyright notice looks like this: © year of creation, creator’s name. ? When you are the owner of a copyright work, you have a variety of exclusive rights. The rights are called “exclusive” because you are the only one who can do these things with the work. ? The five exclusive rights are: the right to copy the work; the right to distribute the work; the right to modify the work; the right to display the work; and the right to perform the work. ? The copyright owner is the one who gets to decide whether to give permission for anyone else to do these five rights with the work. ? This permission is called a license. ? If you wrote a story and your teacher wants to post it on the Web site, the teacher needs to ask you and your parents’ permission to post your story. If someone else created a work, he/she owns the copyright to that work. ? The income provides the ability for the creator to support him/herself so that he/she can create more works. ?
Anytime you take a created work without asking permission for it, you are taking the income that is expected away from the creator for the distribution of the work. ? The fair use exemption, which is a part of the copyright law, was created to ensure that the copyright laws balanced the benefits to the creators and the benefits to society. Several questions must be considered to determine whether the use of a copyrighted work would be considered fair. They are: How is the copyrighted work being used? What kind of work is being used? How much of the work is being used? CYBER CRIME ? The Department of Justice categorizes computer crime in three ways: The computer as a target; The computer as a weapon; and the computer as an accessory. COMPUTER SECURITY ? Is any event or action that could cause a loss of or damage to computer hardware, software, data, information, or processing capability. Any illegal act involving a computer generally is referred to as a computer crime. ? Cybercrime refers to online or Internet-based illegal acts. ? Hacker is someone who accesses a computer or network illegally. – They often claim the intent of their security breaches is to improve security. ? Cracker is someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has the intention of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action. ? Both hackers and crackers have advanced computer and network skills. ? Script Kiddie have the same intent as a cracker but does not have the technical skills and knowledge. C:8 th Grade Computers/Computer Ethics/Computer Ethics Study Guide. doc 08/20/09 Copyright © 2005, Laura Parcell COMPUTER SECURITY (CONT’D. ) –
They are often teenagers that use prewritten hacking and cracking programs to break into computers. ? Corporate Spies have excellent computer and network skills and are hired to break into a specific computer and steal its proprietary data and information. – Unscrupulous companies hire corporate spies (a practice known as corporate espionage) to gain a competitive advantage. ? Unethical Employees break into their employers computers for a variety of reasons. Some simply want to exploit a security weakness. – Others seek financial gains from selling confidential information. – Disgruntled employees may want revenge. ? Cyberextortionist is someone who uses email as a vehicle as extortion. – They send a company a threatening email indicating they will expose confidential information, exploit a security flaw, or launch an attack that will compromise the company’s network—if they are not paid a sum of money. ? Cyberterrorist is someone who uses the Internet or network to destroy or damage computers for political reasons. Some examples are: destroying the nation’s air traffic control system; destroying the electricity-generating companies; destroying a telecommunications infrastructure. – It usually requires a team of highly-skilled individuals, millions of dollars, and several years of planning. THE TEN COMMANDMENTS OF COMPUTER ETHICS ? Thou shalt not use a computer to harm other people. ? Thou shalt not interfere with other people’s computer work. ? Thou shalt not snoop around in other people’s computer files. ? Thou shalt not use a computer to steal. Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false witness. ? Thou shalt not copy or use proprietary software for which you have not paid. ? Thou shalt not use other people’s computer resources without authorization or proper compensation. ? Thou shalt not appropriate other people’s intellectual output. ? Thou shalt think about the social consequences of the program you are writing or the system you are designing. ? Thou shalt always use a computer in ways that insure consideration and respect for your fellow humans.