Agricultural biodiversity is the food chains, develop and safeguard that will contribute to feeding the world. Agricultural revolution begins at the wild plant species in various parts of the world. It provides us with a safe source of food. This develops the development of human life, society and culture. A few components of agricultural biodiversity have made and keep on making appreciable commitments to human diets is rare and associating agricultural biodiversity with human nourishment is for the most part complex for various reasons including human diversity. This investigates the linkages between agriculture, food production, nourishment, and the asset base of wild and agricultural biodiversity with regards to expanding global change. Although the agricultural revolution has provided sufficient food to feed the world, the issues of malnutrition and overnutrition also appear because of the unhealthy lifestyle, leading to diet-related diseases. Traditional cuisines, nutrition education is some example strategy for agricultural biodiversity and nutrition.
Agricultural biodiversity is the variation of living organisms such as food and agriculture. It has three main hierarchy which are ecological diversity, organismal diversity and genetic diversity. It has three fundamental progressive systems which are ecological diversity, organismal diversity and genetic diversity. Agricultural biodiversity likewise an expansion of biodiversity. All species, for example, crop varieties, animal breeds and other are included. Agricultural biodiversity also included food intake, nourishment admission and dietary to individuals. Moreover, habitats and species outside of cultivating system likewise include in agricultural biodiversity. This will profit agriculture and enhance ecosystem functions. That is additionally straightforwardly figured out how to supply the products and services utilized by a human. On the other hands, it likewise can influence crops and food production negatively. Agricultural biodiversity is an association people and ecosystem system and the species that have. Sometimes, this can lead the alteration and modification. Besides, the farmer will determine the social, cultural, moral and otherworldly factors at the local group level. Selection and evolution will prompt creating new cultivars or local harvests and the strategies for developed and manage will change and evolve. Additionally, the parts of agricultural biodiversity that will straightforwardly influence nourishment and health. They will coordinate figured out how to give individuals great and service.
Agricultural revolution has an element that can be characterized as a less number of plant species which are fruitful, but this kind of species effectively to cultivation, reliability and a capacity to develop in a scope of habitats and have nourishment esteem. On the other hand, ranchers have built up a bewildering diversity of local varieties of these staples and of minor harvest resulting because of ‘communications with wild species, adaptions to changing cultivating conditions, and reactions to the economic and cultural factors that shape agriculturists needs’. Selection and breeding are the good choice for the local crops conduct by farmer. This has passed many generations and natural selection. The idea of recognizable morphologically say that ranchers have names for them, and diverse landraces are known to recognize distinguish to soil compose, time of seeding, date of maturity, height, nutritive esteem, utilize and different properties. Nowadays, just have some livestock species contribute to agricultural and food production because of less number of animal species that were fully domesticated. Similarly, the number of breeds that were developed in these domesticates was very much smaller than in the case of plants. Essentially, the quantity of breeds that were created in these tames was particularly littler than on account of plants. Besides, look into likewise takes note of that ‘except for the wild hog the predecessors and wild relatives of real animals species are either wiped out or profoundly imperiled because of chasing, changes to their living spaces, and on account of the wild red wilderness fowl, concentrated cross-rearing with the household partner. In these species, household animals is the main storehouses of the now to a great extent vanished decent variety’. And furthermore the world’s creature breed have 30 % confronted the danger of extinction. Agricutural and sedentism slowly prompted a important decrease in our dietary diversity through our expanded reliance on tamed species and new improved crop varieties which expanded yields and prompted to an intensification of agriculture. The staples which are a minor number of harvest species came to dominate our nourishing and calorific admission, and universally the quantity of wild species that we relied on specifically was drastically decreased. Nowaday agriculturists focus on high carbohydartes crops and the hunter-gather gives more protein and a better balance of other supplements’ that found in the wild forest
Plant diversity is significant for providing nourishment to people. In this way, dietary diversity is utilized to gauge the nutrition class recurrence to give enough sustenance to a human. The nutritional significance of dietary diversity is already approved. Growing an area of wild-gathered species gives such assorted variety in the diet, particularly of poor country families, and supplements the sustenance gave by staples. The balanced diet of human not simply rely on the diversity of harvest and furthermore assorted variety inside the harvests.
Underutilized as a species have a possibility to improve people’s livelihoods, food security and dominion. It is not being fully recognized due to the finite competitiveness with merchandise crops in mainstream agriculture. Underutilized species have a high future adaptation of agriculture to climate change. It can rise the sustainable productivity of main subsistence foods including underutilized crops. This will often let the poor people to grown and consumed. The significance of creating the greatest usage of all existing plant genetic resources for food and agriculture.
Wild species is the main resource that gives the diet of social orders in building up the world. It gives assortment and fundamental vitamins and micronutrients. The utilization of wild plants in many social orders frames some portion of indigenous information system and practices that have been created over numerous generations and which have a significant part to influence the decision making in local agriculture, food production, human and fauna health and management of natural resources. Plant resources that are reaped or gathered for human consumption outside agricultural regions in forests and different regions that can characterize as wild food, for example, leafty vegetables which is a source of micronutrients. It can give provincial poor turn into their every day prerequisite of fundamental vitamin and mineral, especially children. It likewise has medical properties and takes shape of part of local health care system. Lately, some of the area that developed the valuable wild plant species for economically. Because they knew that some of the valuable wild plants have high nutrition and health aspect so they focused on them and increase their productivity. Additionaly , forest give human nourishment and build up countries. Forest can possibly enhance food and nourishment security needs consideration for policymakers and advancement organizations. Forests also a part to help the poverty alleviation. Domestication programs are begin created to take numerous wild species, trees and herbs into cultivation and intergate them into agroforestry system. Same as giving ‘attractive timber and non-timber forests items that will upgrade provincial livelihoods by creating money for resources poor country and peri-urban family units’ and reestablishing profitability through soil richness change, these species can give wellbeing and healthful advantages.
Crop wild relatives may not assume a part in human nourishment. Although that has a superior genetic variety than different assortments. But in the future, wild relatives of crop will turn into a part of food security while facing the global change. Animal diversity likewise gives human nourishment and dietary diversity. The animal product has high protein and fat that give a source of vitamins and minerals. If taken excess animal products will cause increase obesity. Because high meat taken will be expanded utilization of fast food that comprises high sodium. Futhermore, bushmeat significant represent and provide protein souces. On the other side , plant foods are provide significant dietary supplements to the starchy staple diet. But now, wild animal is being hunted for subsistence or trade purpose. Rural area people gain calories from wildlife. Wildlife also has provided protein and fats but this can be replaced by other vegetables, dairy product and domesticated animals. But excessive hunting the wild animal populations is one types of threatening the livelihood of some communities.
Fish products and shellfish give the main source of nourishment for coastal, lacustrine and riverine communities, especially in developing countries. Fish product play an important role in the diets, livelihoods, and income of numerous poor population groups who experience the ill effects of vitamin and mineral insufficiencies. In any case, now daily 50% of all fish eaten originate from cultivated sources, not wild catch. Fish provides a double animal protein consumption per capita in developing countries in the similar period. A portion of the provincial population relies upon a diet of fish and rice supplemented by fewer amounts of vegetables.
The current paradigm of intensive crop production cannot adapt the challenges . So we need revolution to solve the smallholders of agricultural productivity . Because have some question that surrounding in farmer. For example, growing the crop in the most suitable way and what foods are consumers actually eating in terms of quality and quantity, nutrition and food safety. Agricultural have a serious threat to biodiversity in many parts of the world. Crop management and agricultural land use that has threatened the status of a plant adapted to arable habitats in some of the countries. Maybe this is the reason of threatened or extinct arable plant species. In this current paradigm , people is worry about the high input and output intensification of agriculture because unpredicted impacts of global change on agricultural and wild biodiversity , serious problem about exceed energy and water security and other. Because of this problem the new paradigms are occur.
Biodiversity can diminish hunger and malnutrition because agricultural biodiversity can proceed to give and convey more secure food supply. Yet at the same time, now the administration doesn’t give clear proof to ensure the environment and advance the interest of poor groups except that give a strong circumstance that biodiversity can alleviate poverty. On the other hand, they have enough evidence that represents local biodiversity and ecosystem services can provide the lives of communities throughout the developing world, by giving a social safety net for food, medicine, fibre and fuelwood. Through the provision of “famine food”, this can become a way to get rid off of poverty and a way to create income generation and also can prevent people eaily drop into poverty. It can become the main part of addressing some issues of malnutrition.The main issues are because of the general public lack of knowledge and understanding about their characteristics and values. Beside that, also lack the solid scientific evidence on the nourishment advantage of indigenous foods. So, need to do much work to prove and developed them.
Underutilized crops and wild-harvested species need to under critical scientific assessments to prove the nutritional or health benefit to certain species. Edible plant and animal diversity have contributed to human diets. So this will give a conclusion that local food biodiversity has provided nutritious diets, although do not have enough findings that contribute to communities living with high biodiversity. Only do more appreciate research about measure the biodiversity and nutritional because need more understanding of the dietary contribution of local food biodiversity and diets in our life.
Agricultural biodiversity needs to anticipate the effects of climate change, to remain the underpinnings of resilient ranch ecosystem. Worldwide change, demographic, climatic, and other will be the substances of future effect. On agricultural biodiversity and nourishment will be critically complex and hard to characterize and anticipate. And also the growth of human population needs a lot of agricultural production and productivity to feed the people. So we need to discover sustainable method to solve the issues of environmental and biodiversity at the multiple effects of agriculture on our environment. And also prevent rise world food price, but also can solve the problems of hunger and malnutrition and increase escalating bioenergy use and let the degraded lands and soils to restore rapidly. All these factors will lead to the problem for global agriculture. The growing human population will increase the speed of overexploitation of resources and increase the pressure to convert further land for agriculture. The climatic components of global change such as temperature, rainfall and greenhouse gases will interact with agricultural production. This will threat the agricultural reproduction and trade because the product needs to adapt and change but many wild species include crops will be unable to track climate change and migrate successfully. So global change will become the main issues to agricultural biodiversity and its interaction with human nutrition.
In the conclusion, the many ways show the agricultural biodiversity contributes to food, nutrition and health. While people found that agricultural provide intensification to human. It is shown that how agricultural biodiversity plays an important role in the nutrition that provides to people and continues to provide options and resilience for building sustainable livelihoods. Local communities rarely rely on local crops and wild biodiversity except on the serious hunger. But the local communities will depend on a mix of one or more staples, local crops and semi-domesticated and a range of wild species of plants, and animals that add variety to the diet. Local biodiversity can be recognized as an important contribution and need to continuous develop agriculture–food– nutrition strategy and improve the agricultural productivity and agronomic training, nutritional improvement of crops, industrial fortification, vitamin complementary and nutrition–agriculture interventions.