At ruling party’s youth league, the Imbonerakune,

At this point
demonstrators felt that there was no other peaceful means of expressing
themselves and they were forced to result to violence while puching for change.
This made the government forces target their opponents with increased brutality
than before.

Security forces
often in collaboration with members of the ruling party’s youth league, the
Imbonerakune, were responsible for the numerous killings, disappearances,
abductions, torture, rape and arbitrary arrests of the people. There were mass
killings of the opponents of the government as thousands of bodies, some
mutilated were found across the country some showing evidence of torture as
some bodies were forund with their arms tied behind their backs. In December
2015, the police and the military shot dead a number of residents in the
capital city following attacks on four military installations attributed to the
opposition. The police were alleged to breaking in to people’s houses and
dragging out the young men and torturing them before killing them eventually.
Dead bodies were found on the streets and the police claimed that they were
armed enemies of the government. They often dug mass graves and burried the

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The citizens of
Burundi were tortured. Intelligence agents who worked for the Burundi
government beat detainees particularly of 
alleged opposition sympathizers with hammers and steel construction
bars, drove sharpened steel rods into their legs, dripped melting plastic on
them, tied cords around the men’s genitals and used elastic shocks on them.
Many of the tortured detainees were denied medical attention which caused some
of them to loose their lives and only a few survived with lifelong injuries and

Women were being
dicriminated as the police and members of the Inbonerakure raped women whose
family members were percieved government opponents. In some cases, the police
attacked the male relatives before raping the women and went on to threaten the
women after raping them. The police and the Inbonerakure also raped women who
attempted to cross the border into Tanzania to scare them from leaving the

The police often
carried out large scale arbitrary arrests specifically arresting the people who
were opposing the government without their warrants of arrests. Some of the
arrested people are still in custody while others are feared to have been
tortured to death and burried in mass graves.

The international
treaties at play include:

The International
Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; this treaty seeks to protect the
individual from the ecstacies of the state. This is because it provides an
opportunity upon individuals to contribute to the determination of laws and
participation in the government. The people of Burundi were protesting the
president’s third term in office because the constitution only allows a
president to run for two terms. Burundians tried to peacefully protest against
this violation of their constitution but instead the government responded
violently by ignoring these rights that they owe the people.

The Convention
Against Torture;  this treaty binds both
state and non-state actors from commiting any cruel and inhumane forms of
punishments toward any human beings. However the police and some government
officials in Burundicommitted crimes of torture toward the opposers of
president Nkurunziza.

Convention on the
Elimination of Discrimination Against Women; this treaty binds state and non-state
actors from violently attacking or disciminating women and children who are
considered as one of the most vulnerable beings globally. Women in Burundi were
brutally raped by the police and the Inbonerakure even while trying to seek
refuge in the neighbouring countries.

Convention on the
Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide; this is a universal treaty
that seeks to prevent state and non-state actors from performing mass killings
based on race, religion or political affiliation. The Burundi government killed
a number of its citizens specifically targeting the opponents of the

In the regional
level, the African Unionis the main human rights protecting organisation in the
continent. The African Union adopted the Banjul Charter which is the African
Charter on Human and people’s rights to protect and promote people’s rights.
Burundi is a member of the African Union Charte and is signatory to the Banjul
Charter with no provisions or reservations.

Burundi is
signatory to the treaties that is ICCPR, the convention against torture, the
convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women and
the convention on the prevention and punishment of the crime of genocide with
no reservations or provisions. It is difficult for the state to implement them
because of legitimacy in that president Nkuruzanzi was not widely accepted by
all the Burundians and that is the reason why he had to use force to attain his
third term as president by intimidating his opponents. The use of force
included the illegal arrests made to the opposition without producing warrants
at the time of the arrest and intimidating the opposition leaders for example
16 members of the opposition were arrested at a bar and the police claimed that
they were conducting a political meeting without authorization.

ICCPR gives
individuals a right to contribute to the determination of laws and participate
in government. They are essentially the traditional Western rights. However
African countries believe in exercising communal rights due to cultural
relativism which argues that human rights cannot be universal due to the
different cultures in the universe. It also argues that human rights origin are
western and that non-western societies have different cultures where the west
focuses on individual rights, Africa focuses on communal rights. Therefore in
the case of Burundi, individuals have a minimal chance of participating in
government due to the conflicting culture and westernization of human rights.