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CHAPTER 1

 

Introduction Overview

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In this year of our lord, 2017, developing
countries are still struggling for the basic necessities of life. These include
but not limited to access to clean water, 
no access to good roads, poor health care service,  little or no electricity and very very poor
standard of living as well and under malnourished kids. This has been a concern
for the world leaders and series of goals including the MDG’s have been
implement and some have being proven to be successful. There is a popular
phrase which states that failure might come through the night but success would
come in the morning. In a bid to continue, the SDG 17 has been implemented to
ensure that these threat to human would be eradicated .

 

The SDG 7 is a tool goal for the united
nation to ensure that the entire planet get access to an affordable, reliable ,
sustainable and modern energy for the world population by 2030. This goal is
one of the 17 SDG’s in progress and so it a top priority for world
leaders.  Even though these goals are not
ranked in order of importance but it very much signifies that it is a need that
it required to be taken care of. However, we are very aware that there are vey
high challenges for developing countries in Africa, when it comes to the
platform for implementing goals and programs due to the lack of infrastructure
and basic necessities as well as the level of corruption.

 

This research is geared towards bringing
the justification of the renewable energy and it significant importance to
developing countries as a whole with main focus on Sierra Leone. It aims to
justify that renewable energy program
is the most important for Sierra Leone, and to very well take into
consideration how, and why. In addendum to that, it would show how important
would be the application of this renewable energy will develop all the other
sector of the economy directly. It will show the correlation and how possible
bottle necks that is faced by Sierra Leone and hence make the world a better
place for all. It would show how to integrate the process for sustainable
energy renewable according to the countries topographical and climate feature,
as well as it’s impact to society as a whole.

 

 

 

1.2 Problem Statement

 

To point out the importance of Sustainable
Energy/Clean Energy as the foundation and bedrock or fundamental factor for the
successful growth and development for most under developed economy into a
developed economies.

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

 

The study was necessitated by the need to
investigate and empirically find out and test whether the policies and
information update with regards to poverty alleviation and economic growth are
reflective to the real occurrence in the society. In other words, global poverty
has been a major source of problem all around the world and has been an
increasing problem. There is a common saying, which states that ” when the
elephant are fighting, the innocent plants are the ones to suffer the pain “.
In other words, when there is a problem in the society, the surrounding
neighbors would be affected.  Referencing
the word ” Affected”, it means that it would disturb the stability in its
surrounding, lead to  migration problems,
halt economic activities and hence affecting the neighboring countries as well.
I am a typical example and a practical witness to the existing problems and
challenges faced by an underdeveloped country. I am therefore coerced to
proceed with the study on the following reasons below.

            
Irrespective of the fact that the news and publications shows that there
are growth and development  as well as
improvement on various sectors of the economy over a certain time period but in
actual fact, that does not reflect the reality of the situation on the ground.  Multifarious factors can be responsible for

           
The need for understanding the key factors for the slow or negative
growth of under developing economies with Sierra Leone as a case study.  Different countries might be classes as under
developed or poor countries based on the united Nations classifications and
yardstick for development index. Even though they might share the same status
of being classed UN the same category, there might or will be different reason
for this cause. The reason might be different due to the topographical or
geographical location, cultural and social activities as well as the natural
resources of the concerned country or region. Irrespective of the fact that
these differences exist, the countries might still possess similarity in pattern
of the economic behavior as well as the ranking and why hence generalized as
poor or least developed countries. 

        
The need to understand and analyze the above issues and proffer possible
solution or ideas that would help make a change for the better of all.  Problems are meant to be solved and not
ignored. In this light, the research was necessitated to view the problems from
a different angles and think of possible creative way or ways that would
generate a concrete or plausible approach to solving the problem of the under
development in under developed or least developed countries, with more and
specific emphasis to Sierra Leone.

 

1.4 Aim and Objectives

 

      I.       
To
understand the status of Sierra Leone Economy

    II.       
To
assess it performance over time

   III.       
To
determine if Clean/Sustainable/ Renewable Energy will be
helpful to change the current economic situation.

 

1.5 Quick Facts and History about Sierra Leone

 

Sierra Leone is a relatively tiny country can be located on
the Western part of Africa.  It is
bounded on the South West by the Atlantic Ocean, North- East and South- East by
Guinea and Liberia respectively. It has a wide range of environmental factor
which include savannah grasslands, rainforest, valleys, swamps as well as a
very tropical climate. It rains 6 months in a year and its get warm for the
other 6 months of the year. As every other nation, it has a constitution and it
is a constitutional state and presidential elections are organized every four
years. There are 12 districts in Sierra Leone, which is in turn sub divided
into fourteen various local governments. There are four provinces that make up
the entire Sierra Leone, which are the Northern, Eastern, Southern Provinces
and the Western Area. Freetown, is the capital city which is located on the
Western Area and has the largest population of the entire country despite it
being the second largest city in the country. The second capital in Freetown is
Bo, followed by other major cities such as Kenema, Makeni, Kono, Koinadugu and
Lunsar. 1

 

 

 

The Sierra
Leone National Flag

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source

 

 

 

