Cancer a vast way throughout the years,


Cancer is one
of the widest spread and most dangerous diseases our world is facing nowadays,
to the extent that tens of millions of people yearly are diagnosed with it and ultimately
suffer in a great way and die because of it (Yu, Herbert), it has been growing
in a vast way throughout the years, and from 1990 to 2013, the number of
diagnoses increased in 153 countries (The Global). One of the common types of
cancer is “Bone Cancer”, which breaks the normal bone tissue. It can be a
cancerous malignant tumor that comes from the cells that make up the body’s
bones (primary) or metastasizes to the bone from other cancerous parts of the
body (metastatic cancer). About 70% of advanced prostate and breast cancer
metastasize to the bone (Bone Cancer) However, bone tumors can also be benign,
meaning they are not cancerous, do not spread and are more common (Stöppler,
Melissa). 41% of bone cancers have been found in the primary stage, whereas 15%
of cases have been found to metastasize to the bone.


The cause of
Bone Cancer is not very clear to doctors; however, what is certain to doctors
is that it begins as an error in the cell’s DNA, causing them to uncontrollably
grow, divide, and spread. These cells continue living in the body and
accumulate to form a bone tumor. In addition, contributions to bone cancer can
be previous radio therapy treatments since cancerous changes may occur from the
high dose exposure of radiation, as well as other bone conditions that do not
necessarily have to be cancerous however will develop in a cancerous way such
as “Paget’s Disease” and “Olliers Disease”. In addition, genetic conditions can
have a role, and can increase the risk of getting cancer, such as “Li-Fraumeni
Syndrome”. Additionally, there have been other conditions that contribute to
bone cancer such as “Retinoblastoma” and being born with an “Umbilical
Herniaare” (Causes Bone). There has been an estimate of 1550 deaths this year
from Bone Cancer (Bone Cancer Statistics). Furthermore, based on where the
cancer cell began, Bone Cancer is separated into types, and the 3 main types
are “Osteosarcoma” where the cancer begins in the cells of the bones
and is most common in young adults, “Chondrosarcoma” where the cancer begins in
the cartilage cells and is most common in older adults and middle aged, Ewing’s
sarcoma where the tumor most commonly arises in the legs, arms or pelvis (Bone
Cancer Mayo).

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With Bone
Cancer comes complicated and painful symptoms and health risks. These include pain,
which is one of the most common symptoms, and can last for a long time. Pain
usually is not constant and increases when the bone is being used or at night,
it can also occur if a fracture has happened in the bone. On top of that, the
patient might experience swelling in the area where the cancer tumor has developed,
which can be extremely dangerous since if the cancer is in the bones of the
neck, the swelling can prevent breathing. On top of that, cancer can cause
fatigue and rapid weight loss, as well as numbness or tingling if the bones are
pressing on the nerves. Some other symptoms are the stop in the blood flow,
which leads to a cold hand or foot (Stöppler, Melissa).


Fortunately, there
has been a treatment that is able to cure and reduce pain in the bones; using Samarium
as a radio pharmaceutical. One of samarium’s isotopes is used for this process
and is “Sm 153 Lexidronam”. An isotope is defined as 2 or more forms of the
same element that have different relative atomic masses, yet the same chemical
properties, since they have the same amount of protons but different amounts if
neutrons in their nuclei. Samarium “Sm 153 Lexidronam”, is considered to be a radiopharmaceutical
which is a radioactive agent that is able to diagnose diseases and treat them (A