Armamenterium: An armamenterium is the medicines, equipment, and techniques available to a medical practitioner. ERV: Endogenous retroviruses are endogenous viral elements in the genome that closely resemble and can be derived from retroviruses. They are abundant in the genomes of jawed vertebrates and they comprise up to 5-8% of the human genome (lower estimates of ~1%).Epithelial cell: Epithelial cells are any of the cells forming the cellular sheets that cover surfaces, both outside and inside the body. Epithelial cells are closely packed and take on polyhedral shapes, from tall through squat to flat. Epithelial cells adhere strongly to one another, and one of their surfaces — the basal surface — sticks firmly to a thing extracellular film of fibrils called a basal lamina. Metastasizing: To spread from one part of the body to another. When the cancer cells metastasize and form secondary tumors, the cells that are in the metastatic tumor are like those in the original tumor. Angiogenesis: Angiogenesis is the process of creating new blood vessels from preexisting blood vessels. This process is vital for the growth and development of an organism, this process is also vital for wound repair. In addition, angiogenesis is a therapeutic target in many diseases. Invasive ductal carcinoma (apparently this is the full name, not just ductal carcinoma as mentioned in the article): Invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), sometimes called infiltrating ductal carcinoma, is the most common type of breast cancer. Invasive ductal carcinoma is a cancer that begins growing in a milk duct and has invaded the fibrous or fatty tissue of the breast outside of the duct. About 80% of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas.Genome sequencing: Genome sequencing is figuring out the order of DNA nucleotides, or bases, in a genome—the order of As, Cs, Gs, and Ts that make up an organism’s DNA. Genome sequencing can be compared to decoding.Esophageal cancer: Esophageal cancer, also known as cancer of the esophagus is a malignant tumor of the esophagus. The esophagus is the tube that connects the throat with the stomach. Barrett’s esophagus: Barrett’s esophagus refers to an abnormal change in the cells of the lower portion of the esophagus. It is identified by the replacement of the normal stratified squamous epithelium lining of the esophagus by simple columnar epithelium with goblet cells (which are usually found lower in the gastrointestinal tract). Carcinogenisis: Carcinogenesis is the formation of a cancer, where normal cells are transformed into cancer cells. The process is characterized by changes at the cellular, genetic, and epigenetic levels and aberrant cell division.Retinoblastoma: Retinoblastoma is cancer of the eye. It begins in the retina, the layer of nerve cells lining the back of the eye. It happens when nerve cells in the retina change. Change defines growing in size and number. The cells eventually form a tumor. The cells usually spread in and around the eye. They can also spread to other parts of the body, including the brain and spine.Oncogene: An oncogene is a gene that is a mutated form of a gene involved in normal cell growth. Oncogenes may cause the growth of cancer cells. Mutations in genes that become oncogenes can be inherited or caused by being exposed to substances in the environment that cause cancer.Hyperproliferative epithelium: Rapid reproduction of the cells in the epithelium tissue. Adenoma: An adenoma is a benign tumor of epithelial tissue with glandular origin, glandular characteristics, or both. Adenomas can grow from many glandular organs, including the adrenal glands, pituitary gland, thyroid, prostate and others. Glandular organs are organs consisting principally of glands. cDNA microarrays: The cDNA microarray is the most powerful tool for studying gene expression in many different organisms. It has been effectively applied to the simultaneous expression of many thousands of genes and to large-scale gene discovery, as well as polymorphism screening and mapping of genomic DNA clones. Tyrosine kinases: Tyrosine kinases are important mediators of the signaling cascade, determining key roles in diverse biological processes like growth, differentiation, metabolism and apoptosis in response to external and internal stimuli. Recent advances have implicated the role of tyrosine kinases in the pathophysiology of cancer.Gastrointestinal stromal tumors: A gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is a type of tumor that occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, most commonly in the stomach or small intestine. The tumors are thought to grow from specialized cells found in the gastrointestinal tract called interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) or precursors to these cells. Tamoxifen:Tamoxifen blocks the actions of estrogen, a female hormone. Certain types of breast cancer require estrogen to grow.Tamoxifen is used to treat some types of breast cancer in men and women. It is also used to lower a woman’s chance of developing breast cancer if she has a high risk (such as a family history of breast cancer).Intrachromosomal rearrangements: Rearrangements inside of the chromosoom itself.Interchromosomal translocations: Interchromosomal translocations involve the movement of a chromosomal segment(s) between chromosomes. Circos plot: Circos plots can be used in genomics to visualize various types of data.PR-2832:TP53: The TP53 gene provides instructions for making a protein called tumor protein p53 (or p53). P53 acts as a tumor suppressor, which means that it regulates cell division by keeping cells from growing and dividing too fast or in an uncontrollable way.ABL1: The ABL1 gene consists of instructions for making a protein involved in many processes in cells throughout the entire body. The ABL1 protein functions as a kinase, which is an enzyme that changes the activity of other proteins by adding a cluster of oxygen and phosphorus atoms at specific positions. CADM2: cell adhesion molecule 2, this gene encodes a member of the synaptic cell adhesion molecule 1 (SynCAM) family which belongs to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. PTEN: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the PTEN gene. Lymphomas (plural): Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).Colorectal cancer: A malignant tumor arising from the inner wall of the large intestine (the colon). stage IV metastatic disease (cancer): Cancer cells can spread regionally by moving into nearby tissue. Cancer can also spread to distant parts of the body. When this does occur, it is called metastatic cancer. For many types of cancer, it is also called stage IV cancer. FDA:Aromatase inhibitors: Aromatase inhibitors are a form of drugs that is used in the treatment of breast cancer in postmenopausal women and gynecomastia in men. They can also be used to reduce estrogen conversion when using external testosterone.