The Coat of Arms for Sierra Leone

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Source

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1.1  
Summarized Facts about Sierra Leone

 

                                                  
Summarized Facts about Sierra Leone

Capital and Largest City

 Freetown

Official Language

 English

Ethnic Groups

 17

Currency

 Leones

Area 71740

 (27,700 sq miles)

Population

 7.6 million

Independence

 27 April, 1961

 

 

1.6 The Sierra Leone Economy

 

Founded as a suitable home for freed slaves, during the
end of 1870’s, Sierra Leone the West African country is specially signified in
the history of slave trade as a point of origin for a numerous thousands of
Africans that were held captives. The Country is notoriously remembered for
it’s brutal civil war that was overshadow by the Diamonds but was ended in the
year 2002 due to foreign interventions by theUnited Nations, African Union,
Economic Community of West African States and the Great Bratain.

The country’s economy has been experiencing a
reasonable growth in the economy in recent years, but came to an abrupt halt
due to the civil war. This country is known to be rich in minerals such as
Gold, Iron Ore Bauxite, Rutile and other more. The illegal trade of precious
minerals and diamond were seriously engaged into , in order to fud the civil
was which led to a shrink and near collapse of the economy.

2.(bbc.co.uk
news)

 

Sierra Leone, has been
ranked to be among the poorest countries in the world on different occasion.
More than fifty percent of the population at the working age are participating
on farming on a subsistence scale. Still healing up from the civil war, the
country amasses lots of resources which includes minerals but not limited to
Agricultural and Fishing.

Lately, there was a boom
in the mining sector which was mainly related to the iron ore export. This was
the main influence of the economy strength and growth but it is determined by
the demand and supply of these product by the world markets. The governments
has been consistently look up to aid from International Organization to support
it budget but it was gradually becoming less dependent until the Ebola
outbreak.  This outbreak and Epidemic was
an epidemic to country as we as its economic activity as it led to a sincere
shrunk and a negative result of the gross domestic product.

This Epidemic has been
officially declared ended in November, 2015. A fall in the price of products,
couple with no export as well as a shrinked economic activity, led to the
highest fiscal shortage.  The other
economic activity were restrained by lack of structural platform which includes
no electricity, very poor road network and 
transportation. There were hopes of a boom in iron ore mining activity
to slightly support the economy but it was not futile.

An expansion of the
economy would be determined by the increase in prices of products as well as
the focusing on wide varieties of activities for growth in Economic activities,
other than the Mining. However, an acute intervention of corruption, severe
lack of human resources are the made reasons for foreign direct investment.
However, since there are sustainable sources of international support, these
support might help balance out these differences.(The World Factbook — cia.gov)

       In 2013, Sierra Leone been attaining
some sort of positive economic rate that was around  one fifth of a percent during the agenda for
propserityh that was implemented by the government. The main catalyzing factors
for this change was due to a boom in the mining sector with most of the credit
to iron ore mining. The government actively participates  in infrastructure investment, tourism
activities and sensitization as well as agriculture activities.  The Ebola outbreak and the price fall in the
international demand for iron ore was responsible to the drastic change and
shock in the companies economy.

Sierra Leone,
have a limited amount of product that are available for export and hence the
country is greatly dependent on import of most commodities and less
export.  It it empirical that the above
mentioned shocks will be enough to bend the economy down, taking into
consideration about it’s current existence. Donors and stakeholder and Non
Governmental organizations have been actively participating to help the after
recovery of Ebola and heal the economy.

 Sierra Leone has an increased GDP of 4.289 Billion USD. The Economy was
154 in the world and have a very great potential for investments opportunities.
The twin shocks suffered by the economy has been healed and a recovery of the
economy from negative to positive deficit. 
A greater part of this comes from the mining sector which was directly
improving the other sector of the economy such as construction, boosting
electricity and some other servcies. The recovery was not significant , because
the demand for iron ore is on a very limited scale. 4(African Development Bank- African Economic Outlook -2017)

 

1.7 Scope of the Study

The research is
focused on Sierra Leone and its Economy and does not focus on other countries
specifically. Even though it would be taking into consideration a fair part if
its performance over time, the research would be focused on its status quo, reasons
for the status quo and how the application of the research would be helpful to
the current economic situation as a whole.

 

1.8 Research Questions

 

The entire purpose of the research would be
geared and built towards the following questions below. They would form the
basis upon which the research is carried out and whether the suggested ideas
for the proposed topic and would be viable. It gives a head up on the Framework
of the methodology of this research paper. We will be having 6 research question
which are depicted below as follows.

1. Is the Sierra Leone Economy Improving over
time?

 

2.Are there any other major obstacle to
implementation of Clean/Sustainable/ Renewable Energy?

 

4. Is Clean/Sustainable/ Renewable Energy
feasible in Sierra Leone?

 

4. Is 
Clean/Sustainable/ Renewable Energy really important for a country’s
Economy as a whole ?

 

5. Is Clean/Sustainable/ Renewable Energy
vital to a country’s Economic development ?

 

6. With all things being Equal, is Clean/Sustainable/
Renewable Energy the most important to every sector in the Economy?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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