According of vehicle at crash time with

According to Munteanu’s publication on “Human
and Environmental Factors Contributing to Fatal Road Accidents in a Romanian
Population”, the study conducted a research about the contributions of human
and environmental factors to the road accidents in Romania. The study analysed
the possible climatic factor involed in road accidents, specifically, the
presense of wet roads, winter condition, fog, and darkness. They found out that
among the climatic factors , the  most
frequent factor was darkness. The risk increases if the roads do not have
proper lights.

PICS – wet roads,
winter conditions, fog, darkness                            

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While on Lankarani’s “The
Impact of Environmental Factors on Traffic Accidents in Iran”, the study revealed
that environmental factors are major causes of road accidents. It was
established that dusty weather had the highest death rate compared to other
weather conditions. This roadway geometry limits the driver’s vision and causes
difficult control of vehicle at crash time with subsequent increase in fatal road
traffic accidents risk.

According to the study
by Shankar et. al. (1995), rainfall plays a significant role in road traffic
accidents. They argued that higher rates of fatalities resulting from road
traffic crashes in poor weather could be explained by poor visibility due to
rainy or snowy weather and the road surface which may be more slippery thereby
reducing the vehicle-roadway friction. In addition, Hijar et. al. (2000) in
Mexico supported the findings of this study. They showed a definite association
of adverse environmental conditions such as rain, fog, and wet pavement as well
as driving in daylight with traffic crashes.

Based on Olawole’s
Impact of Weather on Road Traffic Accidents in Ondo State, Nigeria: 2005 – 2012″,
the study has examined the role of temperature and rainfall as it affects road
traffic accidents in Ondo State, Nigeria. The study has particularly
highlighted the dual roles of temperature and rainfall. The effect of rainfall
on accidents seems to be related non-linearly with accident rates. Studies have
found negative or non-significant correlations between rain and accidents

The climatic and
environmental condition is a factor that contributes to vehicle crashes on Ondo
state roads according to the study of Aiyewalehinmi
on “Analysis of Road Traffic Crashes/Collision in Ondo State Roads”. Weather
contributes to the wetting of pavement that reduces friction between the asphalt
road surfaces and moving vehicles. A few percentage of severe crashes occurred
on Ondo State roads due to effects of weather.

The Figure 1
shows the percentage distribution of factors responsible for crashes on Ondo
State from January 2005 to December 2010. It shows that the effects of weather
does not significantly contribute to vehicular crashes in Ondo State roads.

Increase
in rainfall is often linked to high accident frequencies according to the study
of Fridstrom et al. (1995), Chang and Chen (2005), Caliendo et al. (2007),
Hermans et al. (2006). However, increase in rainfall has also been found to reduce
the number of accidents based on the study of Karlaftis and
Yannis (2010). They found that, contrary to
previous research, increases in rainfall reduce the total number of accidents
and fatalities as well as the pedestrian accidents and fatalities, a finding
that attributed by more cautions behaviour of the driver. The time varying effects of rainfall
have also been investigated. Eisenberg (2004) has shown that the impact of
precipitation on a given day is reduced when precipitation was observed in the
previous days, which is possibly due to driver adaptation. In addition to this,
Brijs et al. (2008), have confirmed Eisenberg’s finding that the longer the
“dry spell”, the higher the number of accidents when rainfall occurs. Enete and
Igu (2011) examined interactions between rainfall characteristics and road
crashes in Enugu, Nigeria. The study established that almost 30% of road
crashes in Enugu occurred during wet months. The study also found that the
effect of rainfall on road accident count depends
on the length of time since the last rainfall. Large dry spell days recorded
more accident counts, supporting  Eisenberg’s
finding.

Based
on Karlaftis’ publication
on “Weather Effects on Daily Traffic Accidents and Fatalities: A Time Series
Count Data Approach”, the study found
that temperature increase lead to increase on
accidents. This study verifies Scott’s discovery that higher temperatures increase accident
frequencies. Extreme temperatures; low in winter and high in summer are
positively correlated with road accidents. Also, the number of hours of
sunlight appears to increase road accidents concluded by Fridstom et al. (1995),
Hermans et al. (2006). Based on Brijs et al. (2008) and Stipdonk (2008), the deviations
from mean daily or monthly temperatures have been found to increase road
accidents. On the other hand, Hermans et al. (2006) and Stipdonk  (2008) concluded that
increases in sub-zero
temperatures days, lower the exposure thus reducing the number of road
accidents.