Artworks that follow the notion of being abstract do not attempt to represent external reality. Instead, they create alternative perspectives to allow viewers to interpret the meaning of artworks in their own way, and provide artists a boundless dimension to perceive.Cubist artists, although they depended on the visual world for their subject matter, had their door open for radical approaches to abstraction. As seen in Georges Braque’s Viaduct at L’Estaque, Cubist paintings depict real figures – but are paradoxically abstract in form. Structures are shown through different angles and are reconstructed into a composition of planes, forms and colours – creating an illusion of depth and perspective. Futurism, similarly, used abstraction to showcase dynamism, movement and momentum. Carlo Carrà, for instance, removed all figuration except for the faint representation of wheels repeating along the bottom of the canvas in his painting Jolts of a Cab. The canvas is mobbed with colour, various abstracted forms and an uproar of gestural marks – resulting in a polychromatic and chaotic emanation of energy seen at the heart of many abstract artworks.Perhaps the two most connected movements to abstraction are Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. Concepts behind both movements are abstract; through the idea of spontaneity and exploration of subconsciousness. Paintings depend on a symbolic language of forms to communicate abstraction – objects are often placed in contexts that challenge their meaning in an effort to create something new. Joan Miró’s Surrealist Automatic painting Painting uses simplified organic shapes that hover between abstraction and poetry – Miró’s own personal sign language. Closely, Abstract Expressionist Action Painter Jackson Pollock directly placed his inner impulses onto the canvas by dripping and splashing paint to create rhythmic yet churning sensations – as seen in his painting Full Fathom Five